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Full text of "History of the Portland cement industry in the United States : with appendices covering progress of the industry by years and an outline of the organization and activities of the Portland Cement Association"

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Accession A'o. 



SECTION 11, BOOK 



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NOT TO BE TAKEN FROM THE LIBRARY 




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HISTORY 

OF THE 

PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 
IN THE UNITED STATES 



HISTORY 

OF THE 

PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

IN THE UNITED STATES 

WITH 

Appendices Covering Progress of the Industry by Years 

AND 

An Outline of the Organization and 
Activities of the Portland Cement Association 

Written by 

ROBERT W. LESLEY 

First President, Portland Cement Association 
Past Vice President, American Society for Testing Materials 

Member 

American Society for Testing Materials 

American Concrete Institute 

American Chemical Society 

British Chemical Society 

American Academy of Political & Social Science 

American Gas Association 

Board of Managers, Franklin Institute 

Joint Committee on Concrete and Reinforced Concrete 

Affiliate, American Society of Civil Engineers 

Chairman Cement Section, World's Congress of International 

Association for Testing Materials 
Author of numerous papers on cement and concrete read before 

various scientific societies, including the World's Fair 

Congress of Engineering at St. Louis in 1904. 

In Cooperation with his Fellow Members of the Committee on History 

JOHN B. LOBER 

Second President, Portland Cement Association 
President, Vulcanite Portland Cement Company, Philadelphia 

AND 

GEORGE S. BARTLETT 

Universal Portland Cement Compan.v, Chicago 



PUBLISHED BY 

INTERNATIONAL TRADE PRESS, Inc. 

CHICAGO— NEW YORK— LONDON 



J? 

\ 




CoPYRIGHT,|^ 1924j BY THE 

International Trade Press, Inc. 

Chicago 



PRINTED IN' THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



DEDICATED 
TO THE USERS OF 

CONCRETE 



That plastic stone shapen by human 
artificers which transcends in utility 
the product of Nature's workshop 



34-4-3(0 



FOREWORD 

By Floyd W. Parsons* 

What you are, speaks so loudly that people oftentimes do not hear 
what you sa}'. The Cement Industry of the United States has established 
for itself a position of such permanence and importance in America's indus- 
trial life, that neither arguments nor eulogies are needed to gain public 
recognition and appreciation for this great business. We may search the 
whole field of material virtues and yet find nothing that so commands our 
respect as does permanence. It is not the beauty of the Pyramids that 
holds the traveler in Egypt charmed, but it is the appeal their rugged 
endurance makes to his imagination. They appear to be something that 
connects today with yesterday — the present with the past — and while 
they may represent no more than a foolish waste of human effort, they 
have the power to go on and on, unyielding even to the ceaseless attacks 
of the wearing elements and the sands of the desert. 

Cement means concrete; concrete means stone; and stone spells 
eternity, so far as our finite minds can comprehend. The development of 
methods to manufacture great quantities of synthetic stone has given our 
present civiUzation the durability it so much needed. The creation of a 
great Cement Industry has removed, in large degree, the serious menace to 
life of a coming timber famine. The rapid progress of science and engineer- 
ing in our country has been made possible by our cement mills, which have 
given us the essential material on which to found our prosperity. 

The greatest romance that was ever known is the story of Industrial 
America. It seems only yesterday since the average family was an inde- 
pendent unit, the head of the house being the family shoemaker and tailor 
as well as breadwinner. Now we are a nation on wheels; life is automatic, 
and monsters made of iron have lifted the load of labor from human 
shoulders. W^e are going forward so fast that we have found it difficult to 
keep our rearward fines of communication fully open. If the total age of 
mankind be expressed as 50 years, we find that the human race did not 
even know how to scratch the simplest records on stone until its 49th year. 
On such a basis, printing has only been in use three months. The benefits 
of steam were realized only four days ago. Electricity, street cars and 
telephones arrived only day before j^esterday. And the automobile, X-ray, 
radium and wireless were discovered on our fiftieth birthday. There is 

*Editor'8 Note: Floyd W. Parsons is a member of the American Institute of Mining and 
Metallurgical Engineers; Academy of Political Science; Founder and Former Editor of Coal Age; 
Author of "Everybody's Business" in The Saturday Evening Post; Editorial Director of Ga« Age- 
Record; Contributing Editor of Advertising Fortnightly; Regular Writer in The World's Work; and 
Author of "American Business Methods." 



FOREWORD 

more chemistry now in the atom alone than there was in the entire field of 
inorganic chemistry a few j'ears ago. 

But although we have been going ahead at a furious pace, the speed of 
our advance has been nothing compared with what it will be in the years 
that lie just ahead. It is not only the United States that has found itself, 
but the whole world is awakening. Radio has eliminated distance in the 
matter of conversation and will rapidly remove the barriers to one universal 
language throughout the world. Aerial navigation is making it possible 
to measure distance by minutes instead of miles. Soon great ships will 
travel allj the lanes of the air by routes as straight as the crow flies, to 
every part of the globe. 

Many people who read this were born before the invention of the 
electric hght, the dynamo, the telephone and the phonograph. Hundreds 
of other discoveries of even greater consequence will be witnessed by many 
of us before we pass on. The real creative power of the human mind is 
only now being let loose. One marvel will be piled on another. Things in 
common use today will be obsolete tomorrow. New industries of great 
importance and magnitude will be created literally over night. And in 
all of this amazing drama the United States is destined to play the prin- 
cipal role. 

There never was a time when it was so necessary as now for leaders of 
industry to correctly visualize the future. Earnest research workers toil- 
ing in laboratories are going to give us hundreds of substitutes for man}^ of 
the things we now use. This means that a great number of our industries 
are building their futures on the shifting sands of uncertainty. But there 
are other important businesses in our industrial system that are just as 
permanent as they are basic. Chief among these fortunate lines of activity 
is the manufacture of cement. Timber and cement bear the same relation 
to each other in the field of construction that petroleum and coal bear to 
each other in the field of fuel. The lumber business is a great industry, but 
we are fast coming to a time when we must grow our timber very much as 
we now grow corn and wheat, the only difference being that we will harvest 
our timber crop once every 50 or 75 years instead of annually. So it will 
be with petroleum. When our ground oil gives out, we will have to manu- 
facture our motor fuels and lubricants from such things as shale rock and 
vegetable matter. 

But our suppli(^s of coal, anil the mateiials that go into the nuinufac- 
ture of cement, ai'e present in most of our states in quantities adequate to 
satisfy the needs of centuries. The processes of manufacturing cement 
may change. Gas may be substituted for coal as a fuel. Refinements of 
many kinds and in many places may be introduced into the scheme of 



FOREWORD 

operations. But the basic materials will be the same, and thereby rests the 
security of the industry's future. 

The leaders of a great business like cement manufacture are today 
shouldered with a great responsibility. Some things we can do without, 
but we might as well attempt to hide the sun with a sieve as to try to 
create a high degree of prosperity in our land without an adequate supply 
of cement. If destiny has decreed that we must do the world's manufac- 
turing, this means we must have more and better highways, more dams, 
more sidewalks and curbings, more subways and tunnels, more bridges, 
more barns and other farm structures, more machine foundations, more 
coal bins, and more homes, offices and factories that will stand unimpaired 
in the face of driving flames and the destructive action of natural elements. 
Where one thing is made of cement today, we will make 100 tomorrow. 

We call attention to the fact that cement manufacture is an infant 
industry; that production has jumped from less than 10,000,000 barrels a 
year, to nearly 150,000,000 barrels in a quarter of a century; that the busi- 
ness has been developed in a comparatively short time, from a more or less 
disorganized national enterprise, into a modern industrial undertaking 
that even in progressive America is regarded as a model in the field of 
sound, scientific research, effective educational work and vigorous sales- 
manship, but all that has been accomplished is but a mere preliminary to 
the great work that is coming. 

This industry has been fortunate in the character of its leaders. 
Saylor, Miller, Shinn, Lesley, de Navarro, Lober, Bartlett, and the other 
pioneers, not only had faith and courage, but they had vision and imagina- 
tion, without which industry lags and the future is hopeless. In the light 
of individual effort the Cement Industry may well congratulate itself upon 
its past achievements. But success is always accompanied by responsi- 
bility. Yesterday's records represent only accomplishments that must be 
surpassed. It is harder to keep a good reputation than to acquire a bad 
one. It is easier to step into another man's shoes than it is to walk in them. 
The younger men coming into leadership in our country's great cement 
industry are set the task of so performing that, when the next mile-stone 
of progress is reached, there will be as little occasion for regrets as there 
is today. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

CHAPTER I: CEMENTS AND THEIR DEFINITIONS 1 

Cementing Materials Known Since the Dawn of History 1 

General Classes in which Cementing Materials Fall 1 

Essential Difference Between Natural and Portland Cement 1 

Essential Composition of Portland Cement 3 

Bibliography on Lime, Cement and Concrete 6 

Inventive Minds of All Ages Interested in Cementing Materials 9 

Early Writings of Vicat 9 

Dr. Bry Higgins Among Early Investigators and Writers 10 

CHAPTER II: AMONG THE PIONEERS IN NATURAL CEMENT 12 

Edystone Lighthouse Impelled Research for Better Hydraulic Mortar 12 

Established Reputation of Natural Cement Impeded Progress of Portland 12 

Cement 13 

Transportation Developments Forced Attention to Cement 

Canal Development Required Watertight Masonry 13 

Erie Canal Responsible for Discovery of Natural Cement Rock in United 

States 13 

Personalities in the Early History of Natural Cement Manufacture 14 V 

Early Literature on the Natural Cement Industry in the United States 20 

Many of the Early Natural Cements Distinguished for Quality 21 

How Rosendale Cement Was Named 22 

Various Early Companies Described by Gillmore 22 

Early Mill Practice 23 

The So-called Louisville District and Its Extensive Development 23 

Natural Cement in the Lehigh Valley District 25 

Early Natural Cement Works in Maryland and Virginia 27 

Milwaukee, Wisconsin, the Center of Natural Cement Manufacturing 

Activity 27 

Early Natural Cement Developments in Minnesota, Michigan and Illinois . . 29 
Uriah Cummings Traces History of Natural Cement Industry 31 

CHAPTER III: DISCOVERY OF PORTLAND CEMENT 34 

England the Birthplace of Portland Cement 34 

Early Experiments of Aspdin 34 

CHAPTER IV: IMPORTED PORTLAND CEMENT IN THE UNITED 

STATES 39 

Influence of Post-Civil War on Growth of Portland Cement Industry 39 

Importations of Portland Cement Often Came as Ballast 40 

Among the Early Importers 41 

Inland Transportation Had Its Difficulties 47 

Superior Merit of Portland Cement Begins to Attract Attention 48 

CHAPTER V: THE PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED 

STATES 50 

Pioneers in the Portland Cement Industry in the United States 50 

David O. Saylor the First Successful Manufacturer 50 

Saylor's Early Experimentation 51 

Saylor's Patent 51 

Pennsylvania Geological Survey Investigates Lehigh District Cement 

Making Materials 53 

Growth of Saylor's Cement Business 54 

How Millen Began 55 

The Work of John K. Shinn 57 

The Old Alamo Works 58 



CONTENTS— ContiinKHl 

Page 

American Cement Company Among the Pioneers 61 

An Earlv Oregon Plant . . . .' 66 

The First Michigan Mill 66 

Early Manufacture in New York 67 

A New England Plant 67 

Development in the Lehigh District 68 

The Increasing Ascendancy of Domestic Portland Cements 69 

Early American Made Portland Cement Often Sold Under Foreign Labels . . 74 
Importance of Patents Covering Early Processes 75 

CHAPTER VI: OTHER CEMENTS 77 

Puzzolan Cement 77 

Passow and Colloseus Cements 80 

Iron Cement 81 

Silica Sand Cement 81 

Blended Cement 82 

CHAPTER VII: LEADING PIONEER COMPANIES IN PORTLAND CE- 
MENT MANUFACTURE 82 

Michigan Marl Plants 88 

Marl Plants in New York 91 

Ohio Marl Plants 94 

Chalk Plants 95 

CHAPTER VIII: DEVELOPMENT OF THE INDUSTRY 98 

Some Figures on Early American Production 98 

Comparison of Growth of American Industry with that in Germany 98 

Some of the Early Mechanical Practices 99 

Lehigh District, Pennsylvania, First Important Manufacturing Center 100 

High Labor Costs Met by American Ingenuity 102 

CHAPTER IX: THE MECHANICAL SIDE OF THE INDUSTRY 104 

The Kiln the Most Important Mechanical Unit 105 

Wet, Semi- Wet and Drv Processes Described 106 

The Dome Kiln " 107 

The Continuous Kiln 108 

The Rotary Kiln 108 

The First American Rotary Kiln 109 

Kiln Fuels Ill 

Crushing and Grinding Machinery 113 

Packing and Weighing Cement 114 

The Cement Mill Power Plant 114 

Classification of Portland Cement Production According to Raw Materials 

Used .• 115 

Progress in Mechanical Side of Industry Slow 117 

Difficulties Attending Initial Use of Rotary Kiln 117 

Discovery of Retarding Influence of Gypsum in the Set of Cement 118 

Efforts to Reduce Fuel and Labor Cost Reveal Utility of Rotary Kiln 119 

Pioneer Work of John W. Eckert in Advancing Mechanical Side of Industry . 121 

Pulverized Coal Comes into Use as Cement Mill Fuel 123 

Thomas A. Edison First to Use Rotary Kiln of Greatly Increased Length. . .123 

Continuous Vertical Kiln Competing with Rotary Kiln 124 

Some of Those Who Contributed to Mechanical Advancement 126 

Typical Example of Progress in the Mechanical Side of the Industry 127 

CHAPTER X: COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE INDUSTRY.. .130 

Pioneers in the Field of Cement Salesmanship 130 

The Favor Accorded a Brand Name 132 

People Did Not Believe Good Portland Cement Could Be Made in Rotary 

Kiln 132 

Early American Portland (jcment Often Condemned Without Reason 133 

The Firm of Lathbury and Spackman 135 

First Mill Built for Burning Powdered Coal in Kiln 136 



CONTENTS— Continued 

Pagi' 

Enlarging the Field in Cement Mill Construction 137 

Captains of Indiistr,y Begin to Appear in Cement Manufacturing 138 

CHAPTER XI: THE SCIENTIFIC SIDE. 140 

Scientific Studies Handicapped by Lack of Literature 140 

Preliminary Report of Committee on Uniform Tests 141 

Prominent Engineers and Others Assist in Developing Testing Standards ... 142 

First Step Toward a Standard Specification 144 

Common Lack of Knowledge on Possibilities of Concrete 148 

Committee Appointed to Study Concrete-Steel Construction 149 

Formation of Joint Committee on Concrete and Reinforced Concrete 150 

National Association of Cement Users Organized 151 

Single Standard Specification Adopted by All Engineering Societies and 

United States Government 1 52 

Many Cooperate in Study of Cement, Concrete and Aggregates 157 

CHAPTER XII: THE DAY OF THE PROMOTER 159 

Michigan and Kansas Give the Promoter His Cue 159 

Eckel Warns Against the Promoter 159 

Typical Example of His Methods 159 

Panama Canal Project Used to Lure Investors 160 

Generally the Promoter Knew Nothing About the Business 161 

The Usual Wa.y of Figuring Profits 161 

Effect of Wild-Cat Promotion on Industry 164 

CHAPTER XIII: THE CONSTRUCTORS 166 

An Early Period of Rapid Transition 166 

Discovery of Natural Gas as Kiln Fuel 166 

Pacific Coast States Enter Portland Cement Field 168 

City of liOS Angeles Undertakes Manufacture of Portland Cement 171 

Over-production Threatened at an Early Date 172 

Changes in the Scene of Production 173 

Consolidations or Grouping of Plants Begins 175 

Early Patents and Threatened Litigation in Connection Therewith 176 

Birth of the Larger Rotary Kiln 177 

North American Company and Subsidiaries Advance Scientific and 

Engineering Standards 178 

An Era of Record Low Prices 178 

Association of American Portland Cement Manufacturers Plays Its Part in 

Progress 178 

Edward N. Hines, Pioneer in Concrete Road Construction 180 

Production Falls Off for the First Time in Years 181 

CHAPTER XIV: THE CEMENT INDUSTRY IN RELATION TO THE 

WAR 182 

Conditions During the War 182 

War Prices for Cement 184 

Effect of War on Original GroTipings of Companies 186 

APPENDIX A: HISTORY OF THE PORTLAND CEMENT ASSOCIA- 
TION 191 

APPENDIX B: HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY BY 

YEARS 253 

APPENDIX C: HISTORICAL NOTES ON PORTLAND CEMENT MAN- 
UFACTURERS 283 

APPENDIX D: STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS AND TESTS FOR PORT- 
LAND CEMENT 303 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Page 

Edvstone Lighthouse Frontispiece 

Natural Cement Mill at Williamsville, N. Y., built 1824 3 

Ruins of Thomas Millen Cement Kilns at South Bend, Ind 9 

First Cement Mill in Illinois 11 

Moderate Sized Cement Plant 16 

Early and Modern Quarrj' Operations 20 

Modern Tube Mills Replace Millstones of Early Days 21 

Early Crushers Not as Large as Stones Now Crushed 21 

Old Vertical Kilns 24 

Cement Storage in Early Days 28 

Modern Crushers 30 

Hammer Mill 36 

Centrifugal Type of Grinding Mill 40 

Physical Laboratory of Cement Plant 44 

Water Added to Raw Material at Wet Process Plants 48 

Moisture Evaporated from Raw Material at Dry Process Plants 53 

Battery of Tube Mills ' •. . . 56 

Original Cement Kilns of Alamo Cement Company 58 

Sunken Garden Made from Abandoned Cement Plant Quarry 59 

Rotary Kilns 62 

White-hot Clinker Cooled in Rotating Cylinders 64 

Conveyor from Kiln to Cooling Cylinders 69 

Piles of Clinker in Storage 74 

Interior of Tube Mill 78 

Interior of Cement Plant Laboratory 80 

Coal Supply at Cement Plant \ 82 

Electric Motors Used in Cement Plant 87 

Boiler Room of Cement Plant 89 

Waste Heat Boiler Installation 92 

Machine Shop of Cement Plant 94 

Modern Cement Storage 96 

Old Method of Filling Sacks 101 

Modern Packing Machinery and Belt Conveyor 104 

Concrete Office and Laboratory of Cement Plant 106 

Concrete Coal Storage Building lOS 

Group of Cement Men at St. Louis Before World's Fair 110 

Hide and Leather Building, New York City 112 

"The Fountain of Time," Chicago, Illinois 116 

The Tunkhannock Viaduct 120 

The Coliseum at Los Angeles, California 125 

Example of Portland Cement Stucco Over Concrete Construction 131 

Concrete Construction in Movie Set 136 

"Home, Sweet Honia" House, Washington, D. C 141 

Medical Arts Building, Dallas, Texas 147 

Interior of Sacred Heart Church, Washington, D. C 154 

Tennis Court at Los Angeles, California 162 

Wilson Dam, Muscle Shoals, Alabama 168 

Grant Park Municipal Stadium, Chicago, Illinois 174 

"Ideal Section," Lincoln Highway 180 

Concrete House at Hollj'wood, Califoinia 188 




The Edystone Lighthouse, built in 1756 by John 
Sraeaton, a noted British engineer. Repeated 
faihires of this structure, thie to lack of an effi- 
cient binding material for the stone masonry, 
paved the way for the invention of portland 
cement. 



HISTORY OF THE PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 
IN THE UNITED STATES 

CHAPTER I 
CEMENTS AND THEIR DEFINITION 

Cementing Materials Known Since the Dawn of History 

History records that the early Romans and Egyptians were familiar 
with a variety of mortars and mortar making materials. Remains of 
structures of those days show the use of mortar binders in what we would 
call masonry construction, and also a very extensive use of some kind of 
mortar in the form of stuccoes. That these early workers possessed no 
mean knowledge of mortars is perhaps best evidenced by the remarkable 
state of preservation even at this day of the many early examples of stucco. 

General Classes in which Cementing Materials Fall 

Mortar binders may conveniently be considered in two broad classes — 
limes and cements. Falling between these classes are hydraulic limes, so 
largely used in western and central Europe. Cements, likewise, may be 
divided into two general classes — natural and portland cements. In addi- 
tion to these are the variations known as puzzuolana, slag cement and 
iron cement, the last mentioned being best known in Germany. 

Essential Difference Between Natural and Portland Cement 

The main difference between natural and portland cement is that the 
former is a direct product of rocks as found in nature, burned usually in 
open kilns, while portland cement is a scientifically controlled product, 
made from properly proportioned calcareous and argillaceous materials. 
When these materials are burned in kilns and artificially proportioned, 
a chemically combined material called clinker is the result. Natural cement 
is burned at a lower temperature than required to produce portland cement 
clinker; but in both cases, after burning, the materials are ground into a 
fine powder, which is the cement of commerce. 

More extended definitions of some cements follow: 



2 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDI^STRY 

PUZZUOLANA is a cement of volcanic origin. Its name is derived 
from Puzzuoli, an Italian city near the base of Mount Vesuvius, where 
the properties of puzzuolana were first discovered. The Romans used this 
cement extensivel.y in their hydraulic works. The material was pulverized 
and mixed with slaked lime and a small amount of sand to form hydraulic 
mortar. Puzzuolana is a silicate of alumina in which the silica exists in a 
state easily attacked by caustic alkalies. Hence it readily combines with 
lime in the mortar. 

Trass, a volcanic material found in (Tcrmany and Holland, and arenes, 
a sand found in France, were used in the same manner. 

Puzzuolana may be produced artificially by burning certain kinds of 
clay. The natural material may frequently be improved by burning. 
In America, a cement called puzzolan has been manufactured foi- many 
years from lime and blast furnace slag. It is desciibed later under "Slag 
Cement." 

NATURAL CEMENT, as the name implies, is essentially formed by 
nature. Certain argillaceous limestones containing various percentages of 
lime, silica and alumina are ciuarried and burned in their natural state in 
open lime kilns at comparatively low temperatures. The resultant product 
when reduced to a fine powder is the natural cement of commerce. 

The American Society for Testing Materials defines natural cement 
as follows: 

Natural cement is the finely pulverized product resulting from the calcination of 
an argillaceous limestone at a temperature only sufficient to drive off the carbonic acid 
gas. 

To better illustrate what is meant by natural cement, a cement rock 
of the Lehigh district in Pennsylvania may be used as an example. This 
rock is of a laminated nature and even to the unaided eye, and much more 
so under the microscope, shows various layers or leaves of varj-ing material. 
For practical purposes, it may happen that one of these small layers is 
lime, another ahunina and another silica; or there may be a large layer of 
lime, two layers of silica together and a small lay(M' of alumina. This rock 
when calcined, either imder high or low temperature, will not coml)in(^ in 
all its elements or parts. Consequent ly, for purposes of comparison between 
natural and portland eenient, it may be broadly stated that from 20 to 25 
per cent of the natural cement is inert or not in combination, hy taking 
the portions of silica and alumina that should combine properly with the 
lime, it will be found there are certain proportions in excess and therefore 
uncombined. These natural cement rocks are biu'nerl at a comparatively 
low heat with coal, and the resulting material when drawn from the kiln 
is not very hard and can be reduced to fine powder with comparative ease. 

Among the natural cements may be included the well known ones of 
the Rosendale, (New York), Potomac, (Maryland), Lehigh, (Penn.'syl- 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



8 



vaiiia), Akron, (New York), Louisville, (Kentuck^O and Utica, (Illinois) 
districts. All of these cements have enjoyed a proper reputation and 
have been used in important work throughout the United States. 

PORTLAND CEMENT is so named because the early product, when 
set, is said to have resembled in color a famous building stone on the 
Isle of Portland, England. 

Portland cement is the product obtained by finely pulverizing clinker 




This mill at Williamsvillc, New York, built in 1824, supplied natural cement for the 
construction of the original locks on the Erie Canal at Lockport, New York. 

resulting from the burning to incipient fusion of an intimate artificial 
mixture of finely ground calcareous and argillaceous materials. 

The official definition of the American Society for Testing Materials 
is as follows : 

Portland cement is the product obtained by finely pulverizing clinker produced by 
calcining to incipient fusion an intimate and properly proportioned mixture of argil- 
laceous and calcareous materials, with no addition subsequent to calcination except 
water and calcined or imcalcined gypsum. 

Essential Composition of Portland Cement 

In general, the composition of portland cement is about 20 per cent 
silica, 10 per cent ahnnina, plus ferric oxide, (i5 per cent of lime and 5 per 



4 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

cent of other compounds. The required combination of the foregoing mate- 
rials may be obtained by mixing hmestone, chalks or marl with claj' or shale 
or other argillaceous materials, or by taking a cement rock in which all 
ingredients are present in nearly the proper proportions, then adding 
limestone or argillaceous material as may be required to produce the 
proper balance of these ingredients. It is also made b}^ adding limestone 
to blast furnace slag of low magnesia content. During burning, the com- 
bination of the lime and silica, alumina and iron oxide takes place. The 
product resulting from joroper burning is called clinker. This consists of 
silicates, aluminates and ferrites of lime in certain definite proportions. 
The Portland cement of commerce is the product resulting from grinding 
this clinker to a fine powder. 

The fact that there is considerable variety of raw materials entering 
into Portland cement manufacture has resulted in a classification of 
materials. Richard K. Meade, in his well known book ''Portland Cement," 
places materials under two general heads according to how the lime or 
silica and alumina predominate. 

The following are his distinctions: 

Calcareous Argillaceous 

Limestone Clay 

Marl Shale 

Chalk Slate 

Alkali Waste Blast Furnace Slag 

Cement Rock 

In this classification the author states that cement rock may be con- 
sidered as either calcareous or argillaceous, but usually argillaceous. But 
in one section of the Lehigh region the lime content is so high as to require 
an admixture of slate or clay. 

Concerning distribution of materials, cement rock and limestone are 
found in the Lehigh district of Pennsylvania. In the early days of portland 
cement manufacture in this country, Michigan, Ohio, Indiana and central 
New York plants used marl and clay or shale. In more recent use, however, 
limestone has in many cases been substituted for marl. Throughout the 
country generally there are many deposits of limestone and shale or clay. 
In Indiana, Minnesota, Ohio and Pennsylvania a true portland cement is 
manufactured from blast furnace slag and limestone. 

SLAG CEMENT, otherwise known as "puzzolan" cement is pro- 
duced by the intimate mechanical mixture of slaked lime and granulated 
blast furnace slag. Both materials are pulverized before, during, or after 
mixing. Slag cement is not subjected to fire in kilns during the process of 
manufacture. It is inferior to portland cement in strength and other qual- 
ities. It found little market either in this country or abroad. 

"EISEN" PORTLAND, OR IRON CEMENT is made in Ger- 
many, where it enjoys a large demand. It is prepared by adding to true 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 5 

Portland cement clinker, selected blast furnace slag in proportions varying 
from 15 to 25 per cent, then grinding the resulting mixture to the fineness 
required by the German Government specifications for portland cement. 

SILICA SAND CEMENT is another type of mixed cement, where 
high grade silica sand or crushed granite is added to portland cement 
clinker in quantities varying from 20 to 30 per cent, and the resulting mix- 
ture reduced to an impalpable powder. 

BLENDED CEMENT is a name that was given to cement which 
partook of the natures of puzzolan and portland cement. It was produced 
in California in connection with the construction of the Los Angeles 
Aqueduct, being made by regrinding portland cement with volcanic tuff. 
It was known locally as "tufa" cement. 

COLLOS CEMENT began to attract attention about 1910. It was 
a patented product produced by slowly pouring molten blast furnace 
slag, when suitable for the purpose, or by pouring the molten material 
when fused directly for the purpose in a blast furnace, upon a rapidly 
revolving corrugated cylinder, which scattered it in finely distributed 
particles. While still in molten state, the particles came in contact with 
a spray of a relatively small amount of weak solution of one or more of the 
soluble salts of alkaline earths, magnesium sulphate being generally used. 
The particles were then collected, cooled and ground to a fine powder. 
The resulting product differed materially from both portland and puzzolan 
cements. 

PASSOW CEMENT is a slag cement manufactured under patents 
granted to Dr. Passow, one of the leading scientists of Germany, after 
whom it was named. Its production in America is described elsewhere. 

Note: The reader who is interested in pursuing a more detailed tenhnical discussion of some of 
the cements mentioned in the foregoing, as well as cement manufacture in its broader aspect, will 
find much of interest in the following books: 

"Calcareous Cements," by Redgrave and Spackman, published by Charles Griffin 
& Co., 1905. This book gives an unusually complete account of the early history of 
cements and also a very satisfactorj^ treatment of numerous types of cement other than 
Portland. 

"Portland Cement," by R. K. Meade, Chemical Pubhshing Co., Easton, Pa., 1911. 
Based largelj^ on American practice; probably the best general treatment which has 
been published in this country. 

"Cement," by Bertram Blount, published by Longmans, Green & Co., London, 
1920. Reflects modern English practice and theories. 

"Portland Cement," by Arthur C. Davis, published by John Falconer, Dublin, 
1922. This book deals with English practice in the manufacture of portland cement. 

"Cements, Limes and Plasters," by Edwin C. Eckel, published by John Wiley & 
Sons, New York, 1922. This publication deals with raw materials, their manufacture 
and properties. 

Note: For information concerning the more technical features of portland conicnt, see also 
papers on this subject published by Geophysical Laboratory, Washington, tj. S. Bureau of Standards. 
Association of German Portland Cement Manufacturers and periodical literature. 



6 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDl'STRY 

Bibliography on Lime, Cement and Concrete 

The following list of old, rare and out-of-print books on lime, eenieiil 
and concrete, has been compiled b}' the Structural Materials Research 
Laborator}', Lewis Institute, Chicago, and are now in the library of the 
Structural Materials Research Laborator3^ 

It is probable that the more important libraries in various large cities 
throughout the countr}' contain some, if not all, of these publications: 

Date of Original 
Publication 

50 (?) B.C. "Architecture," by P. Vitruvius; translated from Latin by Joseph Gwilt 
(John Weale, London, 1860). 

50 (?) B.C. "The Ten Books on Architecture," by Vitruviu.s; translated by Morris IT. 
Morgan (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1914). 

1774 "Practical Essay on a Cement and Artificial Stone," by M. Loriot; trans- 

lated from French (T. Cadell, London). 

177G "Treatise on Building in Water," by G. Semple (J. A. Husband, Dublin). 

1780 "Essays on Cements," by Brj- Higgins; bound with es.say of M. Loriot, 

(T. Cadell, London). 

1791 "Narrative of the Building of the Edystone Lighthou.se," !)>■ John Smeaton ; 

2d Edition, London, 1813. Book IV gives an account of ex])eriments, man- 
ufacture, and use of "water cements." (Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and 
Brown.) 

1818 "Practical and Scientific Treatise on Calcareous Mortars and Cements, 

Artificial and Natural," by Louis J. Vicat; translated from French by John 
T. Smith (John Weale, London, 1837; property of Lewis Institute). 

1838 "Observations on Limes, Calcareous Cements, Mortars, Stuccos and Con- 

crete," by C. W. Pasley (John Weale, London). 

1868 "Practical Treatise on Manufacture of Portland Cement," by Henry Keid 

(E. and F. N. Spon, New York). 

1868 "The Practical Manufacture of Portland Cement," by A. Lipowitz; trans- 

lated from German by W. F. Keid (E. and F. N. Spon, Now York; hound 
with Reid's book above). 

1870 "Practical Treatise on Limes, Hydraulic Cements, and Mortars," bj- Q. A. 
Gillmore; 3d Edition, 1870; also 11th Edition, 1896 (D. Van Nostrand, 
New York). 

1871 "Practical Treati.se on Coignet Beton and Oilier .Vrtificial Stone," by Q. A. 
Gillmore (D. Van Nostrand, New York). 

1877 "Science and Art of Manufacture of Pdilhnid Cement," by Henry lieid 

(E. and F. N. Spon, New York). 

1887 "Experimental Researches on the Constilution of Hydnuilir Mortars," by 
ir. Le('hatelier; tran.slated from the French by Joseph Mack (McGraw 
Publishing Company, New York, 1905). 

1888 "Notes on Compressive Resistance of Freestone, Brick Piers, Hydraulic 
Cements, Mortars and Concretes," by Q. A. Gillmore (J. Wiley and Sons, 
New York). 

1893 "Manual on Lime and C<'inent," by A. H. Hc-itli (Iv and F. N. Spon, 

New York). 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 7 

Date of Original . 
Publication 

1S94-0 "Commission des Methodes d'Essai des Materiaux de Construction," 

Tome I, "Documents Generaux;" Tome IV, Sec. B. "Materiaux de Con- 
struction autres que les Mctaux" (J. Rothschild, Paris). 

189(3 "Digest of Physical Tests," Quarterly Journal; 2 volumes pul)lishcd fijrojj- 

erty of Lewis Institute), (Riehle, Philadelphia). 

1897 "Chimie Appliqu6e a I'Art de ITngenieur;" Part I — Analj'se Chimique des 
Materiaux de Construction, by Durand-Cla.ve and Derome; Part II — Etude 
Sp6ciale des Materiaux d'Agregation des Maconneries, by Rens Feret. 
(Libraire Poly technique.) 

1898 "Materials of Construction," by J. B. Johnson, 4th Edition; also oth Edi- 
tion, revised bj' Withey and Aston, 1919 (J. Wiley and Sons, New York). 

1S98 "American Cements," by Uriah Cummings (Rogers and Manson, Boston). 

1899 "Treatise on Masonry Construction," by I. O. Baker, 9th Edition revised 
and partially rewritten, 1903. Also 10th Edition rewritten and enlarged, 
1909 (J. Wiley and Sons, New York). 

1901 "Communications Presentees devant le Congres International des Methodes 

d'Essaie les Materiaux de Construction;" Tome II, Part 2, Non Metallic 
Materials (Dunod, Paris). 

1904 "Manufacture of Hydraulic Cements," by Albert V. Bleininger (4th Series, 
Bull. 3 Geological Survey of Ohio). 

1905 "Report on Brickwork Tests, Conducted b.y a Sub-Committee of the Sci- 
ence Standing Committee of the Royal Institute of British Architects" 
(Royal Institute of British Architects, London). 

1905 "Calcareous Cements; Their Nature, Manufacture, and L^ses," by Red- 
grave and Spackman; 2d Edition (C. Griffin, London). 

1906 "Der Portlandzement," by Oskar Schmidt (Konrad ^^'ittwer, Stuttgart, 
Germany). 

1906 "Etude Experimentale du Cinient Anne," by Rene Feret (Guuthier-Villars, 

Paris). 

1909 "Manual Theorique et Pratique du Constructeur en Ciment Arme," ijy 

De Tedesco and Forestier, including "Le Calcul des Arcs," by Henry Lossier 
(Library Polytechnique, Paris). 

1909 "Concrete-Steel Construction" (Der Ei.senbetonbau), by Emil Morsch; 

translation from Third (1908) German Edition, by E. P. Goodrich (Engi- 
neering News Publishing Company, New York). 

1909 "Reinforced Concrete in Europe," by Albert Ladd Colby (Chemical Pub- 

lishing Comimny, Easton, Pa.). 

In addition to the literature listed, the following serial publications 
on cement, concrete and related subjects are in the library of the Structm-al 
Materials Research Laboratory, Chicago: 

American Society for Testing Materials 

Proceedings v. 1-23 (1899-date) 

Miscellaneous pre])rints 
International Association for Testing Materials 

Bulletins and Proc. (English edition, 1906-1914) 
.American Association of Cement Users 

Proceedings v.1-9 (1905-1913) 



8 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

American Concrete Institute 

Journal (1914-1915) 

Proceedings, v.l2-date (1916-date) 
University of Illinois Engineering Experiment Station 

Bulletins 1-138, Circulars 1-10 (1904-date) 
University of Wisconsin 

Bulletins relating to cement and concrete (1907-date) 
Iowa State College Engineering Experiment Station 

Bulletins relating to cement, concrete, and brick (1903-date) 
University of Missouri Engineering Experiment Station 

Bulletins relating to cement and concrete (1911-date) 
University of Minnesota 

Studies in engineering relating to cement and concrete (1915-date) 
American Ceramic Society 

Transactions, v.1-18 (1899-1917) 

Journal, v. 1-5 (1918-date) 
Cement Age (Jan., 1904-June, 1912) 

Concrete-Cement Age (July, 1912-June, 1915) 

Concrete (July, 1915-date) 
American Society of Civil Engineers 

Transactions, v. 56-74 (1906-1911); v. 84-86 (1921-date) 

Proceedings. Papers relating to concrete and reinforced concrete. (1904-1910) 
Association of American Portland Cement Manufacturers 

Bulletins 1-23 and miscellaneous papers (1904-1909) 

Proceedings (1914-1915) 
Portland Cement Association 

Proceedings (1916-date) 
ProtokoU der Verhandlungen des Vereins Deutscher Portland-Cement-Fabrikanten 

(1887-1922, except 1889, 1894, 1901, 1911) 
National Research Council 

Bulletins and Circulars 
The Concrete Institute (London) 

Transactions and Notes, v. 1-9 (1909-1921) 
Mitteilungen aus dem Materialpriifungsamt zu Berlin-Lichterfelde West (formerly 

Mitteilungen aus den Koniglichen Technischen Versuchsanstalten zu BerHn) : 
Miscellaneous Bulletins (1886-1919) 
Imperial Earthquake Investigation Committee: 

Bulletins 

U. S. Government Publications: 
Bureau of Standards: 

Technologic Papers relating to cement and concrete 
Circulars relating to cement and concrete 
Annual Reports (1912-1922, except 1914, 1920) 

Geological Survey : 

Bulletins on cement, concrete, etc. (1904-date) 
Departmenlrof Agriculture : 

Bulletins on cement, concrete, etc. (1907-date) 

Public Roads, v. 1-4 (May, 1918-Dec., 1921) 
Reclamation Service: 

Annual Reports (1912-1920, except 1917, 1918) 

Reclamation Record; various issues 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 9 

Panama Canal: 

Annual Reports (1912-date, except 1915, 1916) 
Bureau of Mines: 

Miscellaneous bulletins 
Public Works of the Navy: 

Bulletins 27-33 (1917-date) 
Philippine Bureau of Science : 

Papers on cement, concrete, etc. (1908-date) 

Inventive Minds of All Ages Interested in Cementing Materials 

The subject of cementing materials seems to have attracted the 
attention of studious and inventive minds in all ages. Vitruvius, who in the 
early days of Rome, wrote much about mortars, had a great deal to say 
about lime and its uses, but it was ages afterward when a French inventor 













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Ruins of one of the earliest cement kilns built in this country, that of the Thomas 
Millen plant at South Bend, Indiana. 

petitioned his king to grant a patent for the use of quicklime in mortar 
as distinguished from the old method whereby lime and sand were slaked 
together and pei-mitted to remain in pits for manj^ months before use. 



Early Writings of Vicat 

L. J. Vicat, a distinguished French engineer and author of numerous 
technical works, was practically the first within comparatively modern 
times to go into the complexities and variations in lime and its uses. In 
1818, he published a book which was translated by Captain J. T. Smith 



10 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

under the title "A Practical and Scientific Treatise on Calcareous Mortars 
and Cements, Artificial and Natural," and published in London in 1837. 
It has ever since been regarded as a classic on the subject. Vicat's remark- 
able book shows how extended and thorough had been his research, and c}ue 
to his investigations, especially of hydraulic limes, much of that known 
about cement today had its origin in this early work. Though published 
more than a century ago, the book seems quite modern. Vicat classified 
calcareous materials and defined the various kinds of lime they furnished. 
His study of clays was equally comprehensive. He described the qualities 
of different materials used with lime in the manufacture of mortars oi- 
calcareous csmants. His research included observation as to the action 
of various substances upon mortars, and comparisons between mortars of 
aisiant and modsrn tiniss. In a chapter on natural cement, he made the 
following prophsc}^: 

That wliich is in England v(>i\- improperly termed Roman cement is nothing more 
than a natural cement resultuig from a slight calcination of a calcareous mineral, 
containing about 31 per cent of ochreous clay and a few hundredths of carbonate of 
magnesia and manganese. A very great consumption of this cement takes place in 
London, but its use will infallibh' become restricted in proportion as the mortars of 
eminentl.v h^vdraulic lime shall become better known and in consequence better aj)- 
preciated. 

Vicat had followed up the discover}' of John Smeaton, of LJdystone 
fame, as to the advantage of clay in natural limestone to make such 
limestone hydraulic. This was accomplished by mixing rich lime with 
varying percentages of claj' , to which Vicat refers in his book when he says: 
"We have no longer, therefore, to attend to laboratory experiments, but 
indeed, to a new art very nearly arrived at perfection." This new art, 
described in 1818, was what has now become the art of making portland 
cement, although Vicat did not describe it by that name, nor did he in 
his early experiuKnits arrive at the results which he subsequently obtained. 

Dr. Bry Higgins Among Early Investigators and Writers 

Perhaps few, if any, writers among those wlio recorded their studies 
of cements and mortars, surpassed Dr. Br}^ Higgins. In 1780, he published 
a book under the title "Experiments and ObscMvations Made with a View 
of Improving the Art of Composing and Applying Calcareous Cements, 
etc." Dr. Higg.ins regarded the subject of greatest importance, since he 
realized that "the stretigth and duration of our most useful and expensive 
buildings depend chiefly on the goodness of the cement with which they 
are constructed." He referred to his coworkers in this field as artists 
and gave much credit to a certain Dr. Black, who also appears to have 
been a student in this field of research. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 1 1 

Dr. Higgins found human natiu'e in his da}' not much differoni from 
( liat of today. On the subject of fire resistive building construction, he says : 

The public are indebted to Mr. Hartley for the experimental proofs he has given 
to the efficacy of his method of securing houses from fire; and to Lord Mahon for those 
judicious and expensive experiments by which he has shewn that a calcareous incrusta- 
tion answers the purpose of Mr. Hartley's art. I am afraid that their good intentions 
will be fmstrated by the indifference of men to distant or improbable evils, and their 
dislike to any immediate expense which affords no extemporary convenience or 
ornament. 




Said to be the first cement mill in Illinois, located at Deei- Park near LaSalle. The 
modern successors to this humble beginning in cement manufacture are not far 
from this spot. 



CHAPTER II 

AMONG THE PIONEERS IN NATURAL CEMENT 

Edystone Lighthouse Impelled Research for Better Hydraulic Mortar 

In 1756, John Smeaton, who in 1791 described his experiments when 
writing of the construction of the Edystone Lighthouse, developed the 
thought which led to the discovery of the ingredients of hydraulic mortar. 
He laid down the principle that the hydraulic properties of a limestone 
depend not, as had been formerly supposed, upon color or texture, but 
upon the percentage of clay entering into its chemical composition. An- 
nouncement of this discovery naturally directed examination on the part 
of engineers and others, of various limestones and other materials found 
throughout England. 

Almost contemporaneous with Smeaton's publication was the patent 
granted Joseph Parker, who claimed to make Parker's Cement out of 
certain stones or argillaceous products. This patent he followed up in 
1796 by a second one for the use of nodules, or "noddles," of clay which he 
found along the Kentish coast of England. Later on the name of Roman 
Cement was given to this product, which commanded quite a large sale 
in England. 

Almost simultaneous with the work of Parker, but still following 
Smeaton's discovery, one Lesage, connected with the French army, found 
similar noddles at Boulogne, from which he made good quick setting 
cement along in 1796. Chemically speaking, all of these were natural 
cements and analyzed very nearl}' alike — about 45 per cent of lime to 30 
per cent of silica and alumina. 

Established Reputation of Natural Cement Impeded Progress of 
Portland Cement 

As a sidelight of cement history, it may be mentioned briefly here that 
in the face of the greater cost of producing portland cement, the reputation 
of the English-tiatural cements was so great that for several j'ears following 
the establishment of portland cement works, the natural product com- 
manded a higher price; and for quite a time it seemed as though the manu- 
facture of natural cement would endure to such an extent as to block the 
development of the then new portland cement industry. 

12 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 13 

Transportation Developments Forced Attention to Cement 

The early history of the United States shows that necessity was fre- 
quently the mother of invention. Where construction grew on the basis 
of the people's needs and the materials came from what was read}^ at hand, 
it was most natural that we should have wooden buildings, pavements, 
sewer boxes, plank roads and, in general, a widespread use of lumber 
because of its ready availability. The progressive development of our 
resources naturally made better methods of transportation essential. The 
development of the country be3^ond the Alleghenies, the growth of the 
western part of New York State, the establishment of communities along 
the Great Lakes, made better means of transport essential between the 
seacoast and inland communities. 

During this period, say from 1800 to 1820, methods of transportation 
were both primitive and limited. The practicability of steamship naviga- 
tion had been demonstrated, but had not become available. Railroad build- 
ing did not start until 1837. Horse-drawn wagons over the roughest of 
roads were practically the only means of intercommunication. 

Canal Development Required Watertight Masonry 

Canals had become an old institution in Europe and with the im- 
pelling force of necessity, engineering and financial minds in the United 
States turned to canals as the solution of the then pressing transportation 
needs of this country. Canals necessarily involve problems dealing with 
water and masonr3^ There must be locks, bridges over small streams, 
aqueducts to carry the canal over valleys, and all of these involve water- 
resisting mortar. From these needs resulted the early discovery of natural 
cement in the United States. 

Erie Canal Responsible for Discovery of Natural Cement Rock in 

United States 

The building of the Frie Canal, which was started in 1817, was not 
only the greatest of early transportation projects in this country in which 
cement played a most important part, but led to the discovery of natural 
ceme nt rock in th e United States. According to the best authorities avail- 
able, this discovery was made in 1818 by Canvas White near Fayette ville, 
Onondaga County, New York. Mr. White took out a patent which was 
later sold by him to the State of New York for $10,000. State control of 
this patent finally resulted in removal of all manufacturing restrictions 
under the White process. 

Richard K. Meade, in his book already referred to, quotes a county 
history which states that Mr. White made his discovery near Chittenango, 



14 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

Madison Count}', New Y'ork, and that after expeiinieutino; with the loek. 
appKed to the state for the exclusive right to manufacture for twenty yeai's. 
This right the state decUned to grant, but gave Mr. White $20,000 in 
recognition of his valuable discovery. Thus do "authorities" cloud the 
facts. For the cement used in such large quantities on the canal, White 
received about 20 cents a bushel. 

Underthe administration of DeWitt Clinton as Governor of New Y^ork, 
work on the Erie Canal proceeded rapidly from the Hudson River to Lake 
Erie. Other sections of the United States were clamoring for canals. 
The Richmond and Allegheny Canal, extending from the James River to 
the Allegheny Mountains; the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, from Baltimoic 
to the headwaters of the Potomac; the Lehigh and the Pennsjdvania State 
Canals in Pennsylvania; the Great Canal around the Falls of the Ohio at 
Louisville, Kentucky, and canals started in the vicinity of Chicago, all 
were dependent upon hydraulic cement, as each required watei-resisting 
mortar for safety and permanence. It is evident that the development of 
the canal system of the United States in the early days therefore went hand 
in hand with the development of the American Nat\u-al Cement Industry. 

It is a matter of history that the Rosendale, Akron and Howes Cave 
cement districts in New York; the Lehigh Valle}^ cement district in 
Pennsylvania; the Cumberland, Round Top and Shepherdstown districts 
in Maryland and West Virginia; the Balcony Falls district in Virginia; 
the Louisville cement district near Louisville, Kentucky; the Milwaukee 
district in Wisconsin, and thaLTtica district in Illinois, were practically all 
discovered and brought into being through the need of cement mortar for 
the construction of our artificial inland waterways. Also, as in Europe, 
where, in the early days of cement manufacture, canals and waterways 
were the thoroughfares of transportation to market, so in this country 
similar methods were part of the history of the development of the cement 
industr}''. Out of this fact grew the employment of the wooden barrel, 
tight against moisture, as a shipping container. It was more than half a 
century after the discovery of natural cement in this country and the advent 
of railroads as a superior means of transportation, that it was discovered 
that the cotton sack and paper bag were eciually good shipping con'aiiuM's. 

The pioneers who had the courage to build tlu^se early cement mills 
and pi-()duce a iumv article of commerce were men of keen foresight and 
strong business purposes. In the group that developed the Rosendale 
district on the_Hudson near R()nd(ju<, New Yoi'k, were men of the highest 
type in business ability and integrity. 

Personalities in the Early History of Natural Cement Manufacture 

Among the earlicM- companies was the Lawrence Cement Company, 
which manufactured the Hoffman Brand. Its officers included AVatson H. 



IILSTOKY OF rUKTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 15 

Lawrence, Warren Ackernian, Dr. Woodward and INI. Albert Scull, 'i'liis 
company was one of the large producers in its day. The order and old-time 
business methods that pervaded its offices and the fair dealing which 
stamped ever\^ one of its transactions were proverbial among those who 
dealt with Rosendale cement in the earl}- days. 

Harry Brigham and S. D. Coykendall were two well known pioneer 
manufacturers identified with a group of mills known as the Hudson River 
Company near Rondout. Mi'. Brigham was known as a distributor; 
Coykendall as an owner of barge and steamship lines and a pioneer in 
railroading in the Catskills. Coj'kendall started the manufacture of port- 
land cement in the early days of the cement industry in this country but 
gave it up, holding until the day of his death a belief in a permanent 
market for Rosendale natural cement. 

yf The Newark and Rosendale Companv was another lai-ge concern in 
Newark, owned principally by the Tompkins family and associates. One 
of the younger Tompkins was Dock Commissioner in New York and for 
many years held high positions in business circles. 

Another of the bright lights in the Rosendale field was Wm. N. Beach, 
a handsome, gra}^ mustached, physically fit type of New York business 
man, keen, alert, wise in the handling of his mills and plants and a man 
who made many fiiends. 

Among those in the strictty scientific or engineering side of cement 
manufacture in the early days was F. 0. Norton, manufacturer of the 
Norton Brand. Mr. Norton was a member of the American Society of 
Civil Engineers and prominently associated with the foremost bridge, 
canal and railroad builders of his time. Perhaps more credit is due to him 
than any of the other early group for putting Rosendale cement, especially 
the Norton brand, in the front ranks of favor by the engineering profession. 
It is related of ]Mr. Norton that when the Lehigh cements first began to 
make their way into the New York market and endeavor to have a specifi- 
cation made by the engineering societies for all natural cements, he was 
against any specification on the ground that his cement was the best. 
"But," said the Lehigh manufacturers, "if we don't get a specification, how 
can we get into the market?" "Well," said Mr. Norton, "when I have sold 
all the cement my mill can make, you may have ycnr chanc(> to sell yours." 
<The Howes Cave Association, organized in 1869 and subsequently 
consolidated with the Howes Cave Lime & Cement Company, was among 
the early manufacturers of natural cement. These merged concerns 
finallj^ became the present Helderbei'g Cement Company-. The Howes 
Cave Lime & Cement Company made natural or Rosendale brands, 
known as "Ramsey's Cement," "Rose's Cement," and "Howes Cave 
Cement." The manufacture of natural comcMit continued after the Helde]- 



16 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 










HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 17 

berg Company was incorporated, or until 1905. Maximum production 
reached about 10,000 barrels per month. 

F. W. Kelley, at this writing President of the Helderberg Company, 
has supplied the following facts concerning the original company: 

Joseph Ramsey, an attorney and State Senator, who afterward became president 
of the Albany & Susquehanna Raih'oad, which is now a part of the Delaware & Hudson 
system, established the Howes Cave Association. A letter to him from Professor James 
Hall, who made the first geological survey of the state, covering the occurrence and 
outcrop of water-lime rock at Howes Cave, is still in existence. 

Natural cement was made from water-lime outcropping on the hill at this point 
in a layer about seven feet thick. The rock was mined and broken up by hammers in 
pieces weighing in some cases as much as twenty pounds. It was then charged in layers 
about a foot thick with alternate layers of coke, and sometimes anthracite coal, in 
vertical kilns having an inside diameter of eight or ten feet, the kilns being built of 
masonry and lined with fire-brick. At the bottom of the kiln was a sheet iron hopper 
having grate bars which could be withdrawn as the charge of calcined rock was drawn 
from the bottom of the kiln. The burned rock was separated and the under-burned and 
over-burned pieces extracted, while the properly burned material was passed through 
rotary crackers and then ground between Esopus mill stones to about 50-mesh fineness. 
One mill was operated by water power and the other by steam power. 

Charles H. Ramsey, son of Joseph H. Ramsey, operated the plant of the Howes 
Cave Association and was one of the first officers of the Helderberg Cement Company. 
About 1884 he became interested in the possibility of making portland cement from the 
Howes Cave materials, with the result described elsewhere in this history. 

Hiram Snyder, who handled the New York and Rosendale brands, 
is well and favorably remembered, and unlike many of his Rosendale 
associates, went into the sales end of the rapidly growing poi'tland cement 
industry as a part of the Lehigh Portland Cement Company organization. 

In western New York there was another group of manufacturers of 
natural cement. These were possibly more aggressive and venturesome 
than their rivals in the eastern part of the state. The Bennetts, who had a 
large plant at one end of Main Street, Buffalo, did an enormous business 
in the western part of the state. After having excavated their cement 
rock from nearly a square half-mile of territory, they went out of business, 
disposing of the land with the cellars excavated for house construction to 
would-be builders of small homes in the rapidly growing city. That was a 
sample of the type of men in the Western New York group of manufac- 
turers. A survivor, Lesley J. Bennett, recalls interesting facts connected 
with the natural cement works in that vicinity known as the Williamsville 
Cement Plant, which was in operation until about thirty years ago. Mr. 
Bennett treasures a photograph of the plant taken about twenty-five years 
ago, showing the mill on the bank of a creek and such interesting details 
as the old wooden water-wheel and the stone kilns. This mill was built to 
furnish cement for the Erie Canal locks at Lockport. Mr. Bennett says 
that, beginning with the Buffalo cement mill's quarry at the north end of 



18 HIvSTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

Buffalo, and running through the WiUianisville district, the ledge contains 
fossils, called "'Eurypterus," which are found only in the lower Silurian 
Age. It is said that the only other places in which these fossil remains 
have been discovered are Genesee Falls, near Rochester, New York, and 
on an island in the Black Sea off the coast of Russia. These fossil remains 
var}^ from a few inches to six feet in length and embrace some fort}- or 
fifty varieties. Owing to their rarity, the Smithsonian Institution has 
collected several hundred specimens. German universities have also col- 
lected some of these specimens, having paid as much as from $200 to $300 
for each specimen. 

There were two cement plants at Akron, New York. One of these 
was headed by Uriah Cummings, a man intensely interested in his busi- 
ness and its development, and the author of a book which is referred to 
later. 

The other plant near Akron, included among its owners, Daniel S. 
Lockwoocl, a leading lawyer of Buffalo, an associate of President Grover 
Cleveland, and a man of widely recognized legal and business ability. 
During the days of the Wilson Bill, when it was proposed to reduce the 
duty on cement and admit it to this country under the free list, it was 
"Dan" Lockwood who served those having tariff matters in charge in the 
interest of the industry and assisted in having the duty retained. 

There were a few cement mill^s in Ohio, at New Lisbon and elsewhere, 
but the first big cement center west of Buffalo was at Louisville, Kentucky. 
Many plants congregated near the Falls of the Ohio, near Lom'sville and 
across the river at Jeffersonville, Indiana. John Hulme of Philadelphia and 
James B. Speed of Louisville were owners of the principal plants in that 
district. They were foremost in the introduction of new machinery, the 
development of new methods, and in opening new markets. On their death 
thej' left enviable reputations with their associates in the industry. John 
Hulme left no successor, but the Speed interests came into the hands of 
William S. Speed, son of the original owner, who, in turn, is making new 
and bigger successes not only in the manufacture of portland cement, but 
of "Brix-cement," a revived natural cement. 

Under modern methods in the Lehigh district of Pemis>lvania, the 
Coplay Cement Company was a ])ioneer, although many j^ears before its 
establishment (about 1850), a small mill was started on the Lehigh Canal 
at Siegfrieds Bridge, under the ownership of General J. K. Siegfried. It 
was the outgrowth of this natural cement plant at Coi)lay that led to the 
first successfiiT j)ortland cement plant in the United States. David O. 
Saylor came from the farm to Allentown, Pennsylvania, and associated 
himself with Adam Woolever and Esias Rehrig. Saylor became interested 
along with Chi'istian Knauss, a farmer near Whitehall, just above Coplay, 
in cement rock along the line of the Lehigh River and Lehigh Valley Rail- 



lilSTOKY OF roK'rLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 19 

road. Mr. \\'oolever had the reputation of being a leading pohtician in 
Allentown and Mr. Rehrig, the County Clerk or Recorder of Deeds, backed 
Saylor to see what could be done with the material discovered. Saylor, tall, 
stout, red faced, with a long beard, Rehrig of dark complexion, dark beard 
and hair, of the same strong physical type, and Woolever, another of like 
characteristics — these three clear-cut, decided and positive men started 
to work at their problems by burning the rocks in a little cook stove in 
Rehrig's office or in Sajdor's house. They found that the material would 
make cement. They secured capital and put up their works at Coplay 
and from this start they ultimately developed into not only the original 
producers of portland cement in this coimtry, l)ut owners of one of the 
large mills in the Lehigh district. 

General Siegfried, on the other side of the river, put up a small mill, 
and through his political connections did a large business on state work 
and state canals. 

Farther to the south, in the Potomac Valle}', at Round Top, Maryland, 
the Waters family, farmers and country storekeepers, erected a cement 
plant which was very successful and which supplied cement to the Chesa- 
peake & Ohio Canal and to the Washington, D. C, market. At Cumber- 
land, Maryland, another group of men, which included Slack and Gephardt, 
developed the Cumberland Cement Company, which also found its market 
along the canal. In West Virginia, on the Potomac River, below Round 
Top, there was the Shepherdstown works under the control of Blunt. 
This plant came into its growth after the canal construction days had well 
passed. Later the Cedar Cliff plant, near Cvmiberland, was built. 

The Lochers of Virginia, some of w^hom l^ecame noted contractors 
thi'oughout the country, developed the Balcony Falls works in Virginia. 
The Richmond and Allegheny Canal, so far as masonry is concerned, 
stands as a testimonial to their success as manufacturers. 

The Milwaukee works began with the discovery and manufacture 
of natural cement by J. R. Berthelet, Sr., whose adventure is described 
elsewhere. One of the owners of the Milwaukee works was William 
Plankington, prominent also in the grain and meat-packing industries. 
All of these plants produced cement of excellent quality and reputation. 

At Utica, Illinois, was a plant owned by the Clar'k family. Reference 
to the long and successful operation of this jjlant ai)i)ears elsewhere. 

On the Pacific coast, a bed of hydraulic limestone was opened up in 
1863 at Vallejo, and kilns were built near Benicia. Importations on the 
coast impeded the development of this plant, but production finally 
reached 100 barrels a day. 

In 1881, natural cement rock was discovered at Canon City, Colo- 
rado. Experiments were conducted by M. Megrue, and in 1882 a plant 



20 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 









Twenty years ago quarrving was all done by hand, from drilling the rock to moving the 
cars. Today, the well-drill, steam shovel and steam train do it much more efficiently 
and economically. 




When rock was loaded by hand, each piece had to be sledged into "one-man" size; 
consequently, quarry outputs were low. Today, one steam or electric shovel 
does the work of dozens of men. 



was built at Denver. In that year about 100 barrels of cement were made 
and the following year the first entire kiln of cement was turned out. 

Early Literature on the Natural Cement Industry in the United States 

Two books stand out preeminent in dealing with the natural cement 
industry in this country, namely, that of Uriah Cummings, already referred 
to, and that of General Quincy A. Gillmore on "Limes, Hydraulic Cements, 
and Mortars," published originally in 1863 and put through many editions 
since, GeneraT Gillmore was recognized as a man of remarkable scientific; 
attainments, as a government engineer who was largely interested in the 
use of Rosendale cement in the New York territory, and from his investiga- 
tions into the Rosendale district spread his inquiries into natural cement 
plants all over the United States. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



21 



Many of the Early Natural Cements Distinguished for Quality 

Those who have been in the habit of regarding the old natural cements 
as of no value and as having been completely superseded by portland ce- 
ment will find much that is instructive in General Gillmore's book. They 
will also be surprised at the deserved prestige which early natural cements 
won. The description of tests and details of the use made of some of the 
old natural cements on such work as the East River Bridge, government 
fortifications and other types of construction along the Atlantic coast 
makes interesting reading. 

Considered from the standpoint of output, the Rosendale natural 
cement district in Ulster County, New York, surpassed all others. Its 




In the early days, millstones like these were used to grind and crush the raw material. 
Tube mills do the work today, the charge of steel balls in one of these mills often 
weighing as much as a steel freight car. 




The modern crusher, to the right, crushes thousands of tons of rock a day, some of the 
rocks being larger than the ancient apparatus to the left. 



22 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

remarkable development was due to the exeellenec of its product and to 
cheap transportation to New York City and other points on the Hudson 
River. 

The prosperity of the Rosendak' imhistry eiuku-ed until i)ortland 
cement had practically supplanted the natural product. A go^'ernment 
report in 1896 stated that of all of the natural c(Mnents then produced in 
fifteen states, about half came from New Yoi'k and nearly all of this from 
the Rosendale district, with its fifteen plants operated by twelve com- 
panies. 

How Rosendale Cement Was Named 

According to General Gillmore, the Rosendale cement deposits were 
so named because the stone was first discovered in the township of Rosen- 
dale, and were confined chiefly to a narrow belt scarcely a mile wide, fol- 
lowing the northwestern base of the Shawangunk Mountains along the line 
of the Delaware and Hudson Canal in the valley of Rondout Creek. 

As described by General Gillmore, the beds occupied "every conceiv- 
able inclination to the horizon, being sometimes vertical, seldom on a 
level, and ordinarily dipping at a greater or less degree either to the 
northwest or to the southwest. The entire face of the country in this 
region exhibits unmistakable evidences of having been subjected to a suc- 
cession of remarkaljle upheavings. ****** The useful effect of these 
upheavings has been to develop into accessible and convenient positions 
a vast amount of cement stone that would otherwise have been buried 
beyond the practicable reach of ordinaiy mechanical skill." 

Various Early Companies Described by Gillmore 

Works referred to by Gillmore were those of the Ogdni Company 
and Delafield & Baxter (formerly Ogden & Delafield) at High Falls; 
the Newark Lime and Cement Manufacturing Co^npany on the Hudson 
River, at the mouth of Rondout Creek; the Lawrence Cement Company, 
manufacturers of the Hoffman brand, above Whiteport; the Newark 
and Rosendale Compan}- at Whiteport; the Rosendale Cement Company, 
manufacturing the Lawrence brand at Lawrenceville; the Ogden Ro.sendale 
Cement Company, High Falls; th(> works of N. Bruce, at Bruceville, near 
High Falls; Martin and Clearwatei', on the Delawai'e and Hudson Canal, 
a few miles from Rondout; Hudson River Cement Company, with cpiarries 
five miles from Rondout and mills in .Iers(\v City; Maguire, Crane & Com- 
pany, a few miles from Rondout ; the Lawrenceville Cement ^Manufacturing 
Compan3% Lawi'encevilie; and Ros(Mulale and Kingston Cement Company, 
Flatbush. 

From descriptions of works it is learned that one company had "seven- 
teen cylindrical (vertical) kilns, ***** and the mill driven by steam 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 23 

{)ower, containing five 'crackers" and eleven run of stone of two and a half 
feet in diameter, and two run of foui- and a half feet in diameter. Four of 
the crackers and five run of stone can grind SOO barrels of cement per day." 
The interesting fact to be gathered from writings of Gillmore, Cum- 
mings and others is that these cements were essential to the development 
and construction of the canal systems of the United States and were de- 
pendent for their power in many cases upon the waters from the canal 
itself. Further than this, their storehouses and shipping facilities were on 
the canal or on the adjacent river, transportation being governed by water 
conditions. 

Early Mill Practice 

As to the mill construction of these plants, it may be mentioned that 
all the kilns, with possibly a very few exceptions, were stone vertical kilns 
of various heights and diameters into which the raw cement rock was 
loaded at the top with layers of coal and, in turn, drawn from the bottom 
into cars which conducted the material to the plant itself. In man}' cases 
plant construction was such that the "cofTee mill" crushers, which tore 
apart in the initial step the calcined rocks coming from the kiln, were 
located on the upper floor of the mill and necessitated tracks on which small 
cars drawn by wire ropes were conveyed from the drawing floor in front 
of the kiln to the "coffee mill" crushers. So general was this practice that 
when a cement manufacturer in later times started to build a plant with 
crushers on the ground opposite the drawing floor of the kiln, and the 
crushed material was conveyed in short bucket elevators to the mill 
stones, the entire neighborhood predicted that the plant would never 
operate because it did not have an inclined railway from the kiln floor 
to the crushers, then general^ located at the top of the mill. 

The other governing factor in eai4y mill construction was that the 
grinding was performed by old-fashioned buhr stones, or sand stones of 
the same general type. All these stones required constant dressing, and 
when one entered a cement mill in those days, he was greeted with a merry 
chorus of clinking mill picks playing on the hard stones, which required 
constant redressing at heavy expense. 

The So-called Louisville District and Its Extensive Development 

The second largest field was that developed near Louisville, Kentucky. 
The quality of the cement was excellent and its distribution in time 
covered a wide territory which ranged from Ontario to Florida and from 
the Atlantic to the Rocky Mountains. 

In 1905 a newspaper article referred to the passing of the Louisville 
cement industry, stating that many of the towns formerly dependent 
upon the natural cement mills for their prosperity were dead. 



24 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEIMENT INDUSTRY 



The manufacture of Louisville natural cement began in 1829, the j^ear 
of discovery. John Hulme & Company established works near Louisville, 
Kentucky, the cement being used in the construction of the Louisville 
and Portland Canal. For a long time manufacture from the original quarrj- 
continued, tiie cement being sold under the brand of ''J. Hulme Star." 
Mortar made from this cement could be seen in a portion of the original 




Every week or ten days one of these old vertical kilns would produce enough clinker to 
make about 200 barrels of cement, nearly equaling the four-hour output of a 
modern rotarv kiln. 



canal wall that remained after a period of sixty years. It was almost as 
hard as the limestone in the masonry walls, showing no effects of time. 

The Hulme mill enjoyed a monopoly of the cement business for many 
3'ears. The company- was without a competitor until 1854, when W. F. 
Beach erected a mill on the Ohio River, opposite Louisville. After a few 
years, however, this mill closed down and was finally destroyed by floods. 

In 1866, Dexter Belknap, having ascertained that the quaUty of 
Louisville cenient was excellent, and being impressed with the many 
advantages to be obtained by the manufacture of cement on some railroad 
line, built the first cement mill located on a i-ailroad in Indiana. He had 
traced for some miles north of the Ohio River the strata of rock exposed 
in the bottom of the river, and located his plant on the J. ]\I. & I. Railroad 
at a point called Belknaps, so named in his honor. He organized what was 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 25 

known as the Falls City Cement Company. Manufacture began with a 
capacity of 200 barrels a day, and in 1892 output was 2,700 barrels daily. 

The success of this company encouraged others to seek the advantages 
of railroad transportation, and in a few years other mills were built. These 
included the Sabin & Gilmore works, erected in 1867, about eight miles 
north of Louisville, but finally dismantled. 

Prior to 1868 the mills along the railroad were comparatively small. 
In 1871 the Louisville Cement Company built the Speed Mill at Speeds, 
Indiana, with a capacity of 700 barrels per day. This mill was operated 
for a long time, capacity increasing to 4,000 barrels per day. It was known 
as the largest cement mill in the world. Other important mills were those 
of Bondurant & Todd, known as the Black Diamond; the works of W. P, 
Hahn, erected in 1869; the plant of the Falls City Cement Company, 
erected in 1870. 

With characteristic enterprise, the Louisville manufacturers built with 
reference to future demand instead of current requirements. Business was 
prosperous, and as time went on additional mills were built, these including 
the Ohio Valley Cement Company works, near Cementville, Indiana, in 
1881; the Kentucky & Indiana Cement Company plant, near Watson, 
Indiana, in 1887; and the Clark County Cement Company plant, in 1890. 
Works were also established at Hausdale, Charlestown, and Sellersburg, 
Indiana, in 1891 and 1892, respectively. 

From the single mill of small output erected in 1829 by John Hulme, 
the number of plants in this locality had increased to eighteen by 1892. 
having an annual production of a little over 2,000,000 barrels. The pro- 
duction of the entire country in 1892 was a little more than 8,000,000 
barrels. 

Louisville cement was used in practicall}' all the great engineering 
works of the time within reach of this field, these including important 
bridges, water-works, tunnels, locks, dams, street foundations, pavements 
and sewers. 

Natural Cement in the Lehigh Valley District 

Third in importance was the Lehigh Valley district, in Pennsylvania. 
The history of the natural cement industry in the Lehigh Valley district 
is closety intertwined with that of the portland cement industry. It began 
with the construction of the Lehigh Coal & Navigation Company's canal 
along the banks of the Lehigh River from the coal regions to Easton. The 
first plant established was at Siegfried, Pennsylvania, where General Sieg- 
fried, to whom reference has been made, and who afterwards became prom- 
inent in public life in Pennsylvania, built a small plant a short distance 
back from the canal and river. This cement was largel}^ used in the con- 
struction of the canal. 



26 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

On the opposite side of the river, above Coplay station, there was a 
hirge hill along the Lehigh Valley Railroad. The face of this hill as exposed 
by railroad cuts, showed rock similar to that found near the Siegfried 
works. This led some of the residents to investigate cement-making proper- 
ties of the material. Among them was the farmer Knauss, to whom refer- 
ence has been made. He purchased some of the land and endeavored to 
interest others in it. This property in later years produced some natural, 
as well as portland cement, and, after the destruction by fire of a small 
works erected on it, the location became the first works of the Atlas Port- 
land Cement Company. Above this was another small works, known as 
the Hercules Company, which also made a small amount of natural cement, 
its site now being that of the Whitehall Portland Cement Company works. 

The early develoiDcr, however, of the natural cement industry in the 
Lehigh district was the Coplay Cement Company, the owners of which 
at that time were David O. Saylor, Esias Rehrig, and Adam Woolever. 
These men believed that natural cement could be made of the rocks just 
above Coplay station on the Lehigh Valley Railroad, so they took the 
material to Allentown, where they lived, and, as previously mentioned, 
they spent evenings in the house of one of them trying it out in a cook stove, 
and finally in a kiln they had built. It is related that some of the product 
was taken down to a flour mill nearby and ground, a characteristic pro- 
ceeding in the early days of experiment. This cement was known com- 
mercially as "Anchor Brand," and in the seventies was largely used for 
many important works. The Girard Avenue Bridge, and other railway 
bridges in Philadelphia which carried most of the traffic to the Centennial 
Exposition of 1876, were built with this cement. After Saylor had perfected 
the manufacture of portland cement at these works, an addition of portland 
cement clinker to the natural cement was made, and out of this a mixed 
cement known as "Improved Anchor" was produced and found large sale. 

The Siegfried works had a checkered career, passing through the 
management of Hugh N. Camp & Sons, of New York, the American Cement 
Company, A. B. Bonneville and the Allen Cement Company, finally 
coming into the ownership of the Lawrence C(>ment Company. In its early 
days this plant jiroduced natural cement in large (juantitic'S. Later an 
"Improved Shield," n mixed cement, and "Shield." a natural cement, were 
produced there by the Lawrence Cement CompaiiN-, the present owners. 

The success of these natural cement works in the Lehigh district 
caused those \yho in \atvv days were seeking to establish themselves in that 
field — wherein the eighties portland cement was beginning to be manu- 
factured — to search for cement rock of some general chai-acter out of which 
both natural and portland could be produced. This led to the establish- 
ment of the American Cement Company, oi'iginally the American Improved 
Cements Company, whose works were on the line of the Ironton Railroad 



HLSTOEY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



27 



about two miles back of the Coplay Cement Company and up a small valley 
leading from Coplay to the iron ore beds at Ironton. This plant introduced 
the manufacture of "Union" natural cement and "Improved Union" mixed 
cement at an early day and became large producers of cements which found 
a market in all the eastern states. They were used on many important 
engineering works — railroads, dams, bridges, etc. The Johnstown (Penn- 
sylvania) Bridge, celebrated as having withstood the great flood, was built 
of natural "Union Cement." 

Early Natural Cement Works in Maryland and Virginia 

Along the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal a number of natural cement 
works were located. Those at Roinid Top, about three miles above Han- 
cock, Marjdand, and at Cumberland, Maryland, were the principal ones 
and the pioneers in this field. Both of these plants were located near the 
canal and the Potomac River, the formei' plant dei'iving its motive power 
from the discharge of the water of the canal into the river. These two com- 
panies were largely engaged in suj^plying cement to the w^orks along the 
canal, to bridges over the Potomac River, and to Government works in 
Washington, Baltimore, and Noi'thern Virginia and Maryland. Both made 
excellent cement, some of which, in Government tests, showed results for 
long-time periods in sand mortars almost approaching some of the early 
tests of Portland cement imder similar conditions. 

Another works at Shepherdstown, Virginia, started later. This 
differed from the other two in that its rock was more highly maguesian 
than that of the other plants, which had a rather remarkable material for 
cement making i:)urposes. This company also found a large market for its 
material in Government work in the District of Columbia and vicinity. 

The laying of asphalt pavements in the District of Columbia under 
the Shepherd and following administrations, provided a large market for 
all the cements of the Potomac region. Many miles of pavements in 
Washington, D. C, are laid upon concrete foundations containing natural 
cement produced in the district mentioned. 

In later years a small works which ran for a short period was started 
at Cedar Cliff, near Cumberland, IVIaryland. 

Of these plants the one at Round Top was the most famous, cement 
rock having been discovered there in 1837 by A. B. McFarlan, contractor 
on the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal. The closing down of this plant was 
announced in 190(). 

Milwaukee, Wisconsin, the Center of Natural Cement 
Manufacturing Activity 

Milwaukee, Wisconsin, also became the center of a group of natural 
cement mills whose founding, as in other cases, was preceded by an acci- 



28 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



dental discovery of natural cement rock; and, as happened elsewhere, the 
humble cook stove played an important role. In the early seventies the 
City of Milwaukee was building a bridge across the Milwaukee River. At 
that time J. R. Berthelet, Sr., was engaged in the manufacture of cement 
sewer pipe in Milwaukee. He used Louisville cement, and made frequent 
visits to that great cement region. There he became familiar with the 
nature of cement rock and methods of cement manufacture. As a maker 
of sewer pipe, Mr. Berthelet had occasion to hold frequent consultations 
at the office of the Milwaukee City Engineer. During one of these visits 
he noticed samples of rock taken from the bed of the Milwaukee River, 




In the early days, cement was stored in bins in this and simihir buildings until it was 
shipped to the consumer in barrels. 



where caisson construction had been necessary. Because of its resemblance 
to the Louisville natural cement rock the specimens aroused his curiosity. 
Taking samples to his home he burned them in the cook stove. Upon 
reducing them to powder with a mortar and pestle, he was surprised and 
pleased to find that he had made a natural cement. 

Mr. BertlTelet interested a number of intimate friends in plans tocxploit 
the material. Careful test of the rock was made from samples procui-cul 
throughout the entire area of visible deposit. Samples were sent to all the 
leading geologists and chemists in the country, their reports bearing out 
Mr. Berthelet's conclusions as to the adaptability of the rock to the manu- 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 29 

facture of natural cement. The Milwaukee Cement Company was formed 
and land on both sides of the river was acquired, the tract extending nearly 
a mile and a half to the north of the city. Works were erected, and on June 
16, 1876, the first barrel of Milwaukee hydraulic cement was manufactured. 
Output began with about 200 barrels per day, which gradually increased 
until in 1888 the daily capacity of the two mills owned by the Milwaukee 
Cement Company was 4,000 barrels. 

The first officers of the Milwaukee Cement Company, which was 
incorporated in 1875, were J. R. Berthelet, Sr., President; George H. Paul, 
Vice President; John Johnston, Treasurer; Henry Berthelet and Chas. H. 
Orton, Directors. In 1876, J. R. Berthelet, Jr., resigned his position with 
the U. S. Engineer's Office, District of Milwaukee, and joined the company 
as superintendent of manufacture and in charge of construction, in which 
capacity he served for over thirty years. 

About 1890, the Cream City Cement Company was organized, and 
erected a small mill on the Milwaukee River in the vicinity of the Mil- 
waukee Cement Company's plant. The Cream City Company manu- 
factured under the brand of "Cream City" cement, but after a time the 
plant ceased to operate. 

A few years later another Wisconsin cement company was organized 
imder the name of the Consolidated Cement Company. A mill was built 
on the shore of Lake Michigan, north of Milwaukee, where an outcropping 
of natural cement rock was available. Owing to excessive cost of manu- 
facture, the venture was not a success financially, and after a few yesirs was 
discontinued. 

The advent of the rotary kiln was followed by rapid development of 
the Portland cement industry and a corresponding decline in the natural 
cement industry. The Milwaukee district began to feel the effects of the 
change as early as 1905, and in 1909 the Milwaukee Cement Company 
ceased to manufacture natural cement. 

Early Natural Cement Developments in Minnesota, Michigan and Illinois 

Among the early natural cement centers was Mankato, Minnesota. 
Works were established there in 1883, and the locality has been identified 
with the industry since that time. Of the first Mankato plant, Cummings 
says that it was of stone and presented a fine and substantial appearance. 
He adds that the cement rock was of the very best quality, the manu- 
factured product obtaining a strong foothold in the markets of the North- 
west, where it was extensively used in municipal, railway and miscellaneous 
construction throughout several states. Cummings says that the mortar 
from this cement became exceedingly hard and stone-like in character^ 



30 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEAIENT INDUSTRY 



whether above or below water, antl withstood to a remarkable degree the 
effect of alternate freezing and thawing. In 1901 Ihe Mankato cement 
works had a capacity of 1,200 barrels per day. 

Among the well-known manufactm-ers was Patrick Carney, who (Hcd 
some years ago. The Carney Cement Company is still operating at 
Mankato, with H. E. Carney, a son, as president. 

It is said that an attempt to manufacture natural cement was made 
at Trowbridge Dam, on Thunder Bay River, seven miles northwest of 




Kock crushers nowadays weigh as mucli as 450,000 
pounds, or equal to the weight of three steel 
r*ullman cars. 



Alpena, Michigan, in 18GG. Wood was used for fuel. Owing to the poor 
quality of the matei-ial the enterprise was not successful. 

Some of the southern and western plants survived long afterman>in 
the east had been abandoned. For example, N. J. Cary, of Utica, Illinois, 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 81 

until recently actively interested in cement, wrote as follows on June 25, 
1920: 

In 18o8, tlic late Hon. James Clark, of Utiea, La Salle County, Illinois, connnenced 
the manufacture of hydraulic cement here, where it was used in the construction of the 
Illinois and Michigan Canal, and the works have been in continuous operation from that 
time to this. During this period they turned out manj^ million barrels of cement, the 
most prosperous time in that industry being from 1880 to 1906. Of late years the indus- 
try has been almost entirely superseded by the portland cement industry. Utica cement 
is still manufactured here, however, although on a smaller scale. The Utica Hydraulic 
Cement Company succeeded Mr. Clark in the manufacture of cement m 1883, and still 
continues its manufacture. 

While the greater part of this chapter relates to large and important 
natural cement regions and the use of the product in canals and large 
engineering works, successful manufactui'e on a small scale was sometimes 
undertaken to supply local demand for cement. Kensington, Connecticut, 
had a plant of this character, which manufactured for many j^ears, and it 
was said the cement made there showed marked superiority in stucco work. 
Expensive land transportation prevented it from coming into competition 
with the Rosendale cements. The Kensington rock was discovered in 1826. 

Uriah Cummings Traces History of Natural Cement Industry 

In his book published in 1898 under the title of "American Cements," 
tiie late Uriah Cummings, long prominently identified with the cement 
industry, gives an exceedingly valuable and comprehensive history of the 
natural cement industry. The book contains much that would have been 
lost save for his indefatigable industry in collecting and publishing impor- 
tant facts. He relates many interesting incidents connected with the early 
production of natural cement in the United States. As an instance, he 
says that a clergyman. Rev. Charles W. Howard, of Charleston, South 
Carolina, discovered cement rock in 1850 in Cement, Georgia, and associ- 
ated with him in an analysis of the rock was the distinguished chemist, 
St. Julien Ravenel, of Charleston, intimate friend of Professor Agassiz. 
Howard and his son manufactured cement until the breaking out of the 
Civil War. In 1867 Col. George H. Waring, of Savannah, Georgia, took over 
the plant, which operated as the Howard Hydraulic Cement Company. 
Concerning the quality of this cement, which was very superior, plaster 
made from it and applied by Dr. Ravenel to the exterior of his house on 
the Charleston Battery in 1852 remained unimpaired until long after the 
sandstone lintels of the windows had disintegrated. The plaster was still 
intact in 1898. 

Of these old natural cements, Cummings says no other country in 
the world had cement rocks which compaied favorably in any sense with 
those so well distributed throughout the United States. 



32 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

In 1895 he contributed the chapter on natural cement appearing 
in the United States Geological Survey Report. Writing of European 
sources of supply he says : 

No experienced cement manufacturer in America would undertake to produce a 
rock cement from such a mixture of clays, shales, marls, nodules, limestones and cement 
stones. ***** Contrasting these materials with our own massive cement-rock de- 
posits, we find that we have immense beds of cement rock, absolutely free from any 
extraneous substances, perfectly pure and clean, with layer upon layer extending thou- 
sands of feet without an appreciable variation in the proportion of ingredients. Cement- 
rock quarries are worked in this country decade after decade without the necessity of 
rejecting a pound of the material, and the analyses taken during successive years show 
no marked change whatever in the constituent parts. Had England and France pos- 
sessed such cement-rock formations as are so well distributed throughout this country, 
it is extremely doubtful if the production of artificial cement would have been resorted 
to. Under such circumstances there would have been no occasion for it. 

The following table gives the more important discoveries and uses of 
American natural cements in chronological order: 

DISCOVERY AND EARLY USES OF NATURAL CEMENT IN THE 
UNITED STATES 
YEAR LOCALITY CONSTRUCTION 

1818 Fayetteville, N. Y Erie Canal 

1824 WilliamsviUe, N. Y Erie Canal 

1826 Kensington, Conn Miscellaneous 

1828 Rosendale, N. Y Delaware and Hudson Canal 

1829 Louisville, Ky Louisville and Portland Canal 

1831 Williamsport, Pa Muncy and Lock Haven (Pa.) Canal 

1836 Cumberland, Md Miscellaneous 

1837 Round Top, Md Chesapeake and Ohio Canal 

1838 Utica, 111 Illinois and Michigan Canal 

1839 Akron, N. Y Miscellaneous 

1848 Balcony Falls, Va Miscellaneous 

1850 Siegfried's Bridge, Pa Easton and Mauch Chunk Canal 

1850 Cement, Ga Miscellaneous 

1863 Vallejo, Calif Miscellaneous 

1867 Fort Scott, Ivans Miscellaneous 

1869 La Salle, 111 Miscellaneous 

1869 Howe's Cave, N. Y Miscellaneous 

1874 Buffalo, N. Y Miscellaneous 

1875 Milwaukee, Wis Miscellaneous 

1881 Canon City, Colo Miscellaneous 

1883 Mankato, Minn Miscellaneous 

The consumption of some of the cements whose uses are designated in 
the above list as "miscellaneous" was very large, construction including 
many important engineering works other than canals. 

The status of the several natural cement districts at the time maximum 
production was at hand is shown by the following table, published in 1898, 
at which time something like 100 works conducted by 70 different firms 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



33 



or companies were operating in 14 states. AVhile the total in the production 
column differs slightly from that appearing in the large official table cov- 
ering all cements, published elsewhere, it is sufficiently close to show that 
the figures are substantially correct. 



PRODUCTION OF NATURAL ROCK CEMENT DISTRICTS IN 1898 



District 



Rosendale, Ulster County, New York . . 

Louisville, Kentucky and Indiana 

Lehigh Valley, Pennsylvania 

Erie County, New York 

Illinois 

Milwaukee, Wisconsin 

Maryland and West Virginia 

Schoharie and Onondaga District, N. Y 

Kansas 

Minnesota 

Ohio 

Mrginia 

Georgia 

Texas 

Total 



Number 
Concerns 



15 
15 
6 
4 
2 
1 
5 
10 
2 
2 
3 
3 
1 
1 



70 



Barrels 
Produced 



3,500,000 

1,750,000 

750,000 

550,000 

550,000 

475,000 

275,000 

200,000 

140,000 

85,000 

35,000 

20,000 

15,000 

15,000 



8,360.000 



Per Cent 
of Total 



41.9 
20.9 
8.97 
6.59 
6.57 
5.68 
3.28 
2.39 
1.68 
1.02 
0.42 
0.24 
0.18 
0.18 



100.00 



Natural cement production in America from the time the rock was 
discovered by White in 1818, is given in the table on page 72 in conjunction 
with Portland and puzzolan cements. For the figures on early production 
tribute is again due Uriah Cummings. For thirty years he worked assidu- 
ously in collecting, sifting and compiling data not then considered by the 
Government sufficiently important to record, and to him alone is the 
country indebted for the only reliable early natural cement statistics extant. 

Mr. Cummings, who was born at Akron, New York, in 1833, subse- 
quently removed to Stamford, Connecticut, where he died on November 11, 
1910. At the time of his death he was president of the Cummings Cement 
Company of Akron. He was an authority on many questions relating to 
cement and concrete, and for years had charge of Government investiga- 
tions relating thereto. He was a frequent contributor to technical maga- 
zines and other pubhcations on scientific subjects, and the inventor of a 
great many successful mechanical devices. Aside from technical matter, 
he wrote tales, both historical and fanciful, dealing chiefly with the Indians 
of western New York, in whom he was greatly interested. His life repre- 
sented a long period of industry and usefulness. 



CHAPTER 111 
DISCOVERY OF PORTLAND CEMENT 
England the Birthplace of Portland Cement 

Portland cement originated in England. Before its discovery, exten- 
sive manufacture and use of natural cements prevailed in England. Many 
were attempting to improve these natural cements and numerous patents 
were granted. In an account of the development of the natural cement 
industry up to about 1818, Henry Reid, a distinguished English civil 
engineer and author of important works on cement, in his book "Portland 
Cement, Its Manufacture and Uses," published in London in 1877, says: 

All experiments up to this period (1818) ajiparently aimed only at the obtainment 
of a resulting product from the kiln which should, in its leading characteristics, approach 
the quality of lime fresh burnt. Instead of driving the mixture to the point of vitri- 
faction, all operations were so conducted as to studiously avoid such a result, and when, 
by accident, this occurred, the pieces so hardened were carefully rejected as worthless. 

Early Experiments of Aspdin 

This avoidance of vitrifaction, as describ(Ml by Reid, was getting away 
from Portland cement. But in 1824 Joseph Aspdin, an English ]:»ricklayei' 
who had been experimenting since 1811, took out a patent on an improved 
cement which he called portland cement because it resembled in color the 
Isle of Portland building stone. This was his second patent, the fii'st 
covering specifications for "An Improvement in the Modes of Producing 
an Artificial Stone," which patent was pi'actically the first scientific de- 
scription of an artificial portland c(Mnent. 

In his early experiments Aspdin used hard liinestonc^s found near his 
plant, and struggled along for some time trying to make out of these and 
clays something which he thought would ho a hydraulic cement. At this 
time he did not have quite the idea of a poitland cement, but he ultimately 
got it l\y burning his hard limestone at higher temperatures. 

About 1845, there were two strong factions at work in England. On 
one side was John Bazley White, who was making Roman and Frost's 
Cements, theJatter a lightly calcined artificial cement. On \\\v otlier sidc^ 
was WiUiam Aspdin, son of Joseph Aspdin, making poi'tland cement, who, 
after securing some financial backing, came down to the Tiiames district 
and used the soft clay and chalks found there for the manufacture of his 
product, and ultimately formed th(> fii'ni of KoblMns, Aspdin t^- Company. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 3.') 

Concerning preceding experiments and patents of others and th(^ 
patent obtained by Aspdin, Reid writes as follows: 

While all these patentees and other experimenters in England, France and Ciernian y 
were simply seeking, and indeed were apparently satisfied with an artificial hydraulic 
lime, Aspdin went beyond, and gave the grand finish to the whole by his discovery of 
the increased temperature of the kiln, and consequent high specific gravity of the cement, 
now no longer regarded as a simple hydraulic lime. 

This would seem to prove that Aspdin was the first to discover portlan 1 
cement, but further along Reid makes finer distinctions. He says it is 
diflScult to attribute to any one of the numerous experimenters the credit 
of inventing portland cement, but adds: 

We find differences, however, in the value of the assistance rendered at the various 
stages of progress, and Aspdin, although the least distinguished of all of them persevered 
in bringing to our knowledge the importance and, indeed, necessity, of a high temperature 
in the kiln. 

The story of the discovery of portland cement might be dismissed 
with the foregoing account were it not for the fact that discussion of the 
subject was revived in England and in this country in 1911, nearly a cen- 
tury after Aspdin obtained his patent. In June of that year, Isaac C. 
Johnson, of England, who had long been prominent as a manufacturer of 
cement, and who was then well along in his 101st year, wrote to the editor 
of Cement Age, New York, claiming to he the "first manufacturer of a 
cement that would pass the tests of the exacting engineers of British and 
foreign governments." Johnson also says: 

I grant that the name "portland"' is due to Mr. Joseph Aspdin when he took out 
a patent in 1824, but which is no more like the cement that is made today than chalk 
is like cheese. 

Dr. William iNIichaelis, Sr., in a review of the subject published in 
Tonindustrie Zeitung of March 24, 1905, gives great credit to Johnson as 
having "placed the child, so long weakly and helpless, on its feet," and 
says: 

The communications of this eye-witness (Johnson) and an exhaustive study of 
English technical literature, especially of that of the first half of the last century, have 
now led to the certainty that the contention that J. A.spdin was the discoverer of portland 
cement cannot be maintained. 

Old newspapers, circulars, and advertisements reveal incidents relating 
to the early manufacture of portland cement in England that are full of 
human interest. The same jealous rivalries that marked the beginning of 
the industry in the United States prevailed in England, and concerning the 
Aspdins — Joseph, who invented a cement called portland in 1824, and his 
son, William, who also became a manufacturer — simple justice demands 
recording the fact that they kept their compt^titors guessing and on the 



36 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



jump. Even Isaac C. Johnson becomes a most entertaining witness in 
support of tliis statement. In the Building News of London, there was 
pubhshed in 1880 an abstract of a statement prepared by Johnson in that 
year for G. R. Redgrave, British engineer and author of "Calcareous 
Cements," from which the following extracts are taken: 
Mr. Johnson states that about 1845 young Aspdin 

— began work at Rotherhithe in connection with Messrs. Maude & Son on a small 
scale, and did sometimes make a strong cement, but owing to want of scientific method, 
the quality as respects strength and durability was not to be depended upon. 

I was at this time 
(about 1845) manager of the 
works of Messrs. White, at 
Swanscombe, making only 
the Roman Cement, Keene's 
Plaster, and Frost's Cement. 
* *•* My employers, attract- 
ed by the flourish of trumpets 
that was then being made 
about the new cement, de- 
sired to be makers of it, and 
some steps were taken to join 
Aspdin in the enterprise, but 
no agreement could be come 
to, especially as I advised my 
employers to leave the matter 
to me, fully believing that I 
could work it out. 

As I said before, there 
were no sources of informa- 
tion to assist me, for although 
Aspdin had works, there was 
no possibihty of finding out 
what he was doing, because 
the place was closely built in, 
with walls some 20 feet high, 
and with no way into the 
works, except through the 
office. 

I am free to confess that 

if I could have got a clue in 

that direction I should have 

taken advantage of such an 

opportunitj', but as I have 

"^ since learned, and from one 

of his later partners, that the process was so mystified that anyone might get on the 

wrong scent — for even the workmen knew nothing, considering that the virtue consisted 

in something Aspdin did with his own hands. 

Thus he had a kind of tray with several compartments, and in these he had pow- 
dered sulphate of copper, powdered limestone, and some other matters. When a layer 




Swinging hammers in the hammer mill batter the 
rock from the crushers into pieces small 
enough for the preliminary grinders. The im- 
pact sounds like machine-gun fire. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CLEMENT INDUSTRY 37 

of washed and dried slurry and the coke had been put into the kiln, he would go in and 
scatter some handfuls of these powders from time to time as the loading proceeded, so 
the whole thing was surrounded by mystery. 

WTiat then did I do? I obtained some of the cement that was in common use, and, 
although I had paid some attention to chemistry, I would not trust myself to analyze 
it, but I took it to the most celebrated analyst of that day in London, and spent some 
two days with him. What do you think was the principal element according to him? 
Sixty per cent of phosphate of lime! All right, thought I, I have it now. I laid all the 
neighboring butchers under contribution for bones, calcined them in the open air, 
creating a terrible nuisance by the smell, and made no end of mixtures with clay and 
other matters contained in the analysis, in different proportions and burnt to different 
degrees, and all without any good result. 

Thus, according to Johnson himself, Aspclin was a conspicuous figure 
in the cement world at the time — one whose secrets others sought to 
discover. Johnson goes on to describe subsequent experiments which led 
to the production of a good portland cement. 

Another interesting fact is that in 1851, when the first of the great 
expositions was held, there were shown samples of portland cement, and 
Pasley— who was the grandfather of all the ideas concerning hydraulic 
limes — for the first time knew that Aspdin had taken out a patent in 1824 
on what he himself had written about in 1820. 

Engineering records in England contain many accounts of experiments 
with natural and portland cements in the early fifties. The great contro- 
versy that had been going on between the exponents of these rival cements 
ended in a victory for portland cement. Natural cement was eventually 
driven to the wall and the portland cement business became a thriving 
industry in England. 

Having presented impartially the recorded claims of those who aspired 
to the honor of having invented portland cement, it would be remiss not lo 
refer more fully to John Smeaton, the first to rediscover the source of 
hydraulicity in limestone, and who, in this earlier field of endeavor, was 
the greatest figure of his time. 

Dr. Michaelis' publication of 1869 says: 

A century had elapsed smce the celebrated Smeaton completed the building of 
the Edystone Lighthouse. Not only to sailors, but to the whole human race, is this 
lighthouse a token of useful work, a hght in a dark night. In a scientific point of view 
it has illuminated the darkness of almost two thousand years. The errors which de- 
scended to us from the Romans, and which were even made by such an excellent author 
as Belidor, were dispersed. The Edystone Lighthouse is the foundation upon which 
our knowledge of hydraulic mortars has been erected, and it is the chief pillar of modern 
architecture. Smeaton freed us from the fetters of tradition by showing us that the 
purest and hardest limestone is not the best, at least for hj'draulic purposes, and that 
the cause of hydraulicity must be sought for in the argillaceous admixture. 

Contemporaneous with the early technical research of British engineers 
and cement manufacturers was advanced thought along otlior lines, which 



38 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

we, in this day, are likely to icjiurd as altogether modern. As an illustra- 
tion, there is found in Reid's l)ook the following paragraph relating to 
workingmen : 

Before entering on tlie discussion of the various cement-making materials, we are 
desirous of calling attention to the desirabilit\- of inculcation in the minds of the oper- 
atives the advantage, if not the necessity, of acquiring something more than a simple 
external or surface knowledge of the materials passing through his hands, and in the 
conversion of which he ])lays so important a part. ***** jg it creditable in this age 
of intelligence that the operative cement maker while dealing with the simplest of 
minerals should exert only mechanically the aid required of him, and continue debarred 
by his ignorance from appreciating the nature of these materials and the original sources 
from which they are derived. ***** Hard work is made harder when pursued without 
interest. It is the wearisome, uncongenial task that ultimatelj' breaks down the most 
elastic mind. 

This philosophy, which has a thorouglily practical as well as an altru- 
istic side, was proclaimed nearly half a century ago. 

The chronology of important events leading up to the discovery and 
manufacture of portland cement is given by Reid as follows: 

1750 — John Smeaton, who sought a special cement for his own purposes. 

1780 — Dr. Higgins, who was chiefly interested in stucco. 

1796 — Parker. Important discovery of converting the nodules (septaria) found in llie 

London clay. 
1810 — Edgar Dobbs. Contributed to the mechanical knowledge of the subject. 
1818 — Vicat, John, Treusaart and St. Leger, foreign contributors to chemical knowledge. 
1824 — Joseph Aspdin. Experiments revealed importance of high temperatures in kiln. 
1826 — Sir C. W. Pasley. Conducted many important experiments. 
1826 — Frost. The first to erect a factory near London for the manufacture of portland 

cement for construction purposes. 

The manufacture of portland cement found its way to Belgium, where 
Edward Fewer, who had married a daughter of Joseph Aspdin, started its 
manufacture near Antwerp. 

Other countries gradually took up its manufacture, the first plant in 
Germany being the Lossius & Dellbruck plant, established in 1855, near 
Stettin. France also started the production of portland cement, there be- 
ing at Boulogne, one of the largest works in Europe. 

The manufactun^ of portland cement in Euroj)e grew lapidly. 1mi- 
ropean producers began to find nunuMous new usc^s foi- their material in 
sidewalks, Iniildings, artistic const I'uction, docks, etc.; and engine(M-s, famil- 
iar with world prol^lems, soon began to realize the enormous possibilities 
that the development of this lunv material for building construction pos- 
sessed. Con*sequently, along in the early eiglities, Europe began exporting 
Portland cement to Noith and South Amei'ica and to other parts of the 
world. 



CHAPTER IV 
IMPORTED PORTLAND CEMENT IN THE UNITED STATES 
Influence of Post-Civil War on Growth of Portland Cement Industry 

With the. development of the United States after the Civil War, 
construction began to grow rapidly. The building of the great railroads to 
the Pacific had developed large territory and produced great wealth. 

After the Jay Cooke panic of 1873, the country began to reahze the 
financial benefits of reconstruction and of the commercial development 
that took place in the earl\' eighties. It was but natural, therefore, that in 
the desire for more substantial buildings of greater height and larger 
foundations, in the desire for bigger and stronger bridges, in the wish for 
better and more permanent sidewalks and roads, and better work generally 
along artistic lines, that the engineer and the constructor should turn to 
the uses of portland cement in Eui-ope, and that they should seek to obtain 
a wider use of it in this country. 

There had been some importations of portland cement in the United 
States recorded as far back as 1868, but the quantity was insignificant and 
little was known of this then comparatively new cement and its manu- 
facture. The interested student of the material in this country had at the 
time but a single book of reference in the English language, namely, the 
work of Henry Reid, published in London, in 1868. Engineers and builders 
were practically dependent for such information as could be had on portland 
cement upon papers of Grant on the London sewerage system, Bamber 
on various engineering work in England. Beyond this there was only an 
occasional paragiai)h in the technical press telling what could be done with 
Portland cement. 

As time went on, however, the reputation of portland cement abroad 
continued to increase through its growing use in the construction of docks, 
public works, miscellaneous buildings, sidewalks, etc. Through engineering 
publications and the practical knowledge of engineers acquired in Europe 
and who came to this country to engage in various engineering enterprises, 
the reputation and fame of poitland cement spread among American 
engineers and builders. 

Interest was further increased by the rapid development going on in 
the United States following the readjustment period after the Civil War. 
In the construction field this was marked by more pretcmtious buildings, 

39 



40 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



which meant structures of greater height and therefore requiring larger 
foundations, intensive programs of city street improvement, which included 
street paving and sidewalks. The well-known paving contractors of the 
time, among whom were Filbert and Drehman of Philadelphia, the Stewart 

Granolithic Organization 
of New York, Cranford 
of Washington, D. C, 
and a large number of 
their followers, who had 
begun to build concrete 
sidewalks, demanded 
Portland cement for the 
purpose, because of the 
reputation which it had 
already gained as a su- 
perior product. There 
was also a large demand 
from Germany, where it 
was used for concrete 
floors in breweries. 

In 1878 importa- 
tions of Portland cement 
totaled 92,000 barrels. 
From this they grew to 
106,000 in 1879, to 187,- 
000 in 1880, and by 1885 
to 554,000 barrels. In 
1888, which marked the 
end of a ten-year period, 
The centrifugal type of jinndiiig null uses great importations were 1,835,- 
swmgmg rollers, rotating rapidly, to crush the i i 

material between them and the outer die. 504 barrels. 




Importations of Portland Cement Often Came as Ballast 

With these figures in mind, it is a matter of considerable interest in 
connection with the history of the American portland cement industry to 
describe the methods by which this large importation was handled. In 
those early years the usual cargo ship was a wooden sailing vessel. Barques 
or full riggccFships were generally employed. These had no auxiliarj- power, 
and when sailing without regular cargo required ballast of sand, stone or 
other material to stabilize the ship. These vessels differed entirely from 
the liners which carried expensive cargoes from Europe, and which, being 
constructed of steel or iron, had compartments that were filled with water 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 41 

ballast when necessary and discharged when taking on cargo. The vessels 
in the cement-carrying trade were of the type known as tramp cargo ships. 
In most cases they came to the United States to get export cargoes of grain 
or cotton. Such cargoes paid high revenue. Instead of non-paying ballast 
(as there was little inbound paying cargo to this country) they took on 
cement or other heavy material. The result was that freight from European 
ports to this country on cement was very low. In some cases the American 
consignee was not only able to get his cement brought across the Atlantic 
free of charge but was actually paid by the ship as high as ten cents a barrel 
for the unloading of it. This occurred at times when the outgoing grain 
paid such good rates that the tramp ship, in order to take advantage of 
the market, was obliged to get the cargo she had carried over discharged 
rapidly, even if necessary to pay for unloading. 

The points of heaviest importations of foreign cements were New York, 
Philadelphia, Charleston, Savannah, New Orleans, Galveston, and some 
Pacific Coast ports. In the last case, not only did Belgian, German and 
English cements come to the Pacific Coast as ballast for grain ships, but 
also cements from Japan and China. 

As these ships had no regular sailing dates, and because they were 
sailing vessels, had no definitely known time of arrival, the successful 
marketing of foreign portland cement required far-seeing calculations. A 
ship would be loaded in London or Hamburg. Its actual arriving time was 
governed by the elements, and was a most uncertain factor. The cements 
would be consigned to various importers representing the manufacturers, 
and one importer might have a consignment of one brand and another 
importer an equally large lot of another brand, both on the same vessel. 
Thus it became a contest of wits to dispose of the material promptly. 
This had to be done to secure discharge from the ship at the earliest possible 
moment so as to avoid storage, demurrage and other unnecessary expenses. 
The result was that each importer was constantly endeavoring to secure 
orders for shipments to arrive, and when an excess of material would reach 
the harbor on several vessels at the same time, they had to go on the build- 
ing material exchange and find customers who would take it off their hands 
at the earliest possible moment. The business was uncertain as to possible 
profit and sometimes entailed considerable loss. 

Among the Early Importers 

In the early days James Brand, a keen Scotchman, was the importer 
of the best English brands, such as "Knight," "Bevan & Sturge," "Bur- 
ham" and other cements of high reputation. Brand was straightforward 
in his dealings and rigid in his ideals of business methods. His office was 
a model of old-time business methods, accuracy, promptness and care. 



42 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

He dealt not only in portland cement, but was also an importer of hatters' 
furs, asphalt, and other commodities. In later years, he became one of the 
original stockholders in the American Cement Company, at Egypt, 
Pennsylvania. 

Another large importer was Howard Fleming, who handled the "J. B. 
White" brand, and later several German cements. Buoyant, joyous, hope- 
ful, Fleming was always a welcome visitor and had a large following among 
buyers. 

Sinclair & Babson was another firm of importers. Robert S. Sinclair of 
^his firm was a graduate of Mr. Brand's office, wliei-e he had charge of the 
cement importing department. This firm represented for many years the 
great Alsen Company of Germany. Its trading extended all over the United 
States, as its cement was high in favor of heading engineers. Later, when 
the Alsen Company decided to build an American plant on the Hudson 
River, near Catskill, New York, Mr. Sinclair was associated with th(^ 
company in its management. At this writing he is president of the Park 
Commission of Newark, and has conti'ibuted tlic following interesting 
narration : 

My acqiiuintance with pcjitland cement began in 1S71, but i)revious to that time 
the firm of Hammill & Gillespie, 240 Front Street, New York, had been importing port- 
land and Roman cement from England in small quantities, and I fancy were the actual 
pioneers. Their business was in English china elay, fire bricks, chalk, Fullers earth, and 
kindred articles, so it was quite fitting that they should import cement. Their call had, 
however, been more for Roman, than for portland cements and the former was placed 
first upon their sign as being the more important in their estimation. It is refreshing 
and very unusual in business annals in our coimtrv to find that this firm is still engaged 
in the same business at the same address. 

In 1871 I was a sort of lob-lolly boy for the firm of 8. L. Merchant ct Companj', 
ship brokers, at 76 South Street, New York. They had shipping connections in London 
who occasionally loaded vessels with general cargo for New York, consigning the ships 
to Merchant & Company. It was during 1871 that they loaded the ship Asiana in 
London for New York, and bemg unable to obtain sufficient freight to make a full 
cargo, they put on 500 barrels of J. B. White & Brothers portland cement, consigning 
them to S. L. Merchant & Company with instructions to sell them as advantageously as 
possible, credit the ship w'ith freight on them, and remit the proceeds to the London firm. 
Upon arrival of the ship, it was found that little was known about jiortland cement — 
there were no brokers or commission houses through whom it could be sold — and so 
Mr. Merchant tried one clerk after another in his emj)loy to get them to try to sell the 
cement to masons and contractors; but they got out (jf it upon one pretext or another. 
He finally got down to me at the bottom of the list and ordered me to trj- to get rid 
of the cement. When I found thai I was expected to get .S6 per barrel in competition 
with Rosendale*cement selling at about $2, I felt that I was up against the impossible, 
especially as I had not the slightest knowledge of their comparative merits. But I was 
so fortunate as to soon come into contact with a more than ordinarily intelligent mason 
builder, Marc Eidlitz, who kept in touch with developments in building trades in iMirojie, 
and therefore knew something about portland cement. He was desirous of trying some 
of it in w'ork then under way. Tlirough his advice and introduction, I was able to 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 4;-; 

interest others in making small purchases, until finally the entire 500 barrels were sold, 
one sale I remember being to W. T. Klots & Brother, Brookl^'n dealers in building 
materials. I do not know whether that was the first portland cement bought by New 
York dealers in building materials. The net returns for the 500 barrels must have been 
satisfactorjr to the London shippers as other shipments followed and in a short time 
S. L. Merchant & Company began importing on their own account. 

In the meantime, the New York Department of Docks, 1871-72, under the admin- 
istration of Cieorge B. McClellan, Chief Engineer, had perfected plans for building a 
bulkhead wall of portland cement concrete on the North River, but found it impossil)le 
to obtain any dependable quantity of cement m the New York market. One of the 
Dock Commissioners had, as a neighbor, James Brand, a commission merchant having 
a London office, and the Department arranged with him to import the cement for them, 
paying him 5 per cent commission. The brands imported were "J. B. White & Brothers," 
and "Burham," made by The Burham Brick, Lime & Cement Company. 

John J. Schillinger at about the same time obtained a patent for a cement sidewalk 
made with an expansion joint, and learning of the Dock Department's arrangement with 
James Brand, he also arranged with Brand to import cement for him on a commission 
basis. Early in 1873, being dissatisfied with S.L. Merchant & Company's business 
methods, I suggested to James Brand that he could build up a worth-while business in 
importing cement for sale to the general trade, and he at once engaged me to manage 
that department of his business. We imported "J. B. White & Brothers," "Burnham" 
and "K. B. & S." (Knight, Bevan tt Sturge). The business grew rapidly and was contin- 
uously profitable. 

During the first half of the decade 1870-80, my recollection is that only English 
cements were imported with the exception of a French cement brought from Boulogne 
by the Coignet Stone Company of Brooklyn for its own use. In those years the New 
York Department of Docks was practically the only buyer requiring that cement should 
be subject to test. My recollection is that the tests were only two, namely: A tensile 
strength of 250 pounds per square inch after seven days when mi.xed neat, and that 75 
per cent should pass through a sieve having 2,500 meshes to the square inch. Captain 
W. W. Maclay, Assistant Engineer, supervised the tests made by the Department, 
and he probably did more than any one individual in those early years to raise the 
standard of quality in portland cement. 

In the early years, all importations came in sailing vessels, the cement being packed 
in barrels having a gross weight of 400 pounds. Almost eveiy cargo had a portion dam- 
aged by water, owing to leaky ships. Occasionally the damage would amount to a 
large percentage of the entire cargo. Freight from London to New York or Philadelphia 
ran from 25 to 40 cents per barrel, fluctuating according to amount of ship room avail- 
able, occasionall}' dropping as low as 15 cents per barrel. Upon one occasion I brought 
a cargo of 3,000 barrels from Hamburg to New York for the nominal sum of one dollar. 

In 1876 or 1877 German cements began to appear, Dj^ckerhoff, Alsen and Star 
(Stettin), and it was soon discovered that they were of better quality than the English 
cements, being finer ground and of greater tensile strength. There followed a gradual 
discrimination in their favor. When English manufacturers were informed of the 
superiority of German cements, they ridiculed the statement and declined to entertain 
the suggestion that they should institute similar improvements in their own manu- 
facture, saying with characteristic English manner that they were following exactly 
the same methods emplo^yed for the past thirty years and they could see no reason for 
changing. The result was that the English cements ultimately were entirely supplanted 
in this country by German and Belgian brands, the former because of .superior quality, 
the latter because of low price. 



44 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



During- the first decade importation bj- steamer became necessar_v as the demand 
could not be supplied by sailing vessels alone, nor was their time of arrival sufficiently 
dependable. The Alsen Company was the only one so far as I know that attempted 
shipments in bags. A few shipments wore made by steamer to New York in jute gunny 

bags containing 188 
pounds of cement, two to the 
barrel, but they were too 
heavy to be conveniently han- 
dled and the experiment for 
general trade purposes was 
soon abandoned. However, 
the large quantity of Alsen 
cement used by the Florida 
East Coast Railway in build- 
ing the viaduct toward Ha- 
vana, was shipped in bags by 
steamer direct to Key West. 
In that case the cement went 
directly from the steamer to 
the work with the minimum 
of handUng and the bags did 
not meet with serious objec- 
tions, especially as they ef- 
fected a considerable saving 
over cost of barrels. 

The ^Alsen Company was 
the only one, to my knowl- 
edge, to make the experiment 
I if shipping cement in sheet- 
iron drums. They were cheap- 
er to make than a wooden 
barrel but being perfecth' 
straight, without any bilge, 
they were awkward to handle 
and were discontinued. 

During the decade 1890- 
1900 it became evident that 
imported portland cement 
would soon be supj)lanted by our home product, and manufacturers abroad were faced 
with the alternative of giving up their trade and good will in this country or building a 
plant in the United States. The Alsen Company decided to do the latter and on Sep- 
tember 26, 1900, there was filed with the Secretary of State in New Jersey the certificate 
of incorporation of Alsen's American Portland Cement Works, with Heinrich Wessel 
as President; Heiiu-icli Wulf, Vice-President; Herman Baasch, Treasurer; Robert S. 
Sinclair, SecrettTTy. 

The in(!orporators were Heinrich Wessel, Herman Baasch, Heinrich Wulf, Arthur 
C. Babsen and Robert S. Sinclair. Their mill was located on the Hudson River, six 
miles below the town of Cat skill, their property immediately adjoining that of the 
alreadj' established Catskill Cement Company. 




Inteiicr of a ceiiHiit plant jihysical laboratory. 
Men are at work here, night and day, testing 
samples of the raw materials and the finished 
product. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 45 

Importations continued, however, in a small way until the war with Germany 
brought them to an end. Mj' recollection is that importations of all brands never 
exceeded four million barrels in any one j-ear. 

Emile Thiele, a tall, slim, militar}- type of German, controlled the 
importation of the well-known Dj'ckerhoff and other German brands, the 
Hilton English brand, and several Belgian cements. Thiele's office, as well 
as Mr. Thiele himself, convej^ed the impression of German military dis- 
cipline and accuracy. Dependable, S3'stematic, careful marketing was 
evident to every visitor, and Thiele had representatives devoted to him 
personally in all the large cities of the country. Today he is livirg in New 
York the life of the successful retired business man. 

Batjer & Meyerstein also had a large business, as did Charles J. 
Stevens, who represented the Brooks-Shoobridge English cement. 

A very important figure in the importing business, though possibly 
he might better be classed as an exporter, was Charles Zunz, whose head- 
quarters were in Brussels. He was a merchant prince with trade all over 
the world, deahng in cement, steel, plate glass and other Belgian products, 
and importing into his own countrj' grain, oils and other materials from the 
United States and South America. His dealings were marked by unfailing 
courtesy and high sense of business honor. He was characterized by his 
broad view as a merchant, his willingness to take a loss, and his desire, in 
every case, to protect his customers and deal fairly with them. Of him 
Charles Weiler, of the Western Lime & Cement Company. Milwaukee, 
writes as follows : 

He was an ideal salesman, speaking a very precise English, and neither eager nor 
argumentative over portland cement problems, so that I found it a pleasure to deal 
with him. I at once called upon him and found, for the first time, that he was a very 
important plate glass manufacturer, having a large office with about fift}' or sixty 
clerks, every one of them able to speak three or more languages. Mr. Zunz represented 
cement only as a small side issue, and this evidently accounted for his indifferent 
attitude in trj-ing to make cement sales in America. After a pleasant hour's talk he 
volunteered to show me the beautiful Parliament Building opposite the King's Palace, 
across the park, explaining that Parliament was not in session, and, as a stranger, I 
woidd be denied admission. I noticed that the armed guards bowed deferentially to 
Mr. Zunz as he piloted me through halls and splendid rooms; but the reason was not 
evident until we entered the small and richly beautiful Senate Chamber — equivalent 
to the House of Lords in London, as it was reserved for the titled nobility. Then he 
stopped in front of a conspicuous blue-velvet arm-chair, and quietly said: "This is 
my seat." I glanced at the polished plate on the chair arm and saw that it read "Le 
Baron Charles Zunz." At the hotel later I learned that he was one of the wealthiest 
men in Belgium and a Peer of the Realm. He was also a kindh', pleasant, democratic, 
plain citizen, and an honor to the Portland Cement Industry. 

An interesting recollection of man}^ years' dealing with all of these 
importers is how much they were governed in their methods by the manners 
and customs of European business men. In many cases the letters that 



46 HISTOKY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

went out of their office were hand-written by the principals, being copied 
in old-fashioned letter books. The typewriter had great difficulty in 
finding its way into the offices of these great importing concerns. The 
efficiency engineer would have had the door shut in his face, but the 
cfficienc}' was there without the interposition of the engineer. All their 
work was done with accuracy and dispatch, and an unfailing sense of 
responsibility seemed to permeate the atmosphere of their offices, while 
courtesy in conversation and willingness to assist the customer were marked 
characteristics of all business houses of that "old school." 

Of later growth was the firm of Dickinson Brothers & King, composed 
of William and John Dickinson, of Chicago, and Jerome A. King, the latter 
trained in James Brand's office. This firm, of whom some are still engaged 
in the manufacture of portland cement and plaster in this country, was an 
active business concern for many years, and marked the combining of the 
importing interests in the two great centers of cement distribution, namely. 
New York and Chicago. William Dickinson's cheery greetings, his friend- 
liness and business acumen made friends for him everywhere; while King, 
with his long apprenticeship in importation, was most successful at his 
end of the line. 

William Dickinson was actively interested in the sale of the first 
Portland cement used in the Middle West. His story follows and is most 
interesting with respect to other facts: 

In 1873 I was working for the Empire Warehouse Company on Market Sti-eet, 
Chicago, doing a general warehousing business and also acting as agents of a line of 
steamboats plying between Montreal and Chicago. 

In the summer of that year the Montreal managers of the steamboat line running 
weekly between Montreal and Chicago, for which we were the Chicago agents, advised 
us that the boat leaving there being light of cargo, they had purchased for the account 
of the steamer 250 barrels of portland cement which they wanted us to sell on arrival. 
There had never been any portland cement in the West up to that date. After canvassing 
the situation, we were luiable to get anybody to purchase it. Later on we called on 
John V. Farwel], of John V. Farwell Company, wholesale dry goods, and he stated that 
he had just returned from England where he had seen portland cement used in large 
quantities and knew all aJiout it. As he intended soon to erect a building in which lie 
would like to use some cement, he was very glad to purchase it. This was the first 
cement used in the Middle West. Subsequent shipments were received and met with 
incre asing demand. 'I'he first sale in a country town was to John Allen, of Rockford, 
Illinois. He i)urclias<'ci it on the guarantee that a sidewalk laid with it in September 
would be in good condition in the following spring. If so, then to be paid for. Allen 
did a good piece of work, the sidewalk was a success, and led to other sales in that city. 

Thus, with a very small beginning, trade gained rapidly year by year. The concrete 
conduits for cal3l^ car lines in the large cities began to consume thousands of barrels 
in their construction, and there were dealers in various parts of the West who gradually 
began to purchase portland cement of us. Notable among them were Cutler & Gilbert, 
Duluth; L. J. Pettit, Milwaukee; Saunders & Matthews, St. Paul; Thorne & Hunkins, 
St. Louis; C. A. Brockett, Kansas City; llie Sunderland Brothers, (^inaha; McPliec t^v- 
McGinnitv, and Hallock tt Hownrd, of Denver. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 47 

In 1890 to 1892, importations of foreign cement into the United States had reached 
a maximum of about 3,000,000 barrels a year. The arrangements for importations of 
cement were the same as in many other articles. The freight room had to be engaged 
at the beginning of the year for monthly shipments of given (luantities througli the year, 
and cement purchased to fill the space was contracted for at the same time. This made 
the business quite complicated as supplies had to arrive at regular intervals in order to 
make the business anything like permanent. All contracts had to be based upon the 
regular delivery of the material, and thus the non-arrival of ships at stated periods caused 
great difficulty in keeping contracts supplied. 

Inland Transportation Had Its Difficulties 

Cement, as is well known, is a heavy article, and as it was sokl at 
reasonably low figures it can readil}^ be understood that in those early 
days the transportation of portland cement cargoes to the various points 
throughout the country was a serious matter. Railroad rates from the 
coast to the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers and the Central West were high 
and the object of the importer was to get his cement into New York in 
the summer season so that he would be able to avail himself of canal trans- 
portation to western markets at low rates. This necessitated the closest 
management in directing imports, and the greatest cooperation between 
the importer and the canal and lake lines of transportation. Railroad wars 
w^re also prone to exist prior to the days of "gentlemen's agreements" 
and Interstate Commerce control. It was a well-known fact that many rail- 
roads, in order to get this heavy body of freight, would cut rates and make 
figures based upon through transportation across the Atlantic, in order to 
secure an advantage over competing railroads. Salesmen representing the 
importers would go through the central and far West offering their ma- 
terials "to arrive" to the large jobbers and distributors of cement in the 
great cities. 

Salesmanship of this type was a friendly relation. The salesman would 
sometimes spend several days with his prospective customer in order to 
effect a sale and the bonds formed between the importer and his distributor 
were difficult to disturb and were usually lasting. Facilities had to be pro- 
vided with these great distributors to take up large stocks of cement which 
might come in at untimely periods, and which had to be stored and carried. 
These were in some cases necessary at the lake steamship terminals. 
Banking facilities had to be provided to finance the importers and pay the 
freight on materials casually' arriving from time to time in sailing vessels. 
The whole business was one requiring concentrated personal attention. 
It also established close friendships between importers and distributors, 
and led to the upbuilding of an enviable I'eputation all over the country for 
various brands of foreign portland cement. Such a reputation with success- 
ful merchandising, accompanied by the conservatism of the great engineers, 



48 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



built up for the high-grade Enghsh, Belgian, German and French cements, 
proved most difficult to assail when the manufacture of portland cement 
began in the United States. 

The first use of this foreign material, as already stated, was largely 
in sidewalks, a new use in this country, but one in which bad material 
would rapidly show itself, whereas good material not only added to the 
attractiveness of the work but made permanent the improvement under 
way. 

Superior Merit of Portland Cement Begins to Attract Attention 

Specifications for massive foundations for important bridges and 
buildings began to call for portland cement. Construction in winter, where 

Portland cement stood 
the hardships of weather 
better than natural ce- 
ment, was another field 
where engineers demand- 
ed the foreign article. In 
all construction the repu- 
tation of the engineer 
was at stake in the use of 
this higher-priced ma- 
terial, especially in cases 
of greater risk. 

Owing to the diffi- 
culty of overcoming the 
(^arly preference for for- 
eign Portland cement, 
the first manufacturers 
of the domestic product 
learned to look upon the 
Ignited States as a large 
importer of cement and 
the market almost ex- 
clusively confined to the 
foreign brands. 

This production of 
the late eighties was run- 
ning somewhere about 
100,000 barrels a year. 
The fact that Johnson & Wilson, who were selling Saylor's Cement and 
were clever merchants in their difficult field, and Lesley & Trinkle, who 
were first distributors of Saylor's Cement in Philadelphia, and later gen- 




In "wet process" |)l;iiits, water is added at the time 
of the first grinding operation. When this mix- 
ture, or 'jglurry," is fed to the kihis, it has the 
consistency of thick soup. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 49 

eral agents for Giant Cement, had a hard time to make an impression upon 
the market, disclosed a situation practically controlled by the foreign 
cements. 

There was a Builders' Exchange in New York where the dealers from 
New York and the adjacent territory assembled daily. In this market the 
representatives of the American cements just mentioned had to fight their 
way to get orders. New York was essentially a market for the foreign 
Portland because it was there with the minimum of freight ; but in western 
markets the American product began slowly to make its way because of 
slight advantages in price. New York was in most cases a closed book, so 
much so that Robert W. Lesley, in seeking to bring his American cement in 
competition with the successful importers who met him on the Exchange, 
soon acquired the title of ''Crazy Lesley" by which name he passed on the 
Exchange until in later days the "arrival" of the American Portland 
Cement Industry enabled him to remove the adjective from his name. 

To sum up the history of the importations, and the difficulties con- 
nected therewith, Mr. Weiler, previously mentioned, said: 

No longer do we have to hire experts to watch our Custom-House clearances at 
New York or Baltimore or New Orleans and get all razzle-dazzled with ocean freights 
and customs duties and laws of "general averages" and when an ocean-boat is lost at 
sea, not only lose our cement, but have to chip in and help pay for the boat: 

Whereat, in a fierce voice, I praise God that the days of imported portland cements 
have gone glimmering, and that the sales agents problems in handling cement now are 
insignificant compared to the tough old days that we have all outlived! 

All hail! American portland cements! All brands, all mills, everywhere, in the 
best country on earth! 



CHAPTER V 

THE PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES 

How the reputation of portland cement in Europe was first estab- 
lished through its use by the London Sewerage Department reached and 
impressed America, was described in the preceding chapter. As far back 
as 1865 Portland cement was imported into this country and was used 
in a hmited way for sidewalks and for the more difficult types of engineer- 
ing work. Imports were small and there being but little knowledge of it , 
prices were high and the business limited. Rapidly, however, attention 
was called to the material by the steady growth of imports and its general 
adaptability to American engineering re(iuirements. American ingcnuit\-. 
always ready to seek new outlets for its labor and capital, natm-ally soon 
began studying the manufacture of portland cement. 

Pioneers in the Portland Cement Industry in the United States 

The history of an industry very properly begins with some account 
of its founder or foundei-s. In the compilation of data covering the port- 
land cement industry in the United States, the author finds himself 
somewhat in the position of the historians of the British industry who 
essayed to determine the identity- of the man who first manufactui'ed i)()rt- 
land cement. 

Among the pioneer manufacturers of ])ortland cement in this country 
were David O. Saylor, Allentown, Pennsylvania; Thomas JMillen, Soutii 
Bend, Indiann. and John K. Shinn, Wampum, Pennsylvania. 

David O. Saylor the First Successful Manufacturer 

In the chapter on natural cements, a description was given of the 
early development of the natural cement industry in the Lehigh Valley, 
and of the men who had to do therewitli. Of these David O. Saylor was 
referred to as a leadei-. In dealing wit li t lie pioneers of the portland cement 
industry in the United States, Sayloi- again becomes prominent as the 
first and foremost in this fi(>l(l. lie was a farm boy, wlio came into Allen- 
town from the neighl)oring countrysid(\ Lie began business in a small 
way and ultirhatcly, in connection with Rehrig and Woolever, purchased 
property on the Lehigh River above Coplay station on the Lehigh Valley 
Railroad, where he started the niaiuifactuic of natural cement, known 
commercially as 'Anchor Brand." 

■^0 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 51 

Saylor's Early Experimentation 

As one of the men who developed this business, it was but natural 
that the same imagination, courage and determination that brought suc- 
cessful development of these experiments into practical results should go 
on seeking further and wider fields. After several years of work in the 
small mill first built, Saylor, who had become familiar with the imported 
Portland cement, was convinced that he could manufacture a similar 
article. His first idea was that he could take the natural rocks of the 
Lehigh district, burn them at high temperatures to incipient vitrifaction 
and by grinding the product make portland cement. The particular 
characteristics of the Lehigh rocks, which were high in lime, low in mag- 
nesia, and low in iron, made this almost possible. The rocks were laminated 
and not crystalline like the other natural cement rocks found in many other 
parts of the United* States. They were, as stated, low in magnesia and 
iron content and in some of the layers did nearly approach the composition 
of the English and German portland cements in the condition in which 
the "slurry," or raw mix, was put into the kilns for calcination. 

The first results of the work in the field mentioned justified Saylor's 
expectations. The rock did clinker, the burned product did resemble port- 
land cement clinker, and when ground and made into briquettes gave 
results on the testing machine almost equal to the best imported brands. 
He naturally thought that he had solved the problem, and in 1871 applied 
for a patent which is as follows: 



Saylor's Patent 
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 

David O. Saylor, of AUentown, Pennsylvania. 

Improvement in the Manufacture of Cement. 

Specification forming part of Letter."? Patent No. 119,413, dated September 26, 
1871. 

To All Whom It May Concern : 

Be it known that I, David O. Sailor, of AUentown, in the County of Lehigh, 
State of Penn.sylvania, have invented a new and improved cement; and I do hereby 
declare that the following is a full, clear, and exact description thereof, which will enable 
others skilled in the art to make and use the same. 

I have discovered that some kinds of the argillo-magnesian and also argillo- 
calcareous limestone found along the Appalachian range, containing more or less car- 
bonate of lime, magnesia, silica, alumina, iron, salts, and alkalies adapted to the purpose, 
and which are now extensively used in the manufacturing of hydraulic cement, will 
make, when burned to a state of incipient vitrifaction, so as to be agglutinated, warped, 
or cracked, by contraction, and some burned to cinders, a ver\' superior and heavy 
hydraulic cement, weighing from one hundred and ten pounds to one hundred and 
twenty pounds per bushel, and in every resj^ect equal to the portland cement made in 
England and imported into this country. 



52 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

The ordinary cement now in our market such as Rosendale, Coplay, and other 
American brands, are burned with the least possible degree of heat. The stage of cal- 
cination is arrested before it fuses or is contracted; should any of it do so it is thrown 
awaj' as worthless. This cement weighs seventy to ninety pounds per bushel. I propose 
to burn this stone to the condition above indicated. After this calcination a selection 
is made and the pulverulent and scarified portions of the mass are picked out and 
thrown away. The remainder is then passed through a crusher; then through a mill 
consisting of ordinary sand, or buhrstone. The manufactured material is then placed 
in a layer of from two to three feet thick over the floor of a cool shed and left exposed 
to the air for about four weeks before it is fit to use. 

The stone which I use for the purpose contains the same ingredients as the com- 
position used for making portland cement, and the products cannot be distinguished 
from each other except by treatment. 

Having thus described my invention, I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters 
Patent — ■ 

1. The process of making hydraulic cement from argUlo-magnesian and argillo- 
calcareous limestone, substantially as herein specified and described. 

2. As an improved article of manufacture, hydraulic cement produced from argillo- 
magnesian and argillo-calcareous limestone, substantially as herein specified and 
described. 

David O. Saylor. 
Witnesses : 

Edwin Albright 
Augustus Weber 

It will be noted that in one paragraph he states that "the stone which 
I use for the purpose contains the .same ingredients as the composition 
used for making portland cement, and the products cannot be distinguished 
from each other except by treatment." This certainly was a progressive 
and far-reaching step in the pioneer days of the American portland cement 
industry. Saylor, full of vigor and energy, was constantly at the mill, al- 
ways seeking to make more cement and cement of better quality. He 
manufactured a large quantity of his new product, but suddenly found 
that he was doomed to disappointment, for the material, owing to irregu- 
larities in the laminae of the rock, was not homogeneous and at long periods 
the briquettes, pats and works made with the cement all began to fail and 
disintegrate. At that time he had a large stock of this cement in his bins 
and was driven to liis wits ends to know what to do with it. He put his 
brains to work, had analyses made of his rock, found that the analysis of 
his manufactured material was nearly that of the portland cement of 
commerce, an^rwithout anything but his native ability to guide him, ex- 
perimented again by grinding the raw rock into powder, made the powder 
into brick, built vertical dome kilns upon designs he procured from Eng- 
land, following the type then in use on the Medway and Thames, burned 
the brick therein to clinker, and actually made portland cement. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



53 



Pennsylvania Geological Survey Investigates Lehigh District 
Cement Making Materials 

At about that time the Pennsylvania Geological SurV-ey had made a 
number of examinations into the limestones of the Lehigh District to 
determine their quality for use in iron making in connection with the rich 
hematite iron ore of the Ironton region, just back of the Lehigh River at 
Hokendanqua and Coplay. While the geological surveys were made by 
the engineer of the state, 
the analyses were made 
at Lehigh University by 
John W. Eckert, then a 
student at that college. 
Immediately after his 
graduation Mr. Eckert 
was selected by Mr. 
Saylor as his chemist 
and assistant in the oper- 
ating of the Coplay Ce- 
ment Company. Eckert, 
a typical Lehigh County 
youngster, full of re- 
sources and ability, was 
a most valuable assistant 
to Saylor in his work, 
furnishing the technical 
knowledge that Saylor's 
manufacturing experi- 
ence required. He had 
also marked executive 
abiht.y. It is believed 
that his employment as 
a chemist was the first 
step in scientific progress 
in the port land cement 
industiy in the Ignited 

States. After Eckert entered the employ of the company he came to 
look at the bins of damaged cement which Saylor then had on hand. 
Taking lumps of the material, which had by this time hardened in the bins, 
he suggested that the material, originally in the form of powder and now 
homogeneous and uniform, could, by burning it a second time to chnker, 
be ground and made available. The result was that the entire contents 
of the bins were ground and burned in the way suggested, with excellent 
Portland cement as the result. 




In "dry process" plants, moisture in the raw ma- 
terial is evaporated in rotary dryers. 



54 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

The combined efforts of these two men were very important to the 
industry in its early daj^s, as the chemical knowledge of Eckert thrcnv new- 
light upon the material in the quarr}^ and enabled the composition to be 
kept regular and uniform, with the result that the manufactured product 
was Portland cement of the best quality. 

In the sale of the Coplaj- Company cements, Saylor hatl associated 
with him the firm of Johnson & Wilson, of New York, who have alreadj' 
been mentioned, and who made successful progress in the introduction of 
American portland cement. Saylor was also associated with the firm of 
Lesley & Trinkle. of Philadelphia, of which Robert W. Lesley was a mem- 
ber, and which likewise was most energetic in the development and sale of 
the natural and portland cements made by the Coplay Company. John W. 
Trinkle of this firm was popular with all the large contractors and a most 
successful salesman. 

Growth of Saylor's Cement Business 

LTnder the name of "Saylor's Portland Cement" the material described 
by the foregoing patent found a sale all over the Ignited States on engineer- 
ing work of the largest kind, and received an award at the Centennial 
Exhibition, in Philadelphia in 1876. In December of the same 3'ear General 
Gillmore, then of the U. S. Engineer's Office, New York, recommended 
Saylor's portland cement as entirely trustworthy, and in 1878 the govern- 
ment specified it for the Eads jetties at the mouth of the Mississippi. Some 
years after the jetties were completed Major Eads spoke of it as portland 
cement of the best cjuality. 

Through the firm of Lesle}' & Trinkle, which in 1874 began the ship- 
ment of natural cement in bulk to tidewater from the Cumberland cement 
works, the Coplay Cement Company was induced to do the same thing 
with its natural and portland cements; and for many years both Johnson 
& Wilson and Lesley & Trinkle had large packing houses in Jersey City and 
Philadelphia respectively, to which the cement was brought in l)ulk from 
the mills and there repack(Mi in second-hand barrels which had come from 
the Rosendale and other mills shipping by water and which, thei-efore, had 
no means of getting the barrels back. These barrels, then a waste pioduct . 
were bought up at low prices, and in times of shortage were supplemented! 
by second-hand barrels from other sources available in the two cities. 

The (3oi^y Cement Company was a close and compact organization 
composed of Saylor, Rehi'ig and Woolever, the owners, with Ralliet, foim- 
erh' a cashier in a bank in All( ntown, as treasurer, and Eckert as J^upei- 
intendent. With the two firms of sales agents, they were quick to i(>alize 
the importance of the industry that had been started, and for a number 
of years conducted without much competition a very successful and pi'os- 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 55 

porous lousiness, which played an important part in the developmont of 
the industry in this country. 

Thus early records appear to substantiate the claim that Saylor was 
file first American manufacturer to pat(>nt and produce on a commercial 
scale a pi'oduct correspondino- to the imported portland cement. 

How Millen Began 

In 1871, Thomas Millen and his two sons were engaged in the 
manufacture of cement sewer pipe, artificial stone, sidewalks, etc., 
at South Bend, Indiana. How they became interested in ])ortland 
cement was the subject of an entertaining after-dinner address 
delivered by Duane Millen, one of the sons, at a meeting of the Portland 
Cement Association in Atlantic City in 1906. 

The first car of portland cement brought into SouthBendby theMillens 
cost them $9.12 a barrel. They often talked about portland cement but 
could not find out how it was made. One day, while Duane Millen was 
sitting in the office, a man entered and apologized for the intrusion by 
stating that he had seen something in the yard which made him think of 
home. He explained that it was a pile of empty cement barrels with the 
old K. B. & S. (Knight, Bevan & Sturge English cement) labels on them. 
He went on to say that he had worked for this company all his life and to 
see the old barrels was like meeting someone from home. He asked Mr. 
Millen why he did not make his own cement, adding that he had seen plenty 
of marl near South Bend. The marl around the lakes at Notre Dame and 
the blue clay in the river bed were the materials to use, he said, but he 
could not tell how to use them, having worked continuously in a single de- 
partment in the English plant. He had heard of a book describingthe proc- 
ess of manufacturing portland cement, but did not know where it could }>e 
obtained. Finally the Millens located the book through a Philadelphia 
house, which obtained it for them at a cost of $14. After studying the book 
the elder Millen would go out to Notre Dame Lakes and bring back two 
pails of marl in his buggy, and a {)ail of blue clay from the St. Joseph 
River. They were taken to the cement jjipe shop where his son Duane 
would mix them with his hands and burn the mixtiu'e in a piece of sewer 
pipe. After burning the mixture, the clinker in the pipe, when any could 
be found, was ground in a coffee mill. 

After six months of experiment and research the Millens felt that 
they knew all there was to know about making portland cement; so they 
leased an old sawmill and built a kiln believed to be large enough to meet 
the entire cement requirements of the United States. It was 12 feet high 
by 4 feet in diameter. They continued building kilns each year until they 
had four, each 24 by 6 feet. In a few years demand far exceeded supply, 



56 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



the War Department alone taking virtually the entire output. Yearly 
contracts were made with the government for all the cement manufactured. 

In 1886, Duane Millen built works at Warner, New York, later known 
as the Empire Portland Cement Works, which was operated in conjunction 
with the old South Bend plant. In 1891, the Millens sold both plants and 
two years later engaged in manufacture at Wayland, New York. 

Thomas Millen, who was born at Camillus, New York, died at his 
home in Syracuse on January 27, 1907, aged 75lyears. Prior to going to 




A battery of rotating steel cylinders loaded with steel balls do much of the fine grindii-p; 
in modern cement plants. These grinders have superseded the millstones used in the 
early days. 



South Bend, Indiana, where he began the manufacture of portland cement 
as described, Mr. Millen was a member of the firm of M. G. Field & Com- 
pany, which conducted a stone and sewer pipe plant in Syracuse. 

The ruins of the old Millen kilns as they appear on page 9 show the 
primitive character of these initial undertakings when compared with 
the modern cement plant. Their crumbling walls with grass-grown 
approaches have passed into the realm of things historic, but insofar as 
the requirements of that early period were concerned, they were quite as 
important as the cement mill of today. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 57 

The Work of John K. Shinn 

Another important early portland cement plant was that erected 
about 1875 by John K. Shinn, at Wampum, Pennsylvania. Some have 
claimed that it was in this plant the manufacture of American portland 
cement first took place. 

Before the manufacture of portland cement began at Wampum, the 
Wampum Mining & Manufacturing Company was in operation there. John 
K. Shinn was secretary and treasurer of the company, which was succeeded 
by the National Cement Company and later by the Crescent Portland 
Cement Company. After years of experiment, Mr. Shinn began, in 1874, 
to manufacture portland cement, but without entire success. Sometimes 
a good product would be produced and at other times failure would result. 
He advertised for an experienced cement maker and finally employed Wil- 
liam Pucall, of Cincinnati. Mr. Pucall worked earnestly, putting in days 
and nights at a stretch. He erected a kiln, or furnace, with which he 
succeeded in obtaining a portland cement of uniform quality. It was ex- 
hibited at the Centennial Exhibition held in Philadelphia in 1876, and 
the firm was awarded a gold medal by the United States Centennial Com- 
mission. Associated with Mr. Shinn at the time were W. P. Shinn, presi- 
dent of the company, and Joseph Shinn, superintendent. 

In the beginning many difficulties were encountered and the methods 
employed were very primitive. For example, in the reduction of clinker 
a groove conforming to the outline of a box was cut in a flat rock and into 
this was fitted the box in which the burnt clinker was placed and pounded, 
or pulverized. This was done by means of a heavy car axle with the end 
stove up, the axle suspended from a spring pole such as is used in drilling 
small wells. This crude process preceded the use of modern mills. Hav- 
ing no apparatus for crushing or grinding limestone, a carload of material 
would be sent to Leetonia, Ohio, where it would be crushed and sent back 
to Newport, near Wampum, and taken to a sawmill in which the owner 
had rigged up a set of chopping buhrs. The limestone was run through 
these buhrs and ground as fine as possible, and then brought down to 
Wampum. 

Under Mr. Shinn's plans, Mr. Pucall built a square kiln of fire brick, 
six or seven feet outside measurement and about eight feet high, the walls 
about a foot thick. The chimney was at one side of the top and a firebox 
was placed at the bottom of the kiln. The lime was mixed in certain pro- 
portions with a blue clay found nearby. The clay and limestone, finely 
ground, were mixed together wet. This mixture was shaped in fire brick 
molds, the material being taken to a brick yard for that purpose, where 
the bricks were dried on a hot floor. They were then brought back and 
placed in the kiln with alternate layers of coke, and burned. After burn- 



58 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



ing, the brick were shipped to Cunningham's foundry in Newcastle, Renii- 
sj'lvania, where they were ground on a set of buhr stones. 

On November 1, 1878, Mr. Shinn, whose residence was given as New- 
castle, Lawrence County, Pennsylvania, took out a patent on an improved 
method of burning lime and cement by means of a mechanical device de- 
signed to inject a forced draft into the lower part of the kiln. In the first 
or burning stage, combustion was promoted thereby and later cooling of 
the kiln contents expedited. 

The Old Alamo Works 

Texas was among the pioneer states in port land cement manufacture, 
the first plant established there being the Alamo Portland and Roman Cement 




Original kilns used by the Alamo Cement Company, San Antonio, Texas, now a Mexi- 
can Village in Unifkcnrifljic Park in that city. 



Company's woilcs at San Antonio. The following interesting history of this 
company was contributed ])y C. Bainnbcrgcr, i)resid(>nt of the San Antonio 
Portland Cement Company : 

In 1879 William Loyd, an Engli.sliniaii who liad liad some experience in cement 
making in his native country, was hunting in the northern limits of San Antonio when 
he came acro.ss the rock quarries belonging to the city. There he found a blue argilla- 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



59 



ceous limestone which he believed was cement rock. At the suggestion of W. C. Peters, 
engineer, and one of the proprietors of the Alamo Ice Company, a specimen of the rock 
was submitted to George H. Kalteyer, who had been an assistant in the laboratory of 
Dr. Frisenius, of Wiesbaden, Germany, the latter having been employed in the late 
sixties to investigate cements for the German government. Mr. Kalteyer made an anal- 
ysis of the rock and pronounced it natural cement rock, containing about the correct pro- 
portions of lime and clay to make a true portland cement. Thereupon iVIr. Loyd and 
W. R. Freeman, a hydraulic engineer and designer of several waterworks in Texas, 
conducted experiments in the way of burning. With the financial and technical assist- 
•ance of Mr. Kalteyer they organized a company for the manufacture of hydraulic 
cements, and on January 15, 1880, the Alamo Portland and Roman Cement Company 
was incorporated. The capital stock of the company was only $3,100, divided into 124 
shares with par value of 125 per share. The city was forbidden by its charter to sell 
the quarries, so the companj^ leased them for a period of five years. The original incor- 




A municipal sunken garden and Japanese lily pond in Brackenridge Park, San Antorio, 
Texas, originally a quarry attached to a cement plant. From this quarry, in 1879, 
the first material was taken and manufactured into portland cement in this dis- 
trict. Note the chimnej' of the Schoefer kiln in the left background. 



porators were William Loyd, George H. Kalteyer, B. J. Mauermann, F. V. Weise, and 
W. E. Jones; Messrs. Kalteyer, Mauermann and Loyd being elected president, secretary 
and superintendent, respectively. 

The mill was a timber affair and quite small. The equipment consisted of a small 
Blake jaw cru.sher, a pair of rolls and a vertical French buhr mill. A small .'ilide-valve 



60 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

engine, whose fly-wheel had wooden spokes and a rim of cast iron, furnished the power. 
The plant had a capacity of about ten barrels per day, the companj- endeavoring to 
follow European practice bj'^ grinding to a fineness of 5 per cent residue on a No. 50 
cloth. All the cement was bolted and the rejection from the bolt sent back to the buhr 
mill. Fuel was hauled to the mill and the finished product hauled back to the city, the 
plant being three miles from the nearest railroad. The mill was a three-story affair. 
Seasoning took place on the two upper floors, where the cement was spread in layers of 
six to nine inches. It was then stored in wooden bins on the first floor. Tests for sound- 
ness were pretty much as in this day, but nothing was known about the boiling test, 
the cold water test being used to determine soundness. The result was an occasional 
shipment of "green cement." The mill was adjacent to the county poor house and the 
promoters of the enterprise were encouraged by their friends with the suggestion that 
when they got through they "wouldn't have far to go." 

Burning consisted of the customary practice of that day, namelj-, alternate laj'ers 
of fuel and rock, coke being used as fuel. It required about a week to burn a kiln, pro- 
duction amounting to about 120 barrels of cement. The product was hand-picked. 
That portion which had clinkered was classed as portland cement and the balance was 
used for making natural cement, caUed Roman cement. Lime burning and the sale of 
building stone aided the companj^ to a precarious existence. The business expanded, 
however, and at the close of 1881 extensions were made and another kUn was installed. 
The capital stock was increased to $10,000 and the company charter amended to read 
Alamo Cement Company. When sales finally reached about a thousand barrels per 
year enthusiasm supplanted anxiety, the company feeling that it was among the largest 
cement producers of the world. For Roman cement the company received about $18 
per ton, and $22.50 per ton for portland cement in bulk. The cement was packed in 
the "Stark A Seamless" cotton bags, for which an extra charge of twenty cents each 
was made, and in billing the cement the following printed slip was attached: 

Sacks — Sacks containing cement will be charged for at . . . . cents each, but if 
returned in good order inside of ... . days from date of invoice, at our office or works, 
free of expense, we will refund four-fifths of the price charged. 

Alamo Cement Co. 

The kilns used for burning cement were also used for burning Mme. Cement 
burning was an occasional operation, the sale of lime and building stone being the chief 
business of the company. 

It was difficult to introduce the new product, and in self-defense the company 
went into sidewalk construction to show the utility of cement for this purpose. Newlj^-laid 
walks would be covered with planks, ostensibly for purposes of protection, which enabled 
the company to make secret inspections to determine the stabilitj' of their product. 
A proud day in the history of the company marked the receipt of a high testimonial 
from General Q. A. Gillmore concerning the good quality of Alamo cement. Matters 
progressed, and in 1889 the faciUties of the plant were materially increased. Eventually 
a rotary kiln was purchased, powdered coal being used for fuel. In 1901, when oil was 
discovered in Texas, it was substituted for coal as fuel. By 1908 demand for cement had 
so increased that the old mill was inadequate to meet the situation, and finally the com- 
pany was incorporated as the San Antonio Portland Cement Company, and erected a 
new plant of much larger capacity. 

Mr. Kaltcycr, who was so prominently identified with the early his- 
tory of the company, was taken ill during a visit to Europe, and upon his 
return died under an operation, in Philadelphia, on August 4, 1897. Plans 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 61 

for improvements acquired by him while abroad were carried out by Mr. 
Baumberger. 

Mr. Baumberger entered the employ of the original company in 1880 
as a bookkeeper, subsequently becoming manager, secretary, and, in 1897, 
president of the company. 

The original quarries and factory site of the old Alamo Company have 
been converted by the city into public gardens, which now constitute one 
of the chief attractions of San Antonio. 

In these days of restricted hours of labor and time-and-over-time 
perquisites, it is interesting in the way of personal reminiscence to state 
that Mr. Baumberger received as bookkeeper of the company a salary of 
$10 per month. The office of the company was in a drug store, from the 
proprietors of which he received the additional munificent compensation 
of $30 a month for keeping books. He also made collections and handled 
the cash, frequently covering afoot the three miles between the office and 
mill. 

American Cement Company Among the Pioneers 

Another pioneer Eastern plant was that of the American Improved 
Cements Company, later on the i^merican Cement Company, with works 
at Egypt, Pennsylvania. Robert W. Lesley was one of the founders of this 
company. The story of his initiation into the mysteries of cement manu- 
facture and the subsequent development of his company is told in his own 
words : 

In 1874 John W. Trinkle and I were clerks in the advertising oflRce of the Phila- 
delphia Public Ledger. Among mj' duties was the collection of accounts from the 
stationers who sold the paper to their customers, and in that way I became quite familiar 
with "Stratena" and similar cements used for sticking together porcelain, wood, and 
like materials. 

In the summer of that year my mother, Mrs. James Lesley, was visiting her 
brother, Dr. Thomson, near Cumberland, Maryland. She wrote me from there that 
my uncle had financial interests at stake in a Cumberland cement works threatened 
with failure, and asked whether I could sell some of their cement, which their Baltimore 
agent was unable to take on contracts he had made. With the courage of youth and 
the supposed knowledge I had of cement, I at once wrote her to send some on and I 
would take care of it. 

Time passed, and a few weeks later I received a bill of lading from the Clyde Line 
of steamships advising me that 200 barrels of cement were on hand at their dock at the 
foot of Market Street and had to be removed within twenty-four hours, and that $176 
freight charges must be paid that day. This was a knock-out blow to my finances and 
to my idea of being a dealer in "sticky" cement. I went to the dock, looked at the 200 
nice new barrels, and saw there more cement in a single minute than I have seen since 
in a career covering the sale of many millions of barrels. 

Persuading the savings bank where I had my small capital to waive the ten-days' 
notice, I was able to pay the freight and through the assistance of a contractor, whose 
office rent I also collected, I was able to move the material to his yard on Broad Street, 
Philadelphia. These details having been disposed of, and having secured information 



62 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



from the manufacturers as to what cement was and what it could be used for, I opened 
my heart to Trinkle, who was my senior in the office, and a confidant, and told him of 
my distress and trouble. Trinkle, who had a large vocabulary, promptly asked me: 
"What the hell is cement?" I replied that it was used for building. "Can it be used on 
bridges?" asked Trinkle. "Yes," I said. He then explained that a political friend of his 
had been instrumental in securing for a contractor the large bridge over the Schuylkill 




Rotary kilns such as these are as long as a twenty-story building is tall and, in u.se, 
weigh as much as the Twentieth Century Limited. Below are the clinker coolers. 



River at Callowhill .Street, and he thought he could help us. 1 said: "All right, whatever 
we get 3'ou get half." A letter of introduction from the politician to the contractor 
enabled me to sell 10,000 barrels the second day we were in business, and the sale was 
due to the fact that we introduced a new method, that of bringing the cement in bulk 
from the mills and getting the contractor to give us back the empty barrels for nothing, 
which enabled us to sell under the price of Rosendale cement, brought down in barrels 
from the Hudson River. 

Thus was formed the cement firm of Lesley it Trinkle, in wliicli, witli the modesty 
of 3'outh, I made myself the senior partner. 

We brought many thousands of barrels of cement from Cumberland on this and 
other contracts, but when the freights were advanced we had to seek other manufac- 
turers and found a good and substantial friend and backer in Saylor, of the Coplay 
Cement Compairr', from whom we later bought manj- hundreds of thousands of barrels. 
Here, too, we employed the same method of handling cement, bringing it down in bulk 
to our packing house and putting it into second-hand barrels, and then delivering it 
on the job. 

This connection led to our first experience with American portland cement, when 
we began to handle in a small way Saylor 's portland, though before that time we had 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 63 

received several shipments of foreign portland through James Brand, of New York. 
My recollection of those early days — and I am sure Trinkle's was the same — was that of 
two young men working about eight or nine hours a day for the Public Ledger and then 
working seven or eight hours a daj' more in the cement business, seeing customers bj' 
night, going to our packing house and storehouse, then at Front and Noble Streets, in 
the early morning, and then meeting again at lunch for a discussion of our business and 
its many problems. 

Whenever opportunity offered I read Henry Reid's celebrated book on portland 
cement, which, fortunatelj-, came to hand for review while I was on the Ledger staff. 
This great work was not only helpful but a stimulus to the novice, and I went through 
it again and again, acquiring a great deal of practical information and avoiding many 
mistakes in after j^ears. Incidentally, this was the book that inspired Millen in his 
early efforts at South Bend, Indiana. 

In those days our principal competitors were the great Philadelphia firms of Samuel 
H. French & Company, still active in the sale of cement, and J. Campbell Harris & 
Company, who had large plaster mills at Delaware and Fairmount Avenues. Our office 
was around the corner, at Front and Noble Streets, and we had many scraps with Mr. 
Harris over purchases and sales and over customers that we both sought. 

When J. Campbell Harris decided to go out of business in the early eighties, he 
sent for us and told us that he had selected us to go on with his business, then one of the 
largest in Philadelphia. We explained that we had no money, but he Avas set in his 
determination, and finally, on a shoestring deposit of a thousand-dollar government 
bond, we leased his property and purchased his stock, agreeing to pay for it as we took 
it and to maintain always the deposit of $1,000 intact in his hands. The result of this 
was to give us a large standing in the trade and to supplement the good will that we had 
already earned among the contractors of Philadelphia and vicinity. Our natural cement 
trade increased largely, as we were thus enabled to store large quantities of Rosendale 
cement which arrived at the dock by water, and were enabled to broaden our importation 
of the foreign portland cement, which was then establishing a trade in this country. 

About this time, through my association with government officers and contractors 
in Washington, I became acquainted with E. J. DeSmedt, who was then the inspector 
of asphalts and cements for the District of Columbia, and who was also running the 
Laboratory of the District, on 4/^ Street, Washington. DeSmedt, a Belgian, was a 
scientist in asphalts and limestones, and a trained chemist. At that time I was connected 
with the Cumberland Portland Cement Company and became interested in some 
inventions that DeSmedt had worked out to make slow-setting natural cement at the 
Cumberland works. 

Later on DeSmedt, who was famihar with tars and oils through his connection with 
the asphalt industry, invented a process for manufacturmg portland cement whereby 
great economies were to be effected. The method of manufacturing in Europe was to 
take the mixture of clay and chalk and permit it to settle in backs or vats until, by 
evaporation and decantation, it became dry enough to handle. This material was then 
put around the stacks of the vertical intermittent kilns and permitted to dry, and finally 
was put in the kilns in layers with coal. Desire to avoid this expensive way of making 
cement and to save on the labor was the moving element in DeSmedt "s invention. The 
great difficulty in all the American enterprises .seemed to be getting the raw material 
into powder, then into paste, then into bricks or blocks, then putting it into the kiln, 
all with sufficient economy in view of the much higher cost of labor m this country than 
in Europe. Consequently, DeSmedt's patent, which was tor the mixing of liquid hydro- 
carbons with the paste, was a step in aflvance. In this way a slurry was made which, 



64 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

when compressed into balls or eggs, could at once be put into the kiln, dispensing with 
many of the intermittent steps of drying, thus saving much labor and money. 

I made a number of experiments in a small kiln with the process above described, 
making the mixes with my own hands, manipulating the material to be made into 
briquettes until holes were burned in my fingers by the lime content, and finally suc- 
ceeded in making what stood the test of portland cement. 




After the white-hot clinker leaves the rotarj- kilns it is generally passed through smaller 
rotating cylinders to cool. 

Following these experiments, which I thought had solved the problem, I got John 
W. Eckert, of the Copla}' works, to test in a small 10-foot kiln, a charge of bricks made 
with liquid hydro-carbon, to determine the value of the process. The result was a failure, 
for instead of finding powdered cUnker when we opened the kiln in the morning, we 
found that the bricks had squashed and softened and instead of cement clinker there 
was a mass of choked bricks and dust where the draft of the kiln had been unable to 
penetrate and proper burning had not been possible. 

This led to an invention for making the material in a solid state whereby it could 
be handled easily and the proper draft in the kiln secured. 

By the purchase of the Loiseau patents and the Loiscau press, which had been used 
in making artificial coal at the dock of the Reading Railroad in Philadelphia, a method 
was secured by which hard lumps of cement-making material mixed with liquid hydro- 
carbon in the shSpe of small eggs were manufactured at the rate of 100 tons a day and 
delivered automatically from the machine to the kUn. This apparatus was originally 
erected in a building in the back of the warehouses at Fairmount and Delaware Avenues, 
and all stone was brought down from the Coplay Plant and from other quarries in the 
Lehigh District. For many months the manufacture of portland cement was conducted 
by means of these eggettes, which were subsequently calcined in a small kiln and ground 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 65 

to impalpable powder. This cement proved successful commercially, in a small way, 
and shortly thereafter it was determined to build a plant. 

I started out on various explorations, both geographical and geological, going first 
up the Schuylkill Valley to Reading on foot with a well-known geologist, but found no 
available material with the proper economic possibilities. I walked over the region 
between Bedford and Cumberland, but turned it down on account of the geographic 
location with reference to markets. Finally I walked from Campbell Hall, New York, 
down the Delaware to Martins Creek, Pennsylvania. At that time there was no bridge 
and no railroad connection across the Delaware River, and going over in a small row 
boat, I started to walk from Martins Creek through Bangor, Bath, Nazareth and North- 
ampton to the Lehigh River at Coplay, following the great belt of cement rock which 
stretched between the points described. My bottle of acid, my sample hammer, and my 
pack of samples were practically all the baggage I could carry. 

I recollect distinctly that as mj^ purpose was to secure a rock out of which we could 
make natural cement, then most largely in demand, and by adding lime to it to make 
Portland cement, I did not take any rocks that had such a high lime content as to make 
great effervescence when acid was applied. 

As a result of this trip I secured plans of many properties, options on some, and 
finally located at Egypt, on the line of the Ironton Railroad, upon rock which seemed 
to form the back door to the Coplay Cement Works, the front door of which was on 
the Lehigh River, above Coplay. As I look back I realize that my desire to secure 
material that would make both natural and portland cements led me to neglect the 
opportunity to make hundreds of thousands of dollars, for among the properties that 
were turned down because of high lime content were the great quarries now operated 
by the Alpha Portland Cement Company at Martins Creek, those at Bath, operated 
by the Bath Portland Cement Company, and those at Nazareth, operated bj^ the Dexter 
Portland Cement Company. 

In Philadelphia we had, as our superintendent, a stubby, fat, little Englishman, 
who claimed to have made cement in England at a place called Grimsby, and who was 
very vain and self-sufficient, making us all feel very ignorant when we talked to him, 
with his accumulated wisdom, though his experience carried no real scientific knowledge. 
With his assistance we erected a plant at Egypt, Pa., to make portland cement 
under the DeSmedt, Willcox, Lesley, and other patents. We erected our press roll with 
which we made the eggettes, ground the raw material on buhr stones, carried the eggettes 
by elevators up to the kiln, loaded the kiln with intermittent layers of coke and eggettes, 
and ground the clinker upon buhr stones again. The process was largely based upon a 
by-product, namely, coal tar and pitch, which were used as the liquid hydro-carbon and 
binder for the eggettes. The gas works of Philadelphia, then making gas with coal, 
permitted millions of gallons of this tar to go to waste each year, and it was possible 
to buy the material almost for the cost of barreling and loading it. The process was used 
by gas companies generally, but about that time the Lowe process of making water gas 
came into common use, being much more economical than the coal gas process, and we 
were left without our binder, and had to turn to the process then used at Saylor's 
works, which consisted of many acres of drying floors where the bricks cut from the paste 
were piled against heating pipes around the closed rooms in which the drying floors were 
situated. 

It was not long after manufacture had started that winter came, and as the plant 
kept on running the stock sheets showed considerable portland cement on hand for 
delivery in the early spring, but when orders were sent up the cement was not forth- 
coming. Finally I went to the mill and demanded to see the bins where the portland 
cement was stated to be, and found that they were largely filled with natural cement 



66 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

but veneered on the top and front with portland cement powder. When I asked the 
English superintendent where the portland cement was that he had reported on hand, 
his only answer was, "And did ye think I et it?" He was soon decapitated and John W. 
Eckert, then superintendent, reorganized the whole establishment, building new kilns 
and putting it all on a solid and substantial basis. 

The original company which built the works was organized in 1883, and called the 
American Improved Cements Companj^, and my father-in-law, James M. Willcox, of 
Philadelphia, was the president. It was later on changed to the American Cement 
Companj' and is now the Giant Portland Cement Company. 

An Early Oregon Plant 

Among the early portland cement works with an interesting histor\' 
was one established at Oregon City, Oregon, in 1884. According to early 
accounts the factory was designed and managed by a Mr. Middleton. He 
was regarded as something of a genius, for his plant was built along plans 
that did not come into general use, even in the older cement plants in the 
East, until ten years later. 

C. A. Newhall, writing of this works in 1913, describes it as follows: 

The raw material, a cement rock from southern Oregon, was ground in pebble mills 
and the raw mix burned in a gas-fired rotary kiln. The resulting clinker was ground to 
cement in a pebble mill. The gas was made for the most part from Australian coal, 
though local coal was used to some extent. Power was derived from the falls of the Will- 
amette, just above the plant. The output of this pioneer plant was over 100 barrels 
per day of true portland cement. The product was in great demand and was superior 
in quality to the imported portland cement. It was used in sidewalks and curb work 
and in making artificial stone. 

The plant was operated on this scale for a little over a .year when it was decided 
to raise the capitalization of $.50,000 and increase the capacity of the plant. But about 
this time the directors ordered a survey of the quarry, which showed that the rock was 
practically exhausted. They had been operating on a thin, saucer-like body of stone 
standing on edge against the hill. The apparently inexhaustible mountain of stone was 
merel}^ a thin veneer, so about 1890 the machinery was broken up and sold. 

The First Michigan Mill 

The Eagle Portland Cement Company was the first to operate in 
the Michigan field, which later became a great cement manufacturing 
district. The Eagle works were established at Kalamazoo in 1885. Some 
authorities fix the beginning of manufacture at this plant as early as 1872, 
a year after Saylor obtained his patent for portland cement, but WilUam 
Dickinson, who is familiar with the history of the company, states that 
the first date7l885, is correct. The founders of the plant included George 
L. Dunlap, Perry H. Smith, T. B. Blackstonc, W. H. Schimpferman and 
Samuel Keith, of Chicago, and Frederick Bush, of Kalamazoo. According 
to Mr. Dickinson, marl and clay were obtained about two miles north of 
Kalamazoo. The materials were mixed in a pug mill antl formed into bricks, 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 67 

which were burned with alternate layers of coke. Two days were required 
for burning and a like time for the cooling of the kiln and contents. About 
a third of the product, and sometimes more, was too lightly burned to 
make good cement, thus curtailing output, but such as was properly burned 
made cement of good quality, which found ready sale at about $5 per 
barrel. At the first annual meeting of the company the superintendent 
reported considerable cement on hand and all bills paid, so that the 
company considered it a conservative step to declare a ton per cent divi- 
dend. It transpired, however, that the stock on hand was much smaller 
than reported and that cost of manufacture had exceeded the price of the 
cement. The stockholders were disgusted as well as dumbfounded by these 
revelations and closed the mill, which soon thereafter was destroyed by fire 

Early Manufacture in New York 

In the Rosendale district a number of men undertook to make port- 
land cement out of Fullers earth and lime under patents of C. F. Dunder- 
dale. Works were erected, but it was found the cost was so far out of pro- 
portion to the price that could be realized, that these works, which were 
established in 1876-77, were finally abandoned. So were other works subse- 
quently established under the name of the Walkill Portland Cement Com- 
pany, in the same district, and the National Cement Company, estabhshed 
by S. D. Coykendall. 

"Buffalo Portland Cement" of which small quantities were manu- 
factured from 1878 to 1885, resulted from the discoveries and patents of 
Uriah Cummings and L. J. Bennett, who were connected with these works, 
and who found by selecting the over-burned material from the common 
cement kilns of the Buffalo Cement Company, that a material resembling 
Portland cement could be made. The rock, however, was largely mag- 
nesian, and for this reason no great quantities of portland cement were 
manufactured. 

A New England Plant 

The Cobb Lime Company, an important producer of lime at Rockland, 
Maine, started works in 1879 to produce portland cement, but owing to 
the high price of fuel the product was too costly for commercial success 
and this plant shut down after a short period of manufacture. 

From the foregoing it may be seen that out of the several pioneer works 
started in this country from the time Saylor began, up to and including 
1885, a large percentage were failures, and the situation did not offer a 
very encouraging outlook to the investor. At this period foreign portland 
cement had the market almost exclusively and there seemed little likelihood 
of growth for the American portland cement industry, the American 



68 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



output in 1881 being approximately 60,000 barrels as compared with 
importations of about 221,000 barrels. 



Development in the Lehigh District 

The Lehigh district in Pennsylvania not only witnessed the founding 
of the industry, but soon became the great portland cement producing 
center of the United States. In 1890, the Lehigh mills produced 60 per 
cent of the total output of the United States. The percentage declined 
the three following years, reaching 44.9 per cent in 1893, when an upward 
trend began, culminating in the highest point in 1897, when the Lehigh 
district's share of the country's total output was 74.8 per cent. Thereafter 
a gradual decline set in, the percentage in 1923 being 25.9 per cent. 

PORTLAND CEMENT PRODUCED IN THE LEHIGH DISTRICT AND IN 
THE UNITED STATES, 1890-192.3 









Per- 








Per- 




Lehigh 


United 


centage 




Lehigh 


United 


centage 


Year 


District 


States 


made in 


Year 


District 


States 


made in 




(barrels) 


(barrels) 


Lehigh 
District 




(barrels) 


(barrels) 


Leliigh 
District 


1890 


201,000 


335,500 


60.0 


1907 


24,417,686 


48,785,390 


50.0 


1891 


248,500 


454,813 


54.7 


1908 


20,200,387 


51,072,612 


39.6 


1892 


280,840 


547,440 


51.3 


1909 


24,246,706 


64,991,431 


37.3 


189.3 


265,317 


590,652 


44.9 


1910 


26,315,359 


76,549,951 


34.4 


1894 


485,329 


798,757 


60.8 


1911 


25,972,108 


78,528,637 


33.1 


189.5 


634,276 


990,324 


64.0 


1912 


24,762,083 


82,438,096 


30.0 


1896 


1,048,154 


1,543,023 


68.1 


1913 


27,139,601 


92,097,131 


29.5 


1897 


2,002,059 


2,677,775 


74.8 


1914 


24,614,933 


88,230,170 


27.9 


1898 


2,674,304 


3,692,284 


72.4 


1915 


24,876,442 


85,914,907 


29.0 


1899 


4,110,1.32 


5,6.52,266 


72.7 


1916 


24,105,381 


91,521,198 


26.3 


1900 


6,1.53,629 


8,482,020 


72.6 


1917 


24,423,507 


92,814,202 


26.3 


1901 


8,595,340 


12,711,225 


67.7 


1918 


19,701,820 


71,081,663 


27.7 


1902 


10,829,922 


17,230,644 


62.8 


1919 


22,747,956 


80,777,935 


28.161 


1903 


12,.324,922 


22,342,973 


55.2 


1920 


25,417,804 


100,023,245 


25.412 


1904 


14,211,039 


26,505,881 


53.7 


1921 


25,571,726 


98,842,049 


25.8 


1905 


17,368,687 


3.5,246,812 


49.3 


1922 


31,195,617 


114,789,984 


27.1 


1906 


22,784,613 


46,463,424 


49.0 


1923 


.35,721,751 


137,460,238 


25.9 



Thus in the early development of this great industry we find veritable 
romance, if romance ever attached to any phase of America's commercial 
and industrial progress. The country had its great captains of industry 
and finance when the Saylors, Millcns and Shinns were experimenting. 
But they w-ere concerned in railroads, iron, lumber and coal, or in the 
exploitation of land. Not one of them seemed to realize the great potential 
value of the work of the pioneers in the portland cement industry. The 
latter, like Fitch with his steamboat, labored in remote places with crude 
materials; and that one of the largest and most important industries in 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



69 



the world, something calhng for exact scientific procedure, should have 
been founded by men who, in some cases, had only hammers, cook stoves 
and coffee mills for experimental purposes, is one of the most remarkable 
and interesting of the many remarkable happenings in the industrial 
development of the United States. 

The Increasing Ascendancy of Domestic Portland Cements 

The competitors of the first American manufacturers of portland 
cement were the foreign portland cement makers and the American manu- 
facturers of natural cements, whose products had the confidence of engi- 




White-hot clinker droj^ping from the kilns onto the conveyor to the coding cylinders. 



neers and architects, and the further important advantage of familiarity 
in use. In 1871, the year Saylor took out his patent, the country was prob- 
ably using at least 2,000,000 barrels of natural cement. Importations 
of Portland cement must have been far below the American production of 
natural cement, as the first authoritative figures on imports recorded in 
1878 show only 92,000 barrels. Therefore, it is safe to say that the first 
American manufacturers of portland cement had to overcome an estab- 
lished consumption of competing products amounting to more than 2,000- 
000 barrels, whose volume showed rapid expansion before the American 
works could get fully under way. 



70 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



It may be well to present here statistics covering in concise form the 
history of the struggle for supremacy between American portland cement 
and its two competitors. The following table, which is confined to periods 
of five years, gives a sufficiently comprehensive survey of the field from 
1878 to 1923. The first reliable statistics on portland cement production 
appeared in 1878. 

PRODUCTION OF NATURAL AND PORTLAND CEMENTS IN THE UNITED 

STATES AND IMPORTATIONS OF PORTLAND CEMENT IN PERIODS 

OF FIVE YEARS FROM 1878 TO 1923 INCLUSIVE 





Natural Cement* 


Imported 


Domestic 


Year 


(barrels) 


Portland** 


Portland 






(barrels) 


(barrels) 


1878 


2,220,000 (Est.) 


92,000 


28,000 


1883 


4,100,000 


456,418 


90,000 


1888 


6,^53,295 


1,835,504 


250,000 


1893 


7,411,815 


2,674,149 


590,652 


1898 


8,418,924 


1,152,861 


3,692,284 


1903 


7,030,271 


2,251,969 


22,342,973 


1908 


1,686,862 


842,121 


55,072,612 


1913 


744,658 


85,470 


92,097,131 


1918 


432,966 


305 


71,081,663 


1923*** 




1,678,636 


137,460,238 



*The peak of production in natural cement occurred in 1899, when the output 
was 9,868,179 barrels. 

**Importations of portland cement reached high-water mark in 1895, when 
2,997,395 barrels were brought in. Figures given for the more recent years include all 
kinds of cement imported, but importations of cement other than portland are so small 
as to be practically a negligible factor. 

***U. S. Geological Survey figures for 1923 include in one total "masonry, natural, 
and puzzolan cements." The total shipments are given as 1,271,674 barrels. 

It will be seen from the foregoing table that while the importation and 
use of foreign portland cement was a serious obstacle at the very beginning 
of the Portland cement industry in Am{>rica, the actual consumption of all 
foreign brands seems a})surdly small in the face of subsequent production 
by American mills. 

As the history of the portland cement industry proceeds, it will be 
convenient to have foi- I'eference a compact but complete tabular statement 
covering the production of portland, natural and puzzolan cements from 
the time manufactiu'e of each began in the United States. From this table 
full data may be I'eadily obtained, and inunediately following is a second 
table giving average factoiy prices of poi-tland cement for the same period 
of time. In conjunction with these tables are two siiowing production of 
l)oitland ceiwent in 1922 and 1923 In' states and by connnercial districts. 

The United States (icological Survey recoi'ds covering the prices of 
Portland cement group the years 1870 to 1880, inclusive, at $3 j)er bai-rel 
for the average factory price. From that time up to and including 1923 the 
average factory prices per barrel in Inilk were as follows: 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



71 



AVERAGE FACTORY PRICE PER BARREL IN BULK OF PORTLAND 

CEMENT. 1870-1923 



1870-1880 $3.00 

1881 2.50 

1882 2.25 

1883 2.15 

1884 2.10 

1885-1888 1.95 

1889 1.67 

1890 2.09 

1891 2.13 



1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895. 
1896 . 



2.11 
1.96 
1.73 
1.60 
1.57 




1911. 
1912. 
1913. 
1914. 
1915. 
1916. 
1917. 
1918. 
1919. 
1920. 
1921. 
1922. 
1923. 



5 .844 
.813 
1.005 
.927 
.860 
1.103 
1.354 
1.598 
1.71 
2.02 
1.89 
1.76 
1.90 



PORTLAND CEMENT PRODUCED IN THE UNITED STATES 
1922 AND 1923, BY STATES 



State 


Active 
Plants 


Production 
Quantity (barrels) 




1922 
3 
9 
. 4 
4 
7 

12 
5 
9 
5 

22 
5 
4 

29 


1923 
5 
9 
4 

5 
7 

14 
5 
9 
6 

22 
5 
4 

31 


1922 


1923 


Alabama 

California 

Illinois 


2,290,884 
8,711,515 
6,407,129 
4,272,432 
4,634,287 
6,243,805 
6,170,633 
5,922,706 
2,835,243 

33,276,093 
3,628,756 
1.942,781 

28,453,720 


3,497,256 

11,001,910 

7 1 47 906 


Iowa 


5 732 470 


Kansas 

Michigan 


6,025,657 
7 619 792 


Missouri 


7,305.997 
6,990,174 
4 1 88 755 


New Yoi'k , 

Ohio 


Pennsylvania 

Texas 


38,157,482 
4 1 78 895 


Washington 

Other States a 


2,105,711 
33.508,233 






118 


126 


114,789,984 


137,460.238 



a Colorado, Georgia, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, New- 
Jersey, Oklahoma, Oregon, Tennessee, Utah, Virginia and West Virginia. 

PORTLAND CEMENT PRODUCED IN THE UNITED STATES 1922 AND 1923, 

BY DISTRICTS 



Commercial District 



Eastern Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Mary- 
land 

New York 

Ohio, Western Pennsylvania and West Vir- 
ginia 

Michigan 

Illinois, Indiana and Kentucky 

Virginia, Tennessee, Alabama and Georgia . . . 

Eastern Missouri, Iowa and Minnesota 

Western Missouri, Nebraska, Kan.sas and 
Oklahoma 

Texas 

Colorado and Utah 

California 

Oregon, Washington and Montana 



Active 
Plants 


Production 
Quantity (barrels) 


1922 


1923 


1922 


1923 


22 

9 


22 
9 


31,195,617 
5,922,706 


35,721,751 
6,990,174 


10 

12 
10 

8 
9 


11 
14 
10 
11 
10 


10,753,301 
6,243,805 

17,998,914 
5,954,043 

11,392,.552 


13,495,799 
7,619,792 

21,193,666 
7,908,846 

14,037,099 


11 
5 

5 
9 

8 


11 

5 
5 
9 
9 


8,025,720 
3,628,756 
2,020,784 
8,711,515 
2,942,271 


9,779,034 
4,178,895 
2,427,971 
11,001,910 
3,105,301 


118 


126 


114,789,984 


137.460,238 



72 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



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HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



73 



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74 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

Early American Made Portland Cement Often Sold Under Foreign Labels 

The conimercial introduction of American portland cement was no 
easy task for the pioneers in the industry'. Prejudice against the American 
product in the early days was so uncompromising that some of the large 
distributors of foreign portland cement throughout the country actually 
insisted that American manufacturers should have the names of special 




Great piles of clinker are held in reserve at most cement plants. Being impervious U, the 
elements, it is stored until needed. Then it is ground, gypsum added, and .sacked. 



brands of English, German and Belgian portland cements placed on the 
barrels when shipped into some of the western and southern markets; 
however, this continued but a short time, for gradually the extraordinary 
quality and valuable characteristics of American portland cement made 
themselves felt in the markets of the country. 

In a paper on the Manufacture of Cement delivered before the Inter- 
national Engineering Congress in 1904, Robert W. Lesley said: 

The first portland cement made in America involved a great cost of labor and could 
not be offered at prices very much below the foreign article, and as the cement in a 
l)uilding costing a million dollars represented but a small i)ercentage of the total cost 
of the structure, and the difference between the prices of foreign and domestic j)ortland 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



75 



cements being, in turn, but a very small percentage of the total cost of the cement, it 
was almost impossible to convince engineers and architects that American portland 
cement should be used. By slow degrees the prejudice in favor of the imported cement 
was overcome. 

Importance of Patents Covering Early Processes 

In seeking to improve methods of manufacture, each of the works 
estabHshed when the industry was just struggUng for a footing was based 
upon patents of one type or another. It is almost axiomatic that while a 
patent does not give a man or an industry' a right to exist, it does give a 
right to show a right to exist. This seems to have been exemplified in the 
Portland cement industry, and the works that are shown to have survived 
the struggles of the early days are those whose founders and owners pos- 
sessed initiative and sturdy intellectual attributes. While these qualities 
would intrinsically have made for success under ordinary conditions, in 
this case the inventors were, as stated, merely given the right to show their 
right to exist by patents, and they distinctly made good in the develop- 
ment of the industries placed in their hands. 

It was not until 1890, or thereabouts, that any great progress was 
made in combating the paramount influence of the foreign portland cement 
in the American market. The figures of the United States Geological Sur- 
vey appearing on a preceding page indicate the growth of the industry 
from 1880 to 1890, and show how slowly it progressed. The following com- 
plete table of imports covering the period named shows how firmly in- 
trenched in the United States were the foreign manufacturers: 

FOREIGN CEMENT IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION, 1878-1923, IN 
BARRELS OF 380 POUNDS 



1878 


92,000 


1893 


2.674,149 


1908 


842,121 


1879 


106,000 


1894 


2,638,107 


1909 


433,888 


1880 


187,000 


1895 


2,997,395 


1910 


306,863 


1881 


221,000 


1896 


2,989,597 


1911 


164,670 


1882 


370,406 


1897 


2,090,924 


1912 


68,503 


1883 


456,418 


1898 


1,152,861 


1913 


85,470 


1884 


585,768 


1899 


2,108,388 


1914 


120,906 


188,5 


554,396 


1900 


2,386,683 


1915 


42,218 


1886 


915,255 


1901 


939,330 


1916 


1,836 


1887 


1,514,095 


1902 


1,963,023 


1917 


2,323 


1888 


1,835,504 


1903 


2,251,969 


1918 


305 


1889 


1,740,356 


1904 


968,409 


1919 


8,931 


1890 


1,940,186 


1905 


896,845 


1920 


524,604 


1891 


2,988,313 


1906 


2,273,493 


1921 


122,322 


1892 


2,440,654 


1907 


2,033,438 


1922 
1923 


323,823 
1,678,636 




Total 


51,039,381 



Concerning the status of the American portland cement industry in 
1890-91, S. B. Newberry, in the United States Geological Survey report, 



76 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



says there were 17 plants whose geographical distribution and annual pro- 
duction were as follows : 

PORTLAND CEMENT WORKS AND PRODUCTION IN 1890-1891 



District 



California, San Diego 

Colorado, Denver 

Dakota, Yankton 

Indiana, South Bend 

New York, Onondaga Countj', Buf- 
falo, etc 

Ohio, Belief ontaine and Columbus . . . 

Pennsylvania, Lehigh and Lawrence 
counties 



No. 

of 

Works 



1890 



Barrels Value 



12,500 



15,000 

65,000 
22,000 

221,000 



$ 40,000 



36,000 

140,000 
49,000 

439,050 



1891 



Barrels Value 



5,000 
12,500 
31,813 
15,000 

87,000 
35,000 

268,500 



$ 15,000 
40,000 
71,579 
36,000 

290,000 
82,000 

532,850 



CHAPTER VI 
OTHER CEMENTS 

The world's demand for mortars, especially mortars of higher strength, 
had constantly increased with the greater size of buildings and the neces- 
sity for larger, stronger bridges, aqueducts, dams, roads, and other engi- 
neering structures. It was but natural therefore that inventors and engi- 
neers should seek mortar-making materials other than the natural and 
Portland cements then known and so generally used. 

The results of this trend were several types of cements, some of which 
have been referred to brieflj^ in a preceding chapter. 

Puzzolan Cement 

The first and most important of these cements was that described 
in all books on cement as "puzzolan" and "slag" cement. "Puzzolan" 
is a term applied to a compound of silica and alumina which, when mixed 
with slaked lime and made into mortar, has the property of hardening 
under water. There are several classes of material which have this qual- 
ity, such as "trass," "tufa," "arenes," and the well-known "puzzuolana" 
found in the southern part of Italy. 

"Slag" cement is, however, by far the most important of the puzzolan 
cements. It is the product obtained by mixing powdered slaked lime and 
finely pulverized blast furnace slag. In this material the hydraulic ingre- 
dients are not burned with the lime, but are present in the cement in a 
mechanical mixture only. 

This cement originated in Germany and was manufactured in West- 
phalia as far back as 1863. The process employed was described by W. 
Lurmann before the Technical Society at Osnabruck in January, 1867. 
Many improvements on the original process were made by German 
inventors between 1863 and 1900, and owing to the desire of German iron 
manufacturers to find an outlet for their slag, the production of this cement 
became quite general in Germany. Large quantities were being made 
about 1885, but in a United States Consular Report dated July 3, 1895, it 
is stated that of about fifty slag cement works in Germany in 1890, only 
two were then in operation. The French writer Candlot, referring to this 
industry about 1900, states that no new works had been built in Switzer- 
land, and that in Belgium but one remained, while in France there were 
but three. 

77 



78 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



On February 5, 1895, Jasper Whiting, of Chicago, lUinois, apphed 
for a patent which was granted to him on August 20, 1895, the claims of 
which are as follows: 

1. The method of manufacturing cement, from slags which consists in chiUing 
molten slag in water, driving and grinding the product, and adding thereto caustic 
soda or its equivalent in a dry state. 

2. The method of manufacturing cement from slags which consists in chilling 
molten slag in water as it comes from the furnace, drying and grinding the slag, 
and adding thereto slaked lime and caustic soda both in a dry state and in the pro- 
portions substantially as set forth. 

3. A cement composed of blast furnace or other slag in a dry pulverized form and 
caustic soda in a dry state, in substantially the proportions set forth. 

4. A cement composed of blast furnace or other slag in a dry pulverized form and 
caustic soda and slaked lime in a dry state and substantially in the proportions set 
forth. 

The general purpose of this invention as stated by him was that : 
The presence of caustic soda renders the resulting cement much stronger and 
quicker setting and by varying its proportions a cement of any desired quality can 
be obtained. 




Tons of steel balls in the interior ot a tiilic mill pulverize tiie niaU rials to a powder finer 
than flour. 



Under this patent, which was the result of experiments conducted by 
Mr. Whiting for nearly two years, a plant for the manufacture of cement 
was established at the North Works of the Illinois Steel Company, in Chi- 
cago. Later this plant was greatly enlarged and the output increased. The 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 79 

material was marketed under the name of "Steel Portland Cement," and 
was largely used for important works of all kinds throughout the South 
and West. 

The Brier Hill Iron & Coal Company, of Youngstown, Ohio, took out 
a license under the Whiting process, and from 1898 to 1910 manufactured 
cement under tjie patent, calling it "Brier Hill Portland Cement." 

Considerable discussion arose as to whether this particular cement 
properly came under the definition of "Portland Cement" and the manu- 
facturers of the latter very naturally sought to exclude the "Steel Port- 
land Cement" from works where portland cement or high-grade American 
Portland cement was specified. Numerous cases of this kind occurred in 
Baltimore. In the letting of city contracts in 1900, the issue was raised, 
and again in the same year a government board of engineers was appointed 
to investigate the question of whether "Steel Portland Cement" could be 
accepted and used in the United States lock at Plaquemine, Louisiana, 
where high grade American portland cement was specifically required, 
as being within the meaning of the Government specification of February 
16, 1898, for the construction of the Plaquemine Lock. 

The investigation continued for some time, and the testimony and 
conclusions cited in the report of the engineers form an admirable sum- 
mary of the status of puzzolan or slag cements. The conclusion of the 
report was that the cement sold bj^ the Illinois Steel Company under the 
name of "Steel Portland Cement" should be classified under the generic 
name of puzzolana cement and under the specific name of slag cement and 
could not be classified as a portland cement. 

As a historical fact, and possibly as a business fact, this adverse report 
was one of the most advantageous things that ever occurred to a great 
manufacturing concern such as the Illinois Steel Company, which about 
that time had become a part of the United States Steel Corporation. Un- 
daunted and undismayed by this adverse decision, which to a less coura- 
geous set of men would have meant the end of a then successful business, 
E. J. BuflSngton, the president of the Illinois Steel Company, Edward M. 
Hagar, then general sales agent of the Cement Department, and otheis 
connected with that concern, and the U^nited States Steel Corporation, 
immediately set about to make a true portland cement with the material 
produced from the steel works. Taking specially selected slags, they added 
to them limestone in the requisite amount to bring the content of the mix- 
ture, when calcined, to the proportion of normal portland cements as then 
required under existing specifications for that material, and by grinding 
this mixture to impalpable powder and putting it through rotary kilns, 
produced clinker similar to that produced under ordinary portland cement 
processes of manufacture which, when ground, made a true portland cement 
that for years has held its own in the market as one of highest quality. 



80 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



Passow and CoUoseus Cements 

Under this general type, though made without admixture of Hme, 
are the Passow and Colloseus cements, also mentioned in a previous 
chapter. Each of them has an American history, though brief. 

The Passow patents were the result of studies of Dr. Passow, one of 
the leading scientists in Germany. The process was used in Germany in a 
number of works, and for a brief time the cement was manufactured on a 
very limited scale in this country. 

The Colloseus patents were brought to this country by Vavasour 
Earle, of England, and Dr. Susskind, of Germany, who endeavored to 
enlist capital in the process. That they attached high value to their patents 




Throughout the entire process of portland cement manufacture the materials are 
under the watchful eye of the chemist. 



was shown during a dramatic meeting they had sought with the Board of 
Directors of the North American Portland Cement Company. Panic was 
thrown into the souls of the American manufacturers when Susskind, 
being asked what the price of the invention was, said: "A million!" One 
of the directors present asked: "A million dollars?" "No," Susskind 
replied, "a million pounds." Thereupon the Americans, in a fainting con- 
dition, retired for deliberation. The result was that a commission consist- 
ing of Dr. Clifford Richardson, the well-known chemist and scientist, and 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 81 

Robert W. Lesley, cement manufacturer, was appointed to visit Europe 
and investigate the process. This they did, finally reporting against its 
practicability. 

Subsequently William R. Warren and associates bought a small works 
in Buffalo and started manufacturing Colloseus cement, but without 
achieving very satisfactory results. 

Iron Cement 

This material was produced as specially adapted to salt water con- 
struction, and for a time small quantities were brought into the United 
States, but none was manufactured here. The invention was that of Dr. 
Michaehs, the distinguished German chemist, and the cement was manu- 
factured by the Krupps at their great steel works in Essen. 

Silica Sand Cement 

In 1893, a patent was issued to Verner Frederik Lassoe Smidth, of 
Copenhagen, Denmark, for "a new and useful improvement in cement 
called 'Sand Cement'." The claim was as follows: "The improved cement 
herein described consists of a dry ground mixture of ordinary cement and 
sand, gravel, or other filling material, substantially as set forth." The 
object of the invention was stated to be to grind a filling material with 
the ordinary cements of commerce and to produce, when portland cement 
was used, a new kind of cement by which a mortar is obtained that has 
all the good properties of cement mortar but is just as cheap, if not cheaper 
than the ordinary lime mortars. 

Mr. Smidth was the head of the well-known engineering firm of 
F. L. Smidth & Company, of Copenhagen, with offices throughout the 
world, and stood high in his profession. At his works in Malmo, Sweden, 
and also at the Aalborg Portland Cement Works in Denmark, many 
experiments were made with this material, and considerable quantities 
were produced. In many cases excellent results were shown in tests and 
great economy found, while in other cases the results were not so satis- 
factory, especially when very lean mixtures were made. 

As early as 1893, Danish engineers came to this country to introduce 
the cement, and while, as above stated, varying results were obtained by 
those who tested it, no commercial success in the introduction of the proc- 
ess was made, and it was not until somewhere about 1905 or 1906, when 
a serious shortage of cement occurred in this country, that the manufac- 
ture of this cement began on Long Island, near New York, where the 
Standard Silica Cement Company established a works with quite an output. 

Contemporaneously with this. Sears Humbert & Company, dealers in 
cement in Chicago, established a similar plant in that city under the title 



82 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



of Calumet Cement Company. Neither of these plants achieved perma- 
nent success and ultimately the process was abandoned. 

Blended Cement 

Blended cement was somewhat like puzzolan and portland cements. 
It was used extensively in California during the construction of the Los 
Angeles Aqueduct. A volcanic tuff, known locally as "tufa" cement, 




The Portland cement industry is the fourth hirgest manui'acturing consumer of coal, 
although oil and gas are used to some extent. An unfailing supply of fuel is abso- 
lutely essential to successful cement plant operation. 



was ground with portland cement. In 1910 about 95,000 barrels were 
produced, the value being $1.50 to $1.60 per barrel. The output of this 
cement in 1912 reached a little over two hundred thousand barrels, valued 
at $1.50 per barrel. 



CHAPTER VII 

LEADING PIONEER COMPANIES IN PORTLAND CEMENT 
MANUFACTURE 

As has been stated in mentioning those who were pioneers in the in- 
dustry, D. O. Savior's works at Coplay, operating under the name of the 
Coplay Cement Company, had achieved commercial success by 1890. 

On the Ironton Railroad, back of Saylor's plant, was the American 
Cement Company, described by Robert W. Lesley in the story of his early 
connection with the industry. 

Bet ween Whitehall station on the Lehigh Valley Railroad, and Coplay 
station to the east of it, there was a high bluff of cement rock. The tracks 
of the Lehigh Valley Railroad ran along the property, and just beyond 
them was the Lehigh River. On the other side of the river, at Whitehall, 
was the Lehigh Coal & Navigation Company's canal. 

Just as the American Cement Company, rather than make new exper- 
iments, had settled back of the Coplay works, using practically the same 
rock, so, too, this attractive bluff along the Lehigh could not remain long 
unused. Bonneville, already mentioned, was active in developing along 
this frontage, and at one time there were two mills, one at Whitehall, that 
of the United States Cement Company, in which S. B. Wellington was 
largely interested, and another immediately beyond Saylor's works, 
which was operated for a time and subsequently became the first plant of 
the Atlas Portland Cement Company, then known as the Keystone Com- 
pany. All these works were in operation, making both natural and port- 
land cement — much natural and little portland. 

In the early days of all of them, and this is true also of the Keystone 
Company, the manager of each plant would go to his works in doubt as to 
whether he or the sheriff would be the first to take charge. Those were 
''parlous times" for all who had to do with manufacturing at that period. 

The United States mill was subsequenth^ bought, and became the 
Whitehall Company. The Bonneville Cement Company was also one of 
the early producers. The Keystone Cement Company, predecessor of the 
Atlas Portland Cement Company, started operations in 1889, and under 
the Navarros was the first concern to use the rotary kiln in the Lehigh dis- 
trict, initial experiments with the rotary kiln having taken place in the 
Rosendale district, New York, in 1886, as is described elsewhere by A. 
de Navarro. In 1892, according to F. H. Lewis, the Atlas Portland Cement 

83 



84 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

Company succeeded in burning portland cement clinker at Coplay in 
rotary kilns with crude oil, which then cost about a cent per gallon. Mr. 
Lewis says: "It burned cement clinker very readily; its calorific value was 
high, and it took only ten to twelve gallons of oil to burn a barrel of ce- 
ment. At the time and under the prevailing conditions, it was a success. 
For the first time rotary kilns were functioning readily, and they made 
then, as they do now, an interesting and impressive spectacle of chemistry 
applied on a large scale to industrial uses." 

Across the river from Whitehall, at Siegfried Bridge, was the old Allen 
mill which General Siegfried established for making natural cement for the 
Lehigh Canal locks; and nearby was an old paint mill using the red ores 
for making paint for iron construction and similar types of work. Later 
on the Allen mill was turned into a portland cement plant, and the Acker- 
mans, of New York, who had been connected with the Rock Lock Cement 
Company, Lawrence, and other cement companies in the Rosendale region, 
established portland cement works in the old paint mill, and later on ac- 
quired the old Allen plant. Four generations of the Ackerman family 
have been in the cement business and representatives of the present gener- 
ation are still successfully operating the large cement company at Siegfried 
Bridge, making the well-known "Dragon" portland cement. 

Whenever David 0. Saylor had occasion to go to New York over the 
Central Railroad of New Jersey or the Lehigh Valley Railroad, he noticed 
in the railroad cuts large bodies of rock similar to the rock he was using 
on the banks of the Lehigh River, near Coplay station. For manj^ years 
he kept this knowledge to himself, and the property below Easton re- 
mained undeveloped, while Saylor and his associates were building up 
their business at Coplay. Others, however, friends and associates of Say- 
lor, and men also interested in the development of the other mills around 
about Coplay and Whitehall, noticed these rocks, and Thomas D. Whit- 
taker, of Philadelphia, a successful manufacturer of cotton goods, became 
interested in property near Phillipsburg, New Jersey, where, after the suc- 
cess of the Atlas Portland Cement Company with rotary kilns, and the 
American Cement Company with Grifl!in mills, he established, in 1892, a 
small rotary kiln plant using fuel oil at Bonneville Station (now Alpha), 
New Jersey. Associated with him was George E. Bartol, the founder of 
the Philadelphia Bourse, who later became an important figure in the 
industry around Easton and Nazareth. This plant proved successful 
almost from the start, having excellent selling faciUties in Boston, New 
York and Philadelphia, and succeeded in obtaining much large and im- 
portant work. 

After the establishment of this plant, Bonneville, who was always in- 
terested in starting new concerns, succeeded in inducing Dr. Filbert of the 
well-known Vulcanite Paving Company, and his associates, Messrs. Lober, 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 85 

Widener and Elkins of Philadelphia, to join with him in the building of 
works near the old Whittaker plant, now the Alpha Portland Cement Com- 
pany's plant. This project was started by what is now known as the Vul- 
canite Portland Cement Company, today a large and successful company 
under the presidency of John B. Lober, who is among the most popular 
and able of the many able men in the portland cement industry. 

The discovery of cement rock back of Coplay station by the Amer- 
ican Cement Company resulted in the building of a number of other plants 
by that corporation, and also led to investigation of the cement resources 
of the hills in the back country between Egypt and Ironton. As a result, 
the Lehigh Portland Cement Company of Allentown, Pennsylvania, was 
established in 1897 by Colonel Harry C. Trexler and Edward M. Young 
on land near Ormrod. These two men have been associated as President 
and Vice President of the Lehigh Portland Cement Company since its 
incorporation, and have seen the small works then established expand to 
sixteen plants with an annual capacity of 16,000,000 barrels of cement, the 
output of works situated in all parts of the United States from Pennsylvania 
to the state of Washington. In the cooperation of these two men, courage 
and business ability joined hands, and with Charles Matcham, formerly of 
the Whittaker Company, as superintendent, and his father-in-law, Mr. 
Ormrod, as wise counsellor, Trexler and Young laid the foundation of what 
has become one of the greatest organizations of its kind in the country. 
Since that time other mills have been established in Pennsylvania by the 
Lehigh Portland Cement Company, which now has one mill at West Co- 
play, three at Ormrod, and a very large mill at Fogelsville. 

It was not long before an attempt to manufacture portland cement 
from rock took place in New York. Manufacturers there encountered the 
same difficulties experienced by the Pennsylvania cement makers. 

The founder and first president of the Glens Falls Portland Cement 
Company, Glens Falls, New York, was Captain W. W. Maclay, assistant 
engineer of the New York Department of Docks, who, as stated by Robert 
S. Sinclair in a previous chapter, supervised the department tests of cement 
and did more than any other individual to raise the standard of the product. 

The Glens Falls Portland Cement Company, which was organized in 
1893 with a capital of $48,000, estimated as sufficient to erect a plant 
capable of producing a hundred barrels of cement a day, undertook to 
manufacture cement, but without results, and in 1894 the capital was in- 
creased and two Schoefer kilns were erected with machinery to prepare 
the materials and reduce the clinker. How the company finally mastered 
the problems of successful manufacture is described elsewhere in detail by 
George F. Bayle, now president of the Glens Falls Company. 

In the chapter on "Natural Cement" the founding and operation of 
the Howes Cave Association was described by F. W. Kelley, President of 



86 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

the Helderberg Cement Company, successor of the Howes Cave Associa- 
tion. It was stated that Charles H. Ramsey, who operated the Howes 
Cave Association plant, became interested in portland cement about 1884. 
Mr. Kelley contributed the following additional facts: 

For years hard gray limestone had been taken from the chffs at this place for 
building purposes. The same material had been manufactured into lime in kilns operated 
liy the Howes Cave Lime & Cement Company, and had also been crushed and shipped 
as crushed stone. Howes Cave, a long narrow cavern eroded by water action in the 
hard limestone formation lying over and considerably above the water line, contained 
large deposits of very finely divided and highly silicious clay. It was from the.se materials 
Mr. Ram-sey sought to make portland cement. His efforts continued through the eighties 
and until the experimental plant was built in 1898. 

Mr. Ramsey first sought to make portland cement from marl deposits found in 
local bogs, the marl being combined with cave clay, and later by combining the finely- 
pulverized limestone with the clay. Prof. Schaefer, of Cornell, made a numlier of tests 
for Mr. Ramsey, and George Brown, a Scotchman who died about a year later, spent 
six months at Howes Cave in 1894, taking samples of marl and clay from fields and 
from the cave in an endeavor to burn clinker. Melvin Herron, foreman in the natural 
cement plant, carried on experiments for Mr. Ramsey in 1891-94, and later Prof. R. C. 
Carpenter assisted in the final experiments which led to the establishment of the 
present plant. 

Mr. Ramsey built a vertical kiln of fire brick about 2 feet inside diameter, 5 feet 
outside diameter, and about 6 feet high, for use in his experiments about 189.5-96. The 
hard limestone was sometimes pulverized by hand and sometimes in a pan mill about 
3 feet in diameter. This pan mill also ground the samples of cement from the clinker 
which was obtained, and strength and setting tests of the product were then made in 
the testing laboratory of the natural cement plant. At the time, there was no chemist 
attached to this laboratory although Mr. Ramsey possessed considerable knowledge 
of the chemistry of cement. The raw material used in this experimental kiln was wet 
sufficiently to be made into the form of balls, and when dried these were placed in the 
kiln with alternate layers of coke. Compressed air from the line which supplied the 
drills in the natural cement mine was used to give the necessary temperature after the 
fuel in the kiln had been well started. 

Having demonstrated what could be made from the raw materials at hand, Mr. 
Ramsey secured sufficient capital to build a small experimental plant, including two 
53^-foot by 50-foot Mosser kilns, a 4-foot by 40-foot Mosser drier, a small Farrel jaw- 
crusher, a Bonnet ball mill and Bonnet tube mill, three thirty-inch Griffin mills, and a 
No. 12 kSmidth tube mill. The dry process was tried for a time with bad results, so the 
wet process was soon installed and continued to date. It was probalily the first plant in 
this country to use the wet process with hard materials. 

Oil was first used for kiln fuel, but pulverized coal was soon substituted. In study- 
ing the use of pulverized coal, Prof. Carpenter undertook experiments which resulted 
in a patent on coal burning in rotary boilers. These experiments took place between 
1898 and about 1902. 

In buildiug the larger plant whicli followed the successful experimental plant in 
1900, alternating current induction motors were used throughout to supply power, 
and it is believed that this jjlant was the first cement plant so equipi)ed. 

The corporate existence* of the Helderberg Cement Company began in 1898, with 
T. H. Dumary as president. Mr. Dumary was succeeded by F. W. Kelley, who became 
associated with the company in 1900, having charge of the erection and development of 
the enlarged plant. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



87 



With the growing output of American portland cement and a con- 
stantly growing demand, it was idle to suppose that American ingenuity 
and American capital would permit the field of manufacturing to be con- 
fined to the Lehigh district, though that territory was the home of the 
first works and had materials of unique character and quality for cement 




The cement industry ranks tenth among the country's industries in point of total power 
capacity. The motors shown here operate two-compartment grinding mills. 



making. It was already known that the Millens, who were among the 
pioneers, had used clay and marl at South Bend, Indiana, and the Eagle 
Portland Cement Company, at Kalamazoo, Michigan, had, in a small way, 
used similar materials. Consequently, when attention was attracted to the 
Portland cement industry for the reasons above stated, many minds were 
turned to these old methods and materials. This led to the discovery and 
the use of marl and clay in many other states, but principally in New York 
and Ohio. In South Dakota chalk was used. Mills were established to 
manufacture from marl and clay in these several states and processes were 
pretty much alike, though varying somewhat in detail. Later the Michigan 
field was developed. 

Concerning the preparation of raw materials, the late S. B. Newberry, 
writing in 1892, said that while the English wet method gave a perfect 
mixture, it was quite out of the question in this country, owing to the 



88 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

labor required and the cost of drying out the very wet slurry obtained by 
the foreign method. In America the available materials were chiefly shell- 
marl and clay, both usually in a very wet condition. The semi-wet process 
was followed almost everywhere. It consisted in charging the materials 
in a wet state into large iron pans provided with heavy rolls or edge-run- 
ners. In these the plastic materials were thoroughly blended. The mixture 
as it issued from the pans was molded directly into bricks, dried and 
burned. In one or two cases the brick-making was omitted and the wet 
mixture spread out to dry on floors heated by steam pipes. It was then 
cut up into blocks with spades, as commonly the practice in England. 

ft 

Michigan Marl Plants 

Michigan contained the most promising of all the marl fields in the 
United States. The history of the industry in that state begins with the 
pioneer Eagle plant, erected near Kalamazoo in 1885. This plant, whose 
brief existence has been mentioned, had no successors for a decade or 
more. Then came the Bronson Portland Cement Company, Bronson, in- 
corporated in 1897, with J. F. Townsend as President. The following 
year the Peerless Portland Cement Company, Union City, and the Michi- 
gan Portland Cement Company, Coldwater, entered the field. L. M. 
Wing was President and H. S. Bossett, Vice President of the Michigan 
company, which, in 1902, became the Wolverine Portland Cement Com- 
pany. The present Michigan Portland Cement Company, of Chelsea* 
was organized in 1911, the plant occupying the site of the Homer C. Millen 
works erected in 1903. 

That there was an abundance of marl in Michigan had been known 
for many years, owing to its value as a fertilizer. The United States 
Geological Survey records of 1900 state that single beds of marl, 100 to 
300 acres in area and with an average depth of 20 feet or more, are not 
rare. The marl is of two well-defined varieties, white and gray, although 
there is no sharp distinction between them. The purest deposits of white 
marl are described as being white and fine as wheat flour. 

The development of the industry in Michigan was very rapid after 
the Bronson and Peerless companies began operation. In Maj^ 1901, ten 
mills were producing cement and six others were in process of construction. 
The mills then running were provided with nineteen dome kilns and sixty- 
six rotary kil»s, but not all of the latter were then in operation. The capital 
stock of all the Michigan portland cement companies then organized was 
about S25, 000,000 and their estimated capacity approximately 8,600,000 
barrels per year. 

♦Plant leased to State of Michigan in 1923; destroyed by fire 1924. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



89 



In writing of the Michigan industry in 1901, Israel C. Russell says, 
that "one of the pleasing conditions observed by the writer during his 
visits to the several portland cement factories now in operation or being 
built in Michigan is the manifest ready adaptability of their managers 
to new conditions, their readiness to adopt new and improved methods, 
their skill in modifying or reconstructing familiar types of machinery, and 




The boiler room of a t.ypical large cement plant helps to generate power equal to the 
needs of a city of 100,000 people. 



their ability to originate and appl}^ new ideas. This healthful condition of 
the industry, as well as the abundance of raw material, facilities for trans- 
portation, excellence of the finished product, increasing demand, etc., in- 
sures its permanence and ultimate success." 

In the treatment of raw materials, processes were as described above, 
but an economy was introduced at the Bronson works. The material 
was prepared in the regular wet way, but the slurry, containing from 50 
to 60 per cent of water was introduced directly into the kiln by a pump. 
This offered new possibilities in manufacture by the wet process through 
the substitution of rotar}^ for vertical kilns. The Bronson process might 
be described as a combination of European and American practice. In the 
preparation of raw materials the methods were like the best European 



90 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

practice by the wet or humid way, while in burning, the distinctly American 
practice was represented by the use of the rotary kiln. The marl and clay 
were first mixed, ground wet, and then run into dosage tanks, where the 
composition of the slurry was determined. 

At the Michigan Portland Cement Company's jjlant at Coldwater, 
erected in 1898, blue clay and marl were handled in the wet way and 
pumped into rotarj^ kilns as slurry containing an average of 50 per cent 
of water. The kilns were 6 feet in diameter and 60 feet long. Crude petro- 
leum was used as fuel. 

In 1899, the Omega Portland Cement Company was incorporated and 
established a plant north of Jonesville, Michigan. Operations began in 1901 
with Frank M. Stewart as President of the company. Dr. W. H. Sawyer, 
Vice President, Charles F. Wade, Secretary-Treasurer and General ]Man- 
ager, and George H. Sharp, General Superintendent. The company used 
the wet process, obtaining marl from its own bed immediately adjacent to 
the plant and clay from Millbury, Ohio. The plant was equipped with six 
kilns, 6 by 60 feet, and pulverized coal was used for fuel. Bonnot pulver- 
izers were used in clinker grinding. The capacity of the plant was 1,000 
to 1,250 barrels per day. The plant operated successfully up to about 1912, 
showing a profit each year. Around 1912 the price of cement became and 
continued so abnormally low that in 1914 the company was forced to 
cease operations. 

Other Michigan portland cement companies were rapidly established. 
Among the earlier concerns were the Alpena, Newaygo and Peninsular 
Companies, also established in 1899; the Detroit, Egyptian, Elk Rapids, 
Great Northern, Standard, Three Rivers, Zenith and Wabash Companies, 
established in 1900; the Clare, Farwell, German, Lupton, Pyramid and 
Twentieth Century Companies, established in 1901, and the Hecla Com- 
psiny, incorporated in 1905. 

Among the men prominently identified with the early history of the 
cement industry in Michigan, was John W. Boardman, father of John W. 
Boardman, Jr., Vice President of the Huron and Wyandotte Cement Com- 
panies. The elder Boardman was long and actively identified with the 
business life of the community and became associated with F. W. Cowham 
in the cement business. He was prominent in the organization and develop- 
ment of the^outhern States Portland Cement Company, Atlanta and Rock- 
mart, Georgia; the Western States Portland Cement Company, Independ- 
ence, Kansas; the Northwestern Portland Cement Company, Mason City, 
Iowa; the Southwestern Portland Cement Company, Dallas, Texas, and 
the International Portland Cement Company at Durham, Ontario. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 91 

Marl Plants in New York 

Marl was also found in New York, and portland cement mills were 
established at favorable sites. Here the Millens were again pioneers in 
actual manufacture, though not the first to experiment along this line. 
The earliest experiments with marl started only a few years after manu- 
facture of Portland cement from rock commenced in the Lehigh district. 
They were conducted in the Rosendale region in 1875-76 by C. F. Dunder- 
dale, at East Kingston, Ulster County, the capital being furnished by 
Messrs. Cornell and Coykendall. The marl was brought by way of the 
Erie Canal from the Montezuma marshes and clay was obtained near the 
plant. The cement was of good quality but the materials and processes 
were too expensive to make the experiment a financial success. 

The Millens established the first marl plant at Warner, Onondaga 
County, in 1886, which they sold in 1890 to the Empire Portland Cement 
Company. This plant was built on one of the extensive marl deposits 
adjacent to the Erie Canal. The marl was immediately below the surface of 
the ground in a bed from 8 to 15 feet thick, underlaid with an abundance 
of clay. Equipment and methods were representative of some six or eight 
works subsequently engaged in the manufacture of portland cement from 
marl and clay by the semi- wet process. The Empire plant had 18 kilns 
of the regular intermittent dome type, these being 13 feet in diameter and 
45 feet high. In 1893 rotary kilns were installed. 

After selling their Warner plant to the Empire Company, T. Millen 
& Company erected a plant at Wayland, Steuben Coiuity, New York, at 
which cement was maniifactin-ed from marl. Production began in 1892. 
The works were destroyed by fire in 1893, but rebuilt the same year. 

Among the men prominent in the industiy in later years and who had 
interesting experiences in New York State at this period, was the late 
S. B. Newberry of Cleveland, President of the Sandusky Portland Cement 
Company. Shortly before his death he contributed the following: 

My interest in portland cement l)egan about 1890 while teaching at Cornell 
University. My late brother-in-law, Frederick D. White, was financially interested in 
the Warner Cement Company, whose factory at Warner, ten miles west of Syracuse, 
New York, had been started under the direction of parties connected with the Solvay 
Process Company. At this plant marl and claj' were mixed, dried and pulverized, and 
the mixture burned in rotary kilns 4 feet in diameter and 30 feet long. Much trouble was 
experienced in getting a sound product. The pats showed a pattern of cracks on the 
surface which led Mr. White to suggest, at a very blue meeting of the dire(!tors, that 
the cement be called "Alligator Brand." He afterwards suggested calling it the "Rooster 
Brand" because it would not set. At White's suggestion I was asked to go over from 
Cornell and look into the- causes of the difficulty. I soon found that the trouljle was due 
to imperfect burning and defective grinding of the raw materials. Following my sug- 
gestions these features of the process were improved and soon a sound product was 
obtained. By this time the financial affairs of the company w-ere in such shape that an 
assignment was made and the concern went out of business. 



92 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



In 1890 operations were commenced at Montezuma, New York, by the 
Duryee Portland Cement Company, of which George W. Duryee was 
Secretary. The company owned 1,700 acres of land underlaid by a deposit 
of marl and clay from 4 to 20 feet thick. The deposit lay below the level 




An induced draft fan (left foreground) is used for drawirg waste heat gases from the 
rotary kilns through waste heat boilers and economizers. More than forty cement 
plants in this country have installed this equipment. 



of the Caj'uga River and near its banks. The marl, containing about 50 
per cent water, was drawn by a steam hoist up an incline into the second 
story of the works and above the upper end of a mixing machine into 
which the load was dumped without drying or other preliminary treat- 
ment. At the same time a weighed and ground portion of clay was added. 
The materials mixed as they gravitated toward the lower end of the 
machine, the entire process being practically continuous. The mixture 
passed through a stone mill which completed the mixing and ground any 
coarse materials. From the mill it was introduced directly by screw con- 
ve\^or into a rotary kiln using oil as fuel. This kiln was sufficiently unique 
to be described somewhat in detail. It was 75 feet long, and opposite the 
lower end was a gas retort, or combustion chartiber. The chamber was 
heated by a coal fire and vaporized the oil as it was sprayed into it. The 
air blast also passed into this chamber, coming from a rotary fan blower. 
It is claimed that this was the first American plant in which raw materials 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 93 

were fed without drying or briqiiettiiig directly into rotary kilns. The 
Montezuma works were destroyed by fire in 1893 and were not rebuilt. 

Concerning the use of the rotary kiln in New York State, we find J. 
Gardner Sanderson writing on the subject of the original Navarro kiln 
in the Rosendale region to John S. Schantz of Milwaukee, under date of 
February 28, 1890. Speaking of this kiln at the Hudson River Cement 
Company's plant, which Coykendall owned, he makes the following state- 
ments: 

I wanted facilities for making practical tests of cement materials from New Jersej- 
and other points, and with that in view entered into an arrangement with Mr. Coy- 
kendall to reconstruct the Ransome kiln, adapting it to our process, giving him the right 
to use the kiln for burning Rosendale cement. The result as to quantity and cost of 
burning Rosendale cement was so satisfactory that Mr. Coykendall had decided to put 
in two more of these kilns when an unforeseen difficulty appeared, and which I learned 
had been apparent to Navarro's people. The cement rock at East Kingston is seamed 
with pure carbonate of lime, varying in thickness up to an inch or more. In the revolving 
kiln process this lime is thoroughly mixed with the cement, and it would be impracticable 
to separate it. In the old lump burning process the rock separates in burning at the 
seams, most of the lime crumbling into powder, and in drawing, can to a great extent 
be separated. The Hudson River Cement Company has quarries and kilns near Rosen- 
dale which furnish the better quality of dark cement. They are erecting two of the old- 
fashioned coal-burning kilns at East Kingston in which to burn the light rock, intending 
to bring dark rock from their Rosendale works to mix with it. The revolving kiln 
remains and will be employed if they have suitable rock to burn in it. The thorough 
mixing during the process of burning of the materials fed into the cylinder, is a valuable 
feature of the revolving kiln process for portland cement and for cement made from a 
good but slightly variable natural rock. 

Additional interest is lent to this from the fact that Coykendall, a 
number of years earlier, as already described, had started to make port- 
land cement under the Dunderdale patent but was unsuccessful. 

Another marl and clay plant was that of the American Cement Com- 
pany, two miles east of Jordan, in Onondaga County, erected in 1892. 
Raw material was obtained from a marsh near the works, and the com- 
pany also owned a bed of marl near Jordan station. At this plant a wire 
ropeway transported the raw materials to the mill. The clay was dried 
and ground separately and then mixed with marl in the pug mills. The 
slurry was spread over a drying floor and cut into bricks. The bricks were 
loaded on platform cars, dried in tunnels, heated by coal fires, and fed to 
twelve kilns of the dome type, coke being used as fuel. 

Among the marl-using plants built about 1904 was that of the Iroquois 
Portland Cement Company, near Caledonia, Livingston County; and in 
1896 the Wayland Portland Cement Company built a marl-using plant 
at Wayland, Steuben County. 

In writing of these plants in 1905, Edwin C. Eckel says: "Until within 
the last few years the typical New York plant has been one using marl 
and clay, mixing wet, briquetting, and drying and burning in dome kilns." 



94 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



Ohio Marl Plants 

In Ohio the Buckeye Portland Cement Company estabhshed a plant 
near Bellefontaine, in 1889, the promoters of this enterprise being G. W. 
Bartholomew and associates. They had a double Dietsch (German) kiln. 
Mr. Bartholomew was previously connected with the San Antonio Portland 
Cement plant in Texas, and was familiar with foreign practice. The Buck- 
eye Compan}^ had an abundance of soft white marl near blue clay. Later, 
four continuous shaft kilns, similar to the Candlot type, were built on 
designs prepared by the company. The raw material was introduced in 




The machine shop is a vitally important part of any modern cement plant because of 
the necessity of keeping the equipment in perfect condition all the time. 



the kiln in the form of bricks, but later a rotary kiln was introduced and 
proved so satisfactory^ that i)lans were made for the installation of others 
to escape the brick-making, drying, etc. This company also experimented 
with powdered coal foi- rotary kilns, which was reported to b(^ satisfactory. 
Crude petroleum was the first fuel used. 

Even earlier than the plant described above was a very small works 
at Columbu¥, Ohio, operated under the name of the Murphy Cement Com- 
pany. It consisted of a single iron kiln lined with fire biick and a lot of 
junk in the shape of crushing and grinding machinery. The plant used 
limestone and clay and had a capacity of 30 to 40 barrels a day. It was in 
existence only a short time. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 95 

S. B. Newberry went to Ohio where he was interested in the estab- 
Hshment of a marl plant. Concerning this plant he wrote as follows: 

My experience in New York led me to believe in the possibilities of the portland 
cement industry in this country, and with Frederick D. White I explored reported marl 
deposits in northern Ohio, finally locating large deposits of white marl in the neighbor- 
hood of Sandusky. With the help of my late brother, Arthur St. John Newberry, of 
Cleveland, a small company was formed in 1892 and a plant erected at Bay Bridge, 
near Sandusky, which turned out its first product in August, 1893. In the course of 
our explorations, Mr. White and I visited the Buckeye cement plant near Bellefontaine, 
Ohio, where cement was made in vertical kilns from marl and clay. In order to conceal 
the purpose of our inspection, Mr. White asked the superintendent if the product they 
made was a liquid cement like Le Page's. This showed such a depth of ignorance that 
the superintendent had no hesitation in admitting us. 

Chalk Plants 

Here and there companies were formed to manufacture portland ce- 
ment from chalk and clay. 

On the north side of the Missouri River, four miles west of Yankton, 
South Dakota, is an outcropping of chalk. Here, in 1889-90, a portland 
cement plant was erected by the Western Portland Cement Company, of 
which W. Plankinton, of Milwaukee, was President; D. J. Whittemore, 
formerly President of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Vice Presi- 
dent, and John Johnson, cashier of the Wisconsin Marine & Fire Insurance 
Company's bank, Secretary and Treasurer. The plant was designed by 
Robert Yates, who had studied works in England and Germany, and it was 
patterned along the lines of plants on the Thames and Medway, England. 
Kilns were of the Johnson type, of which there were six with drying 
chambers and central chimney. A homogeneous mixture of chalk and clay 
was obtained by conveying all material in continuous courses through 
three sets of bassins dosseurs. Later this plant was sold to S. B. Newberry, 
of the Sandusky Portland Cement Company, who dismantled it as scrap. 

In 1895 a chalk plant was estabhshed at Whitecliffs I^anding, on Little 
River, Arkansas. Litigation between those financially interested arose, 
resulting in the closing of the plant in 1900. Operations were resumed in 
1901, with the name of the company changed to the Southwestern Portland 
Cement Company. The works contained the most improved machinery 
made at the time. Four continuous dome kilns were used to burn the 
bricks, which were made of chalk and clay. 

Until 1900 the nearest cement plant corresponding to the Whitecliffs 
works was at San Antonio, Texas. Then a plant was erected at Dallas, 
Texas, where chalk from the southern extension of the Whitecliffs forma- 
tion was used. 

Another early chalk plant was that of the old Alabama Portland 
Cement Company, organized in 1901 , now the Gulf States Portland Cement 



96 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



Company. In Brown's "Directory of American Cement Industries," pub- 
lished in that year by Charles Carroll Brown, it is stated that the Alabama 
Portland Cement Company, whose works were then under construction, 
had a capitalization of $500,000 and a capacity of 1,000 barrels per day. 




The modern cement storage and packing-house provides enough room for thousands 
of tons of cement and is equipped with the latest labor-saving machinery. 



Thomas C. Cairns was General Manager. In the 1904 edition of the same 
publication appear the names of J. Topham Richardson, President; 
Bristow Bovill, J. L. Spoor and C. A. W. Moon, Directors, all of London, 
England. Mr. Cairns had become a Director in the meantime, and F. W. 
Smyth had become General Manager. The main office of the company 
was at Demopolis, Alabama, and the works at Spocari. The capacity in 
the 1904 directory was given as 500 barrels per day. 

George P. Di3ckmann, Vice President and General Manager of the 
Gulf States Portland Cement Company, relates the following interesting 
incidents connected with the original works: 

The Alabama Portland Cement Company manufac'tured the well-known "Red 
Diamond" bTand. The company was organized in 1901 but the plant was shut down 
from 1908 to 1919, during which period several attempts were made to renew operations. 
The company was organized by English capital. The name Spocari, at which place the 
plant was located, originated in the following manner: Mr. Spookes (probably Spoor), 
Mr. Cairns and Mr. Richardson, in seeking for a name, selected the first two letters 
of each of their names which made "Spo-ca-ri." According to darkey legend, however, 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 97 

Spocari was the Greek for "cement." It may be of interest to state that the Gulf States 
Portland Cement Company owns its coal mine, is located on a navigable river and is in 
position not only to ship coal by river but also cement. I believe it is the only plant in 
the United States having these advantages and the only one having no quarry. 

The calcareous material used for the manufacture of cement is obtained by a 
so-called excavator, which is a motor-driven apparatus, and works on the principle of 
a shaving machine. It shaves off a 50-foot face, and from the cutting knife drops these 
shavings into the buckets following the cutting knives. In other words, it is an elevator 
provided with cutting knives and driven with a motor delivering the stone without the 
use of crushing machinery. This apparatus can be operated by two men. 

We find in other sections of the country listed as engaged in the manu- 
facture of Portland cement as early as 1901, the Alma Portland Cement 
Company, Wellston, Ohio, B. B. Lathbury, President; Buck Horton Port- 
land Cement Company, with works at Manheim, West Virginia, John F. 
Storer, President; Castalia Portland Cement Company, Castalia, Ohio, 
W. J. Prentice, President; Chicago Portland Cement Company, Chicago, 
Norman D. Fraser, President; Colorado Portland Cement Company, 
Portland, Colorado, W. H. James, President; Diamond Portland Cement 
Company, Cleveland, Ohio, Z. W. Davis, President; German- American 
Portland Cement Company, Chicago, Carl Prussing, Germany, President 
and Fritz Worm, Chicago, Secretary; lola Portland Cement Company, 
lola, Kansas, Sheldon H. Bassett, President; Marquette Portland Cement 
Company, La Salle, Illinois, of which the Dickinson Cement Companj'-, 
Chicago, were sales agents; Maryland Cement Company, Baltimore, 
Frank H. Sloan, President; Pembina Portland Cement Company, Grand 
Forks, North Dakota, E. J. Babcock, President; Portland Cement Com- 
pany of Utah, Salt Lake City, Frank Richardson, London, England, Presi- 
dent and Thomas C. Cairns, General Manager; Texas Portland Cement 
Company, Dallas, Texas, Leon Blum, President; Virginia Portland Cement 
Company, with works at Craigsville, Virginia, W. R. Warren, President. 



CHAPTER VIII 

DEVELOPMENT OF THE INDUSTRY 

Some Figures on Early American Production 

From what the reader has thus far learned of the early days of the 
cement industry in America, has no doubt come a realization that its 
pioneers had difficulties of every type to encounter, financial, mechanical 
and scientific. At the end of the first decade of their work, 1870 to 1879, 
the total output of American portland cement as shown by the United 
States Geological Survey records had reached only 82,000 barrels, valued 
at $246,000, while importations, as shown by official records, amounted to 
92,000 barrels for 1878, the earliest figures recorded, and 106,000 barrels 
in 1879. 

The next twenty 3^ears were full of interesting developments in the 
field, new figures appearing in the foreground and new methods finding 
their way into the art. 

Comparison of Growth of American Industry with that in Germany 

In order to realize, in a way, how the production and growth of the 
American industry followed that of Germany, and how similar were the 
difficulties encountered in both countries, one need but refer to the papers 
of Max Gary, the distinguished German expert, and Henry Faija, M. Inst. 
C. E., read at the Engineering Congress of the United States during the 
Columbian Exhibition, Chicago, 1893, and the paper by Robert W. Lesley, 
Assoc. Am. Soc. C. E., read at the International Engineering Congress in 
St. Louis in 1904. Gary's paper showed tiiat the German Portland Cement 
Manufactvu'ers' Association started in 1877, and represented at that time 
29 factories, with an output of 2,400,000 barrels, while by 1903 the mem- 
bership of the Association comprised 94 works, with an estimated produc- 
tion of 22,000,000 barrels. Both Gary's and Faija's papers describe fully 
the methods of manufacture used at that time in Germany and England 
and give details of processes, machinery, etc. In the description of manu- 
facture in both papers nuich stress is laid upon the wet slurry, its proper 
drying, the advantage of wet grinding, and the method of handling the 
material after it had been dried by evaporation and decantation. Much 
is said of the advantages of the wet mixture ; of the large area required for 
drying, the use of new types of drying tunnels attached to the old-style 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 99 

dome or bottle kilns; of drying floors utilizing the heat that formerly 
went up the stack of the old dome kilns; and of other methods for econom- 
ical working of the wet mixture in the intermittent kilns then used. 

There are also descriptions of the introduction and use of the Schoefer 
continuous kiln, the Dietsch continuous kiln, and the Hoffman-Ring kiln.. 

Some of the Early Mechanical Practices 

So far as machinery was concerned there was little said, because in 
general the raw material was ground wet in large revolving vats with 
chasers, and the finished material on French buhr stones. European prac- 
tice had been very largel,y based upon precedent. The first mills having 
been situated along livers where wet chalks and clay were easily obtainable, 
the machinery was arranged for that purpose, and as water was abundant 
the precedents for mill power were water power, and the line shaft for 
driving mills was usually connected with a water wheel, and the mills were 
in turn connected with the line shaft by bevel or other forms of cog gearing. 
Thus the grinding machinery in manj^ of the European works was situated 
in the second storey of the building, losing considerable space, and the well- 
known forms of millstones used for grinding varied in size from three to 
six feet in diameter. As time went on, mills in many of the more advanced 
European plants were driven directly by belts from line shafts, which took 
the place of the old-fashioned cog gearing, and in several of them the first 
type of tube mill was used, the apparatus, consisting of a revolving cylinder 
containing a large number of Iceland pebbles. 

In his paper of 1904, Lesley describes visits he made to the principal 
Portland cement works in Germany, France and England, and with the 
information furnished by the contributions of Faija and Gary, he secured 
a fair insight into the status of the industry at the period mentioned. 
In describing this he says : 

The first interesting fact is that up to 1896 precedents in burning and grinding 
governed cement manufacture, and few radical changes were introduced. This seemed 
to apply more extensively to this than to any other industry then known to the writer. 

The milling or grinding of materials, as a rule, had always been done by water 
power. Water power had fixed the mode of grinding by millstones operated by water- 
wheels with bevel or cog gearing of one kind or another, between the power and the 
running parts. This method seemed to obtain in most of the mills in Europe, even 
though steam power had been adopted, and it was perfectly practicable to run millstones 
or other forms of grinding machinery by direct belting and shafting. 

Experience had shown that wet materials could be mixed intimately in a liquid 
or semi-liquid condition, that the sun and air would dry the paste thus made into a mass 
which could be easily broken up, and which, after drying upon heating floors, could be 
burned in dome kilns, and that the clinker thus produced, when properly selected, was 
easily ground, producing excellent results. All these traditions as to methods of manu- 
facture were interwoven with the reputation which old mills — more especially in England 



100 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

— manufacturing well-known brands of cement, had won for their product, and very 
few establishments in Europe in the early nineties had made much progress toward 
change in methods. 

The same traditions governed the first manufacture of American portland cement. 
It was difficult to induce engineers and large investors to trust important construction 
to cements made of new and untried materials in a new country. It was even more 
difficult to induce them to consider any portland cement which had been made under 
methods showing any change from the well-known processes which had established the 
reputation of portland cement as a building material all over the world. 

The early manufacturer in the United States had difficulty enough in persuading 
architects and engineers to use this material at all, and it was only upon the statement 
that, in chemical constitution, its ingredients were similar to those of the well-known 
portland cement of Europe, and that it was made by similar processes, that he was 
able to get a hearing. There was difficulty enough to achieve this result without securing 
the consent of the engineer to use material made, not only from new ingredients, but 
also by new processes. 

American portland cement, in the nineties, had to show its right to exist as an 
engineering material, and its right to be trusted with the duty of carrying the strains 
which are now expected of it. The well-known and successfully-made brands of England 
and Germany had carried the burdens imposed, and had carried them well, and the 
market was at their command. During the past ten years, however, American portland 
cement has been steadily making its commercial and scientific reputation, and, these 
facts having been established, it became possible to adopt new methods and new machin- 
ery in almost all branches of the industry. 

Owing to peculiar conditions as to labor, fuel, etc., American manufacturers found 
themselves handicapped, in the early days, when manufacturing under the European 
processes, and it became a part of their struggle for existence to challenge the old 
process, and to develop new ones, under which they could expand, not only in the 
United States, but in all the countries of the world. 

From the foregoing the lack of mechanical progress in the early 
American plants can well be understood, and it was not until the period 
between 1880 and 1900, when American portland cement began to establish 
its foothold, that American manufacturers started in on the remarkable 
career of mill and kiln developments which have signalized the growth of 
the industry in this country. 

The output of Portland cement during this time was 150,000 barrels 
in 1885; 335.500 barrels in 1890; 990,324 barrels in 1895, and 8,482,020 
barrels in 1900. With this growing demand for the American product and 
the gradual reduction of imports, American manufacturers were alive to 
every promising method of improving their manufacturing processes. 

Lehigh District, Pennsylvania, First Important Manufacturing Center 

As a Mstorical fact, figures show that the real, early growth was in 
the Lehigh district in Pennsylvania. This was largely due to the remark- 
able raw material found in that field. In other words, the making of port- 
land cement was largely an admixture of clay and chalk, limestone and 
clay, shales and limestone, and other similar materials, but in practically 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



101 



every case, except in Boulogne, France, the product was the result of the 
combination of two or more raw materials. In the Lehigh district, which 
in the early days embraced the large strip of territory running from the 
Delaware River near IVIartins' Creek and extending through Bath, Ban- 
gor, Nazareth, Northampton, Coplay, Whitehall, Egypt, and Ormrod, 




Twenty years ago each filled sack was tied and weighed by hand, a tedious and ineffi- 
cient process. 



there existed a wonderful deposit of argillaceous hmestone, such as has 
not been found in like extent and quality in any other part of the world. 
This deposit, of almost unknown depth, was sedimentary material, and 
occupied geologically a position between the slates and limestone for- 
mations. It partook, in a general way, of both materials, resulting in the 
combination of limestone and argillaceous material already described. 
Owing to their sedimentary character, they were, as a general rule, of 
moderate hardness, as contrasted with crystalline limestone and in many 
cases partook of the characteristics of slate. Thus, they were easy to grind 
and to handle, and in the early days of the industry, when tensile strength 
standards fixed by engineers were not too high, many of these rocks were 
almost adapted to portland cement manufacture in their original state 
without the addition of limestone. Even today in some of the choice loca- 
tions materials are found that contain practically all the ingredients prop- 
erly proportioned for portland cement. 



102 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

Thus it was that once manufacture had started in the Lehigh district, 
a large body of workmen and managers famihar with the material were 
soon found, and the district manufactured, from 1890 to 1896, about 60 
per cent of the total output of the United States; from 1897 to 1900 in- 
clusive, slightly more than 70 per cent, gradually dechning thereafter until 
in 1923 it produced but 25.9 per cent of the total output in the country. 

Another feature of this material was that it was dry and did not re- 
quire for its handling the large bodies of water needed in the European wet 
process where wet materials were the ingredients. The rocks were lami- 
nated water-lime rocks, and by reason of their chemical composition, as 
well as their structural character, were specially adapted to the manu- 
facture of Portland cement. Consequently, in Saylor's day, it took much 
less time to handle and dry this material than it did with the over-satur- 
ated European slurry; and Saylor found that by adding burned natural 
cement rock of quick setting type to his paste he was able to handle his 
brick on his drying floors at very early periods. 

Along in 1883 and 1884, under the DeSmedt process, great economies 
were being made with this same raw material at the works of the American 
Improved Cements Company. 

These American methods, however, at that period were easily explain- 
able to the average engineer as the analysis of the raw mix was identical 
with the raw mix used in Europe, and therefore there was no material 
difference in the methods of manufacture of the American product as con- 
tradistinguished from that of Europe, the rest of the steps being practically 
identical with those pursued abroad. 

During this twenty-year period, however, American ingenuity was 
constantly thinking in new terms in the manufacture of portland cement, 
and the period marks the development of two great lines of progress, each 
of which was in itself a master key. 

High Labor Costs Met by American Ingenuity 

The American manufacturer was confrontiHl from the earliest days 
of the industry with high-priced labor, and economy in this direction was 
one requisite of success. Two fields for advanced thought offered them- 
selves: On the one hand, the necessity for some improved form of kiln 
whereby, with costly American labor and cheap American coal, the process 
of clinkerin^ could be accomplished at a lower cost in this country than 
in Europe. Tlie othei', the bringing forth of new machinery for crushing 
and grinding the raw rock, which in American practice had taken the 
place of the softer material used in Europe. Upon these two lines of de- 
velopment rests the whole American industry today, and a few words as 
to this are most pertinent in dealing with this period of the business. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 103 

The light iron crushers of coffee-mill type were constantly breaking 
down, and cost money in time and repairs, while the buhr stones used for 
grinding both raw material and the finished product were the source of 
unceasing expense for picking and dressing. From this necessity grew the 
introduction of the Gates crusher, the first of these great machines in opera- 
tion in the industry being used at the works of the American Improved 
Cements Company, at Egypt, Pennsylvania. While in some mills the Stur- 
tevant, Frisbie and some similar forms of iron and steel grinding apparatus 
had been introduced to take the place of mill-stones, it was not until 1887 
that the advent of the Griffin mill marked a new era in cement mill grinding 
machinery. 

In reference to this particular mill, which is used, together with the 
Gates crusher, for the purpose of illustrating standard types of iron and 
steel crushing and grinding machinery which marked the development of 
the American industry in the period of its growth between 1880 and 1900, 
it was this development in the substitution of heavy, high-power steel 
machinery that w^as of the greatest importance. 

The names Griffin and Gates will alw^ays be identified with the in- 
dustry because of the important mechanical devices described. 

Edwin C. Griffin died on December 10, 1911, in Boston. Mr. Griffin, 
who was a native of Ontario, Canada, was born January 29, 1848. Owing 
to the importance of his inventions, chief among them the Griffin mill, 
he was as well known in the cement industry, both at home and abroad, 
as any of the leading manufacturers of cement. Mr. Griffin was a son of 
James K. Griffin, inventor of the original single roll mill that bore his name. 

Ralph I. Gates was one of Chicago's pioneer citizens as well as an early 
manufacturer of cement. He died in Chicago on January 16, 1907, at the 
age of 67 years. He was a native of that city, and a son of Philetus W. 
Gates, one of the first manufacturers in what was then called the Far West. 
For many years he was treasurer of the Eagle Works Manufacturing 
Company, which was succeeded by the Gates Iron Works and Eraser & 
Chalmers. He severed his connection with the Gates Iron Works Company 
in 1887 to become secretary-treasurer of the Anglo-American Portland 
Cement Compan}', later merged into the Chicago Portland Cement 
Company. 



CHAPTER IX 

THE MECHANICAL SIDE OF THE INDUSTRY 

This chapter is largely given over to recounting the development of 
the mechanical side of the portland cement industry in this country. 
Here American resourcefulness and inventive genius stand out at every 




Modern cement packing machinery is the last word in mechanical ingenuity. Each 
sack, when automatically filled from a spout, receives exactly 94 pounds (one 
cubic foot) of cement. Then the flow stops, the filled and tied sack is shot onto 
a belt conveyor, loaded onto hand trucks, and wheeled to waiting freight cars 
or motor trucks. 

turn. However, the mechanical side of the industry in this country was 
not developed without those difficulties which attend pioneer efforts to 
replace the old by the new. 

The initial use of mechanical appliances in the cement industry is at 
the source o£^ the raw material, and may be placed under the head of 
excavation. There are three general methods of excavating raw materials: 
quarrying, dredging and mining. The materials extracted by these 
methods are limestone, cement rock, marl, clay and slate or shale. It has 
been estimated that over 30,000,000 tons of raw material were handled in 

104 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 105 

1913 to produce 92,000,000 barrels of cement, and that at this time about 
85 per cent of all material used was quarried. 

The excavation of limestone, cement rock and shale is usually a quar- 
rying operation, and with few exceptions a hillside proposition. In rare 
instances it is a mining operation. 

The successive steps in quarrying are stripping, drilling and blasting, 
excavating and transporting. Sometimes difficult problems occur in the 
drilling and blasting operations, owing to variations in the hardness of 
material or its structvn'al formation. 

Clay is dug from pits, and marl, in most cases, is dredged. At some 
sources of supply, marl is extracted with pumps. When marl is under water, 
steam dredges mounted on barges bring up the raw material. Where the 
deposit is saturated, it is often the practice to drain the water into channels 
upon which float the barges carrying the dredges. The material is con- 
veyed by barges to a wharf and thence to the mill. 

The machinery used in stripping and excavating raw material from 
quarries, clay pits and marl beds includes shovels, scrapers, graders, steam 
shovels, scraper bucket excavators, locomotive cranes and floating dipper 
dredges. 

Transportation methods used to convey the raw materials to the mill 
include gravity, elevator, hauHng, serial conveying and pumping systems; 
and the machinery and appliances include wheelbarrows, wagons, dump 
cars in trains, aerial tramways or cableways and marl pumps. 

As preliminary crushing and grinding of the raw material and the final 
grinding take place before and after burning, the kiln will be described first. 

The Kiln the Most Important Mechanical Unit 

The mill side of the portland cement industry involves the use of 
mechanical devices of many kinds, but the most important unit is the kiln, 
the receptacle in which raw materials are burned. The capacity of a plant 
is usually determined by the number of kilns in use. The kiln was a legacy 
from the old lime burners to the natural cement makers and they in 
turn passed it on to the makers of portland cement. The kiln has ever 
been a source of inspiration to inventors, resulting in innumerable patents 
or changes in types or parts thereof. From the first primitive furnace 
of the lime burners, cement kilns improved until there was finally evolved 
the great rotary cylinders which virtually revolutionized the business of 
making portland cement in so far as economy of operation and increased 
volume of production are concerned. 

In the manufacture of natural cement, which was made from raw 
rock, the material was simply placed in the vertical kiln with alternate 
layers of low-grade coal and burned without previous manipulation or 
treatment. 



106 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

Wet, Semi- Wet and Dry Processes Described 

Portland cement, which is made in some cases from rock and in others 
from marl and clay or limestone and clay, required considerable prepara- 
tion of raw materials before burning. It was manufactured by three 




A fine example of concrete building construction in cement i)lant office and laboratory, 



methods, known as the wet method, semi-wet method, and dry method, 
all of them mechanical until the stage of burning was reached, and all 
intended to bring about thorough combination of the difTerent ingredients 
of the raw material. 

The wet method was usually employed where the raw materials con- 
sisted of chalk and clay. During the crushing or grinding operation water 
was used to bring about an intimate mixture. The mixture was then run 
into settling "backs," some of them covering acres of ground. There 
evaporation and decantation took place, thus disposing of a large amount 
of water. After further drying in the vicinity of the kiln, the mixture was 
placed in the^kiln with alternate layers of fuel and burned. 

In the semi-wet method, a French invention, the mixture, after grind- 
ing and wetting, was passed between horizontal mills in semi-plastic state 
and then placed on the drying floors and later burned as described in the 
wet method. In the wet and semi-wet processes, the materials in the wet 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 107 

state were called "slurry"; and where the wet method was used months 
might elapse before the material was dry enough to go into the kiln. 

In the third, or dry method, the raw material as treated in the early 
days of the portland cement industry was first reduced in the dry state by 
crushing and grinding machineiy and then given sufficient water to trans- 
form it into a plastic mass which was molded into bricks. The bricks were 
dried and then burned as in the two methods previously described. But 
upon the advent of the rotary kiln the dry process became literally dry, no 
water being used. The materials are now crushed and ground to a fine 
powder, which is fed directly into the kiln and burned. 

Before the days of the rotary kiln one difficulty experienced by Amer- 
ican manufacturers was due to lack of binding quality in the raw material 
after being placed in the kiln. The American materials, not being as plastic 
as the European chalks and clays, the lower contents of the kiln would 
settle under the weight of the upper charge. At Saylor's plant, quick setting 
natural cement was used as a binder for the brick and another ingenious 
method devised by the American Cement Company has been described. 

Three types of kilns have been used in the manufacture of portland 
cement in the United States, the intermittent vertical dome kiln, the con- 
tinuous vertical kiln and the rotary kiln. American manufacturers used 
the old vertical continuous kilns for making natural cement and, later, in 
the manufacture of portland cement. 

The Dome Kiln 

The upright dome kiln, the first tj'pe used in America, was not 
operated continuously, each burning requiring a fresh charge, hence 
the name intermittent kiln. It was also called the bottle kiln, owing 
to its shape. Having been burned with alternate layers of coke, the 
material was extracted from the bottom of the kiln and sorted for over- 
burned and underburned clinker. The first portland cement made from 
the Lehigh rocks by Saylor was burned in a dome kiln, and also the marl 
cement of the Millens at South Bend. 

The uneconomic features of the dome kiln soon became apparent. The 
labor costs involved in the charging of the kiln were high and the output 
was limited. 

A great deal of heat escaped from the top of the kiln, and as drying of 
brick before burning was essential, it was logical that the utilization of 
waste heat for this purpose should be suggested to the inventor. I. C. John- 
son, of England, invented a kiln from which the heat ascended and entered 
one end of a long horizontal chamber built above the kiln. Brick were 
placed there to dry while those previously dried were being burned in the 
kiln. The Western Portland Cement Company, of Yankton, South Da- 
kota, installed kilns of this type. 



108 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



The Continuous Kiln 

The disadvantages of the intermittent kiln led to further improve- 
ments, and finally there was invented in Germany the continuous kiln, 
charging being carried on continuously at the top and the clinker drawn 
from the bottom. These kilns were several stories in height and con- 
tinuous charging made for economy in the use of fuel. The two important 
kilns of this type used in America were the Schoefer and Dietsch kilns. 
The Dietsch kiln had three chambers for heating, burning and cooling 




Modern cement plantis contain many examples of the adaptability of concrete to indus- 
trial construction. 

the material. The dry slurry passed into the heating chamber and from 
there was raked into the combustion chamber. The removal of clinker 
from the bottom permitted the slurry to drop into the heating chamber 
where it was gradually subjected to high temperature preparatory to 
going into the combustion chamber. The Schoefer kiln was a modification 
of the Dietsch kiln, and worked upon the same principle. 



The Rotary Kiln 

When kilns of the foregoing types were first introduced in the Ignited 
States in an experimental way, demand for better methods of burning 
cement was imperative, and concurrent with the introduction of the kilns 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 109 

described came that great invention, the rotary kiln, then in the initial 
stage of development. The rotary kiln, which finally supplanted the more 
primitive types in all important cement works, consists of a long cylinder 
of sheet steel lined with firebrick. These kilns had been made in varying 
lengths, but a prevalent dimension for some years was 60 feet long by 6 feet 
in diameter. The kiln, which rests at a slight incline, revolves on tires 
resting on trunnions. The cement-making material is fed into the upper 
end, which projects into a brick flue surmounted by a stack. Where port- 
land cement is made from rock, the material is reduced to a fine powder 
before it enters the kiln, where it is burned at temperatures of 2500 degrees 
to 3000 degrees F., which transforms it into "clinker." The chnker is 
ground to the fine powder known as portland cement. In the case of marl, 
the raw material in the form of slurry is pumped from vats into the kiln. 
The First American Rotary Kiln 

How the fii'st rotarj^ kiln in America was installed is an interesting 
story. The following account is contributed by Alfonso de Navarro, Vice 
President of the Atlas Portland Cement Company, whose father, Jose F. 
de Navarro, was responsible for the introduction of the rotary kiln in the 
United States. 

In 1886, Jose F. de Navarro and his two sons, Antonio and Alfonso de Navarro, 
erected in the United States the first rotary cyhnder for the burning and manufacture 
of cement. This cyhnder was erected under patents taken out by Henry Mathey, which 
were controlled by the de Navarro family. 

The cylinder was erected at the Union Cement Companj' works, Rondout, New 
York. It was 24 feet in length with a diameter of 12 feet, and was similar to a large 
peanut roaster. This cylinder was charged from the center up to one-third of its capacity. 
The fuel used in the burning of the cement rock was crude Lima oil. The market price of 
this oil was from 2 to 2J^ cents a gallon, delivered. The burner used was known as a 
Rose burner. The cylinder was slowly revolved for eight or ten hours, after which time 
it was discharged from the same aperture that it was charged. After two years of 
experiment, it became evident that this cylinder was a failure and it was abandoned. 

Jose F. de Navarro, by chance, saw an article in the Engineering News describing 
a rotary cylinder process for burning cement, which was being experimented with by 
Frederick Ransome, at the Gibbs Portland Cement Works, at Grays, on the Thames, 
England. 

Alfonso de Navarro in January, 1888, went to England, and with a letter of intro- 
duction to Mr. Ransome from the Baring Brothers, visited the works where the rotary 
cylinder was in operation. This cj'linder was 5 feet in diameter and 25 feet long and 
was similar in construction to the cyHnders now in operation throughout the country. 
The fuel used by Mr. Ransome was producer gas, and the material manufactured by 
this process was of the best quality, samples of this cement being taken from the cylinder 
by Mr. de Navarro and tested by a London cement expert. 

The cylinder then in operation was the third erected by Mr. Ransome, the first 
cylinder being 18 inches in diameter and 12 feet long and the second cylinder 2J^ feet 
in diameter and 18 feet in length. 

After several months of negotiation, Mr. de Navarro acquired the American rights 
for the manufacture of portland cement under the Frederick Ransome patents. 



no 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



In July, 1889, an exact duplicate of Mr. Ransome's last rotarj' cylinder was 
erected by the Keystone Portland Cement Company, which was controlled by the de 
Navarro family, at Coplay, Pennsylvania, and in November, 1889, operations under this 
process were begun. At first the experiments were unsuccessful and the product unsatis- 
factory, owing to the fact that the cement rock was burned in small pieces varj'ing from 
half-inch to 2 inches in diameter. 

In the Spring of 1890 it was decided to grind the raw material to an impalpable 
powder and to adjust the proportion of lime and silica thoroughly before the material 
was delivered into the cylinder. The product, after having been thoroughly' burned and 
thereafter ground to a powder, 95 per cent of which would pass through a No. 50 sieve, 
produced a portland cement which compared favorably with the best English and Ger- 
man brands. At this time the Keystone was changed to the Atlas Cement Company, 
being still under the same ownership. 

It soon became known in the portland cement world that the rotary cylinder process 
was a practical and economical method of manufacturing portland cement and that the 
product was superior to that manufactured by the old vertical kiln process. It was but 
a few years thereafter when the process for the manufacture of portland cement was 
completely revolutionized and for the past twenty-five years all portland cement works 
have been erected and operated throughout the world under the Frederick Ransome 
rotary cylinder process. 




Group of cement men at St. Louis in 1903, just before the opening of the World's Fair, 
including -fl) Ernest R. Ackerman, (2) John B. Lober, (3) Robert W. Lesley. 



The size of rotary kilns continued to increase until a maximum length 
of 260 feet was reached, the Edison portland cement works, under patents 
granted to Thomas A, Edison, being the pioneer in the installation of 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



111 



kilns of extreme length. The following table gives the lengths of rotary 
kilns in active plants in 1917-1923, and also discloses fluctuations in the 
number of kilns in use during that period : 



LENGTHS OF ROTARY CEMENT KILNS IN ACTIVE PLANTS IN THE 
UNITED STATES, 1917-1922 



Length (feet) 

40 to 60 

61 to 99 

100 to 109 

110 

120 

125 

126 to 149 

150 to 199\ 

200 to 260/ 



1917 



108 
94 
84 
83 
88 

194 
65 
73 



789 



Number of Kilns 
1918 1919 1920 



77 
90 

105 
65 
88 

183 
63 
63 
15 



749 



71 
87 
98 
55 
95 
166 
63 
66 
19 



720 



74 
87 
98 
66 
97 
172 
63 
73 
23 



753 



1921 



74 
87 
91 
56 
99 
164 
64 
76 
29 



740 



1922 



78 

91 

102 

54 

101 

162 

66 

75 

31 



760 



Kiln Fuels 

The fuel customarily used in burning portland cement in the rotary 
kiln is powdered coal, but a number of plants use crude oil and a few 
natural gas. 

The records of 1922 are noteworthy in showing that over 75.7 per cent 
of the Portland cement produced was burned with coal alone, a decrease 
from 81.5 per cent in 1921. Records from 1907 to 1921 show that the per- 
centages of cement burned with powdered coal ranged from 81.2 in 1920 
to 88.5 in 1907 and ran generally about 82 per cent. Increased consump- 
tion of crude oil and natural gas, due to the greater abundance of crude oil 
for fuel in 1922, accounts for the difference. 



KILN FUELS 
PORTLAND CEMENT BURNED BY DIFFERENT FUELS IN 1922 





Num- 
ber 
of 
Plants 


Num- 
ber 
of 
Kilns 


Barrels 

of 
Cement 


Per- 
centage 

of 
Total 


Coal 


90 

7 
1 


590 

64 

6 


86,864,274 
1 12,030,542 


75.7 


Coal and oil 


10 5 


Coal and gas 




Oil and gas 




Oil 


17 
2 

1 


85 
8 
7 


12,794,890 
1 3,100,278 


11.1 


Coal, oil and gas 


2.7 


Natural gas 










118 


760 


114,789,984 


100.0 




The eighteen-story, reinforced concrete Hide and Leather 
Building, New York City, when erected, was the tallest 
concrete building in the world. It is of further interest 
that it was built during winter weather. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



113 



KILN FUELS 
PORTLAND CEMENT BURNED BY DIFFERENT FUELS IN 1923 




iN um- 
ber 
of 
Plants 


iN um- 
ber 
of 
Kilns 


Barrels 

of 
Cement 


Per- 
centage 

of 
Total 


Coal 


101 
1 


641 
24 


108,272,858 

8,091,506 

16,313,410 
1 4,782,464 


78.7 


Coal and oil 




Coal and gas 


5.9 


Oil and gas 


2 

18 

3 

1 


9 
95 
18 

6 




Oil 


11.9 


Coal, oil and gas 


3.5 


Natural gas 










126 


793 


137,460,238 


100.0 



Preparation of coal for the kilns has led to the establishment of what 
are termed the coal grinding plants of the mills, the powdering of coal 
requiring drying, and pulverizing machinery of various types. 

Crushing and Grinding Machinery 

Increased efficiency in kilns was accompanied by equally essential 
improvements in crushing and grinding machinery. Progress in the de- 
velopment of kilns and crushing and grinding machinery was attended 
with competitive spirit rather than coordinated procedure. The crushing 
and grinding machinery first used to reduce raw materials and clinker 
soon failed to meet requirements both as to quantity and fineness. 

While different works have different installations, in general practice 
the raw material goes to the powerful initial crushers and thence to the 
finer grinding machinery, some of which is used in the reduction of material 
both before and after burning. Some of these devices operate on the coffee 
mill principle and others reduce the material by attrition as distinguished 
from grinding. The latter include the tube mills, ball mills and kominuters. 
The tube mill is a revolving cylinder containing steel balls, steel slugs or 
flint pebbles. The ball mills are revolving drums containing steel balls. 
Material has also been crushed by revolving steel rolls. 

An intermediate step between the burning and final reduction of the 
clinker into the powder called portland cement, is the cooling of the 
cHnker, which comes from the kiln at very high temperatures. Sundry 
methods have been used to cool clinker. In many cases it is merely stored 
until needed for grinding. In earlier practice, clinker pits and rotary coolers 
were employed, followed by the upright clinker cooler which is still used 
at many works. The upright cooler is a steel cylinder about 35 feet high 
and 8 feet in diameter. The clinker enters at the top and descends over 
baffle plates and shelves. In its descent it comes in contact with air cur- 
rents introduced by a perforated pipe running through the center of the 
oler. 



114 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

Packing and Weighing Cement 

The grinding of the chnker is the last step in the manufacture of 
Portland cement. The finished product is conveyed to the stock houses 
where it is placed in bins preparatory to weighing and packing. Except 
where intended for bulk shipment, cement is packed in barrels containing 
376 pounds and in cloth bags or paper sacks containing 94 pounds, these 
being filled by packing machines. Rebates are given for the return of cloth 
sacks, and out of this practice arose complications and problems of the 
most vexatious nature. 

The Cement Mill Power Plant 

The heart of all the cement mill mechanism, w^hich has been but 
briefly outlined, is the steam or electrical power plant and its auxiliary 
resources. From a mechanical standpoint the past twenty-seven years 
have witnessed many radical changes and in some cases complete revolu- 
tion in practice. 

In the crushing department we have seen small gyratory crushers 
replaced by huge ones of the same type. Mammoth jaw and giant roll 
crushers have likely replaced the small crushing units of similar types used 
in the early days. The introduction of the steam shovel is largely respon- 
sible for larger pieces of rock being handled and this in turn has produced 
economy in the number of men required to quarry raw materials. 

H. A. Schaffer, long known in the field of cement manufacture as a 
chemical engineer and for a number of years past Conservation Engineer 
of the Portland Cement Association, contributes the following: 

Persons familiar with driving machinery in ceinent mills from twent j- to twenty-five 
years ago recognize little in the practices with which they were most familiar compared 
with practices today. Formerly all crushing and grinding machinery was driven from 
a common line shaft extending throughout the raw department. Each machine was 
connected to this main shaft by a belt driven pulley and was started and stopped by 
means of a friction clutch. These clutches were the bane of the cement operators' 
existence. 

The machinery on the clinker side was driven in a similar manner from a main 
shaft connected to a large steam engine. 

Today we find each and every unit throughout a modern cement plant directly 
connected either to an induction or synchronous motor, depending upon the size of the 
unit, wholly independent of every other piece of machinery in the plant. 

The introduction of electrical drives has proved a great economy. It has greatly 
reduced necessity for repairs and renewals and in this way has contributed a most im- 
portant part to continuous mill operation. 

Referring briefly to the development of the waste heat boiler in the 
cement industry, Mr. Schaffer writes as follows : 

The first attempt to utilize the heat of waste gases from rotarj' kilns was r" 
1898 at the works of the Nazareth Cement Company. Although this attempt 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



115 



successful because of lack of provision for handling dust accumulations in the boiler, 
it nevertheless marked the initial effort of what has proved to be real saving of fuel in 
the industr}\ 

The second installation, which was made at the plant of the Cayuga Cement Com- 
pany, Portland Point, N. Y., was also abandoned after several 3'ears' operation, although 
a marked improvement was shown over the original waste heat boiler at Nazareth. 

The third effort to generate steam from waste kiln heat was made at the Kosmos 
plant, Kosmosdale, Ky. This installation has been in operation for twenty years. 

In late years many cement plants have been equipped with waste heat boilers. 
More will undoubtedly do so when the large financial outlay which such an installation 
requires can be justified. At the present time approximate!}^ forty different cement 
plants are developing from 50 to 100 per cent of their total power requirements from the 
heated gases which formerly were allowed to escape through the stacks into the atmos- 
phere. 

Classification of Portland Cement Production According to Raw 
Materials Used 

A classification of portland cement production according to the raw 
materials used was made by the United States Geological Survey in 1914, 
The figures are interesting as showing changes in percentages of the differ- 
ent raw materials used from 1898 to 1914, the percentages being based on 
the total production of four classifications of portland cement material, 
namely, cement made from cement rock and pure limestone, that made 
from limestone and clay or shale, cement made from marl and clay, and 
that made from blast furnace slag and limestone. The figures are as 
follows : 

Production, in barrels, and percentage of total output of portland cement in the 
United States, according to type of material used, 1898-1914. 



Year 


Type 1. 

Cement rock and 

pure limestone. 


Type 2. 

Limestone and 

clay or shale. 


Type 3. 
Marl and clay. 


Type 4. 

Blast-furnace slag 

and limestone. 


Quantity 


Per- 
cent- 
age 


Quantity 


Per- 
cent- 
age 


Quantity 


Per- 
cent- 
age 


Quantity 


Per- 
cent- 
age 


1898 


2,764,694 
4,010,132 
5,960,739 
8,503,500 
10,953,178 
12,493,694 
15,173,391 
18,454,902 
23,896,951 
25,859,095 
20,678,693 
24,274,047 
26,520,911 
26,812,129 
24,712,780 
29,333,490 
24,907,047 


74.9 
70.9 
70.3 
66.9 
63.6 
55.9 
57.2 
52.4 
51 4 
53 . 
40.6 
37.3 
34.6 
34.1 
30.0 
31. S 
28.2 


365,408 

546,200 

1,034,041 

2,042,209 

3,738,303 

6,333,403 

7,526,323 

11,172,389 

16,532,212 

17,190,697 

23,047,707 

32,219,365 

39,720,320 

40,665,332 

44,607,776 

47,831,863 

50,168,813 


9.9 
9.7 
12.2 
16.1 
21.7 
28.3 
28.4 
31.7 
35.6 
35.2 
45.0 
49.6 
51.9 
51.8 
54.1 
51.9 
56,9 


562,092 
1,095,934 
1,454,797 
2,001,200 
2,220,453 
3,052,946 
3,332,873 
3,884,178 
3,958,201 
3,606,598 
2,811,212 
2,711,219 
3,307,220 
3,314,176 
2,467,368 
3,734,778 
4,038,310 


15.2 

19.4 

17.1 

15.7 

12.9 

13.7 

12.6 

11.0 

8.5 

7.4 

5.5 

4.2 

4.3 

4.2 

3.0 

4.1 

4.6 






1899 






1900 
1901 
1902 
1903 
1904 
1905 
1906 
1907 
1908 
1909 
1910 
1911 
1912 
1913 
1914 


32,443 

164,316 

318,710 

462,930 

473,294 

1,735,343 

2,076,000 

2,129,000 

4,535,300 

5,786,800 

7,001,500 

7,737,000 

10,650,172 

11,197,000 

9,116,000 


0.4 
1.3 
1.8 
2.1 
1.8 
4.9 
4.5 
4.4 
8.9 
8.9 
9.2 
9.9 
12.9 
12.2 
10.3 



116 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 




HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 117 

Progress in Mechanical Side of Industry Slow 

It is needless to say that progress in the mechanical side of the industry 
in America was anything but plain sailing. In Europe labor was cheap 
and time was aplenty, and, as already described, it took many acres of 
settHng "backs" and many months of preparation of the raw material before 
it was put in the kiln. In this countrj", Saylor, by the use of the wonderful 
raw materials found in the Lehigh district, which could be ground drj' 
and mixed into brick with the minimum of water, was able, with enor- 
mous steam-heated drying floors, to dispense with much of the time and 
space required under European methods. Lesley, under patents of De- 
Smedt, Wilcox, and his own, supplied another means of economy in the 
direction above named. By these patents, which were in use for several 
years at the works of the American Cement Company at Egypt, liquid 
hydrocarbon (coal tars), was mixed with the raw cement material, which 
was then compressed in matched cells under high pressure into the form of 
eggs which, owing to their small size and their shape, were called "egg- 
ettes." The eggs were carried on conveyors to the top of the kilns where 
with the minimum of labor, they were charged with layers of coke prior to 
the burning process. In both cases the dried bricks of Saylor and the eggs 
of the Lesley process were put in layers with coke in intermittent bottle 
kilns modeled after those in use on the Thames and Med way in England. 
It took a great number of these kilns to make the few hundred barrels a 
day that were then produced in the respective plants, as the time of loading 
and burning consumed from eight to ten days, and the material, after 
burning, had to be carefully selected, so that neither overburned nor 
underburned material was fed to the crushers and mills. 

These American processes, which did away with the settling ' 'backs," the 
long period of evaporation and decantation which marked the European 
methods, enabled the material to reach the kiln in the minimum of time 
and with the minimum of labor. Then came the rotary kiln. 

As stated by Mr. de Navarro, the first rotary kiln had many disad- 
vantages, and the raw material used, being high in iron and magnesia, was 
not available for the production of portland cement. A. B. Bonneville, 
who in the eighties, had come from the plaster business into the Lehigh 
district and was operating a small mill there, was largely instrumental in 
inducing the Navarros, owners of the Mathey Process, to bring their plant 
into the Lehigh district, where portland cement material existed. 

Difficulties Attending Initial Use of Rotary Kiln 

Endless difficulties seemed to meet the attempt to establish the rotary 
kiln in the cement industry. The quality of the early cement did not recom- 
mend itself, and it was attacked on all sides by the American manufac- 



118 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

turers who, following the practices of Europe, had established their brands 
in the highest engineering circles. The cement which was burned by oil 
was quick-setting in quality and presented difficulties in practical handling 
on the work. 

While the Keystone Portland Cement Company was going through 
its trials and tribulations with the first kiln, Mr. de Navarro, who had 
been instrumental in building the elevated railways of New York and the 
great Navarro apartments in that city, and who, himself, had been recog- 
nized as a man of indomitable courage and enterprise, succeeded in 
interesting J. Rogers Maxwell, of the Central Railroad of New Jersey, a 
leading figure in Wall Street circles, in his enterprise. The story goes that 
a trainload of capitalists came up to look at the works, and while they 
were there the kiln was successfully revolved and good clinkers were burnt, 
but that just as the train was leaving after the inspection had been 
completed and capital had been satisfied, the kiln stopped, owing to 
mechanical difficulties, and all the old troubles were again in the works, 
while in the Wall Street district new prospects had been opened up by the 
investigating trip. 

Contemporaneously with this development at Coplay by the de Na- 
varro interests, Whittaker, the Philadelphia cotton manufacturer, with the 
cooperation of George E. Bartol, the Philadelphia capitalist, to whom ref- 
erence has been made, had started a works near Phillipsburg, New Jersey, 
where rotary kilns were also installed. 

Discovery of Retarding Influence of Gypsum in the Set of Cement 

At this time the fuel used was oil, then selling around two cents a 
gallon. Both of these new concerns had difficulty at first in finding a 
market, for the reason above stated, the irregular time of setting of th(^ 
cement being the determining influence. The de Navarro interests brought 
to their works as chemist, a French expert named Giron, who had found 
out in France that by mixing plaster with the water used in making cement 
sidewalks, the time of setting of the mortar was materially retarded, and 
he applied this knowledge to the manufacture of portland cement at the 
de Navarro works and succeeded in so regulating the time of setting of the 
rotary kiln cement, that it soon became recognized as a valuable material 
of construction. Whittaker, at Alpha, near Phillipsburg, followed in the 
same lines, and achieved equal success. 

Giron's initials were P. I. and when he went to order his monthlj^ 
commutation book by telephone from the station master at Coplay, the 
only thing the agent could make of his request was that a ticket was to be 
made out in the name of Mr. "Pig Iron." 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 119 

Efforts to Reduce Fuel and Labor Costs Reveal Utility of Rotary Kiln 

While this progress was being made with the rotary kihi, two develop- 
ments were going on in the original Saylor's and American Cement Com- 
pany's plants. After a trip to Europe by Saeger, the manager of the 
Coplay works, that company followed the European practice based upon 
cheap labor and high coal as against the American conditions of high labor 
and cheap coal, and installed a group of Schoefer continuous kilns, in 
place of their intermittent vertical kilns. At the American Cement Com- 
pany's plant the process of using liquid hydrocarbon in making the little 
eggs was abandoned in the later eighties, the introduction of the Lowe 
water gas process having made coal tar too expensive for use in cement 
making; and after going under the management of John W. Eckert, for 
many years associated with Saylor as chemist and superintendent, the 
American Company returned for a time to the process of brick making as 
used in the original Saylor process. This, however, did not continue long. 
Oil advanced rapidly in price and a few years later powdered coal super- 
seded it in rotary kilns. The American Cement Company then threw its 
fortunes with the rotary kiln and built its first plant of 60-foot kilns of 
this type. 

The rotary kiln proved exceptionally well adapted to American cement 
practice. Coal slack, which in the summer was made in the bituminous 
fields to the extent of many millions of tons, was available as pulverized 
fuel and could be bought as low as thirty and forty cents a ton at the mine. 
Coal was essentially cheap and labor had already advanced far beyond the 
cost of similar labor in Europe; consequently, as a historical fact, it may be 
stated that the rotary kiln, as an economical method of production, had 
its especial and distinct field in this country, which had cheap coal and dear 
labor, as against the opposite condition of high coal and cheap labor in 
Germany, England, France, and Belgium. 

In the early days the small coffee-mill crushers with corrugated sides 
were constantly choking while digesting the raw rock broken by hand and 
shoveled into them. These constant breakdowns, tearing of belts, etc., 
added greatly to the cost of cement, and the American Cement Company 
was among the pioneers to substitute for these inefficient methods of 
crushing, the large type of Gates crushers which were able to take great 
pieces of rock, and deliver these in turn to the smaller coffee-mill crushers, 
which remained part of a gradual reduction process. Nor was this all that 
the American Cement Company, in the line of grinding and crushing, had 
to do with the industry. Up to 1886 or 1887 all grinding, both of natural 
and Portland cements, had been done on old-fashioned buhr mills. Some 
of these were made of French buhr stone, and others of the Esopus stone 
found near the Rosendale district, in New York. To visit a cement mill 



120 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 




HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 121 

in these early days was to risk one's eyesight in the shower of flying bits 
of stone that active millstone dressers were constantly picking while 
sharpening the faces of the millstones. The merry clink of steel against 
stone made music in the mill, and the product, while fairly fine, was not 
sufficient in quantity as compared with the enormous cost of sharpening 
and renewing millstones. 

Pioneer Work of John W. Eckert in Advancing Mechanical Side of 

Industry 

To this side of the industry, embracing both crushing and grinding, 
the thought of John W. Eckert was devoted. Having adopted the Gates 
crusher for dealing with his large rocks in their raw condition, it was he 
who first introduced the iron mills of the Griffin type for pulverizing the 
finished clinker coming from the kilns in its very hard and crj^stalline con- 
dition. In company with Robert W. Lesley, he visited the works of the 
Bradley FertiHzer Companj^, at Wymouth, Massachusetts, where phosphate 
rocks were being ground in Griffin mills for the purpose of making fertilizers, 
and so impressed were he and his associates with the work done, that the 
first Griffin mill ever used on portland cement was ordered at once, and 
was later installed at Egypt, where it was in existence until four or five 
years ago. 

To Mr. Eckert some improvements and patents involving modifica- 
tions in the Griffin mill are due and to his foresight and perseverance we 
owe the iron mill in the cement industry. Whittaker, at Alpha, had heard 
of these mills, but he was not ready to put them in, and the story goes that 
he spent two days and two nights without sleep on the hills above the 
American Cement Company's mill at Egypt listening to the booming noise 
of the constantly revolving Griffin mill. When at the end of that time the 
mills were still rolling along merrily and he had heard no stoppage, he 
went home and put in his order for similar mills. Later on the de Navarro 
works, then under the name of the Atlas Portland Cement Company, 
introduced iron mills of the Narod type, and after a long litigation between 
the owners of the Narod and Griffin patents, which was carried to the 
higher courts, the validity of the later patent was sustained. Since that 
period there have been many other iron mills invented and introduced, 
such as the Kent, the Hardinge, Fuller, Sturtevant, and Frisbie. All 
Portland cement today is either ground in mills of this tj^pe or in the later 
type of tube mills of Krupp, Allis-Chalmers, F.L. Smidth & Company, and 
other similar types. The old buhr stone is a thing of the past, as is the old 
vertical intermittent bottle kiln in which the first American portland 
cement was manufactured. 

To the historian this constant race between the development of the 
rotary kiln and the iron mill presents man}- of the most interesting facts in 



122 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

the development of the industry. The old cast iron crushers and mill- 
stones had not enabled the American manufacturer to grind his raw and 
finished product economically. The great change described above was one 
of two that had a marked effect in establishing the American industry and, 
followed as it was later in the development of these various types of ma- 
chinery — in the introduction of tube mills, kominuters and similar appa- 
ratus — dispensed largely with labor. 

Wliile these great developments on the mill side were going on, 
equally important advances were made in the burning of portland cement. 
The old vertical intermittent dome kilns, used by Saylor and the Amer- 
ican Cement Company, had a capacity of 150 to 200 barrels of cement 
every ten days, depending upon atmospheric conditions. The raw material, 
after drying, was loaded with intervening layers of coke until the kiln was 
filled. The torch was then applied and the fire was on. This mass of 
material gradually burned through, flames coming out of the top of the 
stack. In cooling off, the material contracted and the mass of clinker had 
to be dug out. It was loosened with bars and taken from the kiln. The 
yellow and the underburned and overburned material were selected by 
hand. The yield of these kilns was about 200 barrels every ten days, and 
in order to reach a production of 200 to 250 barrels of cement a day, it 
can be readily seen that a large number of kilns were required. Thus it 
was that in the early works of the Lehigh district, large rows of these 
intermittent vertical kilns were built, some of which stand today in dis- 
mantled state as monuments to the early cement manufacturers. 

During the latter part of the decade 1880-1900, the first rotary kiln 
used in the portland cement industry was put into operation as described 
in Mr. de Navarro's account already given. This marked a critical and 
vital change in American methods, and, in fact, in cement manufacturing 
methods throughout the entire civilized world. Invented by Ransome in 
England and brought to this country by de Navarro, it was at first a failure, 
owing to the selection of the raw materials then used, and later on was 
again a failure owing to the character of the ground powder from the 
Lehigh rocks as first used in the rotary kiln. Undaunted, however, by 
these difficulties, the de Navarro interests courageously continued their 
operations until it was discovered that by the addition of gypsum in any 
form the quick-setting cement manufactured in the rotary kihis could be 
regulated sustd made slow setting. 

The early story of the numerous experiments made at the old Key- 
stone works in the nineties would ahnost fill a book, but the concluding 
chapter may be said to have been written when, through experiments in 
Germany and France, brought to this country through the instrumentality 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 123 

of the de Navarro interests, the scientific regulation of the hitherto abnor- 
mally quick-setting cement produced from rotary kiln clinker was made 
possible. 

The fuel problem was also of great interest. The producer gas used 
by Ransome lacked sufficient heat units to manufacture portland cement 
clinker successfully within reasonable time and at reasonable cost for 
fuel. The oil then being produced in large quantities in Ohio was available 
to manufacturers, who used this valuable fuel in an economical way in 
the early days of rotary kiln installation. This fuel, however, gradually 
advanced in price until the end of the nineties, when the cost became 
almost prohibitive, and new methods of dealing with the fuel problem 
were essential. It was at this time that Hurry and Seaman, the former an 
English mill engineer and the latter superintendent of the Atlas Cement 
Company, experimented with pulverized coal. Shortly thereafter the 
well-known Hurry and Seaman patent, which became the subject of so 
much litigation in the portland cement industry, was granted to the in- 
ventors. 

Pulverized Coal Comes Into Use as Cement Mill Fuel 

The use of pulverized coal solved the fuel problem for the rotary kiln, 
and made it what it has been for so many years, a mechanical success in 
the highest degree. As a labor saving device which enabled the manufac- 
turer simply to grind his raw material and put it in the rotary kiln in either 
dry powder or wet slurry, according to whether the "dry" or "wet" process 
was used in the mill, the use of powdered coal was essentially an American 
device in labor saving utility. Man power was the great extravagance in 
which the American manufacturer could not afford to indulge. The milling 
and crushing machinery already described effected great economies as a 
substitute for man power, but it was the American method of using the 
rotary kiln which had dispensed with all handling of the raw material 
from the raw mills to the finishing mills, that became the capstone of the 
monument American ingenuity had reared in the manufacture of cement. 
The original rotary kilns were from 40 to 60 feet in length, and from 5 to 6 
feet in diameter, and for a time kilns 80 to 100 feet long were considered 
the maximum size to which successful manufacturing could safely venture. 

Thomas A. Edison First to Use Rotary Kiln of Greatly Increased Length 

In 1909 Thomas A. Edison was granted a patent for the use of kilns 
150 feet and longer, every one predicting that it would be impossible to 
turn kilns of this length without warping. The proof of the pudding, how- 
ever, was in the eating, and it was not long after Edison's invention that 
kilns of 125 feet became almost standard as substitutes for the old 60-foot 



124 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

kiln. Mr, Edison not only designed the long kiln described, but was the 
first to use steam shovels for loading rock in the quarries. He also intro- 
duced the well-drill in quarry operation. Later on the length of the Edison 
kiln was far exceeded. Some kilns now in use are 260 feet long, with capa- 
cities of a thousand or more barrels of cement per day. 

Continuous Vertical Kiln Competing with Rotary Kiln 

While this development of the rotary kiln was progressing in the 
Lehigh district, the old-time manufacturers there were still in a state of 
uncertainty. They had used intermittent vertical kilns successfully. They 
had banked upon following European practice in every detail as best cal- 
culated to give them a talking point to engineers when urging the adoption 
of the newly-created American product for the great engineering works of 
the period. Consequently a revolving kiln turning out clinker in hours as 
against days under old methods, struck them as something entirely irreg- 
ular and improper. They could not believe in the final success of such 
methods, and when at about the same period Europe, especially Germany, 
began to use continuous vertical kilns of the Schoefer, Dietsch and similar 
types, the old-time American producer began to see that with which he 
could offset the progress the rotary kiln had begun to make, something he 
was used to, and which had behind it the authority of European practice. 
These kilns, 50 and 60 feet high, were fed continuously at the top with raw 
material in the form of bricks, blocks or other combinations of material, 
the latter drawn from time to time and the clinker taken to the finishing 
mills. The use of the raw material in this form was well known to the old 
manufacturers, and they believed that this type of kiln would be the one 
finally adopted. As a result, the Coplay Cement Company installed a 
number of kilns of the Schoefer type at their Coplay mill, which they 
operated successfully for many years, and the Glens Falls Cement Com- 
pany, of which Captain W. W. Maclay was then President, installed ten 
Schoefer kilns between 1894 and 1899. Other installations were also under 
consideration, but the successful manufacture of portland cement with 
pulverized coal imder the rotary kiln process was so marked as practically 
to terminate competition between the rival types of kilns, thus turning the 
entire American industry over to the rotary kiln which is now in use in 
every mill in the country. 

In considering this victory of the rotar.y kiln in America, the fact must 
not be lost gight of that the old type of kiln used coke as fuel, and coke 
ruled at much higher prices than coal. In the early days of the rotary kiln, 
and up to a very recent period, enormous bodies of slack coal derived by 
the screening of run of mine coal to produce lump bituminous coal, existed 
in many parts of the United States. This was sold at such a low price as 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



125 



a 
< 

O 



O 



126 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

to make the calcining operation in portland cement mills using the rotary 
process not only economical in labor as compared with European countries, 
but also far more economical in fuel than ordinary comparative figures 
between the market sizes of bituminous coal in this country and in Europe 
would seem to indicate. 

Old methods in mill practice gave way in the American industrj^ to 
new and improved machinery, in many cases of American invention and 
design. The calcining operation in portland cement was revolutionized by 
the American adoption of the rotary kiln. The progressive war in American 
cement mills has been that of constant improvement in each of these two 
wonderful fields of development. The old fleets of carts and wheelbarrows 
that conveyed rock from the quarry to the mill have been supplanted by 
the steam shovels and trains of cars, the latter carrying the rock to enor- 
mous crushing plants, where giant crushers, handling hundreds of tons of 
raw rock per hour, prepare it for storage in great silos, where it is carried 
to one or more mills located in the vicinity and tributary to the quarry 
itself. 

Some of Those Who Contributed to Mechanical Advancement 

Many types of milling machinery have been devised since the industry 
began, and many of the earlier types have grown from small mills to 
enormous apparatus with great capacity. The history of the Griffin mill 
has been that of steady growth in size and capacitJ^ The Fuller mill has a 
history of equal interest, while the Kent mill, the Williams hammer mill, 
and the Hardinge mill are all cited as types of the big development in this 
field of cement manufacture. 

The tube mill was another important factor introduced through the 
great Danish firm of F. L. Smidth & Company. This firm kept constantly 
abreast of the times in its various forms of tube mills, kominuters, ball 
mills, etc., and German and American improvements in the same line have 
so developed this form of grinding machinery that some of the modern 
mills require as much as 400 h. p. to turn them in order that they may 
produce the greatly increased capacity now demanded of all American 
machinery. 

In considering the subject as a whole, there is forced upon one the con- 
clusion that without these discoveries the world, in its great demand for 
cement for all of the numerous uses for which it is now accepted, might 
have been much longer in attaining its object. Had the developments on 
these two sides of this great industry not proceeded as they did in parallel 
lines, and at practically the same time, there never would have been the 
present enormous production of portland cement. The manufacturers did 
well their part in providing energy and capital for all this great develop- 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 127 

ment, but it must not be forgotten that such engineers as Frederick H. 
Lewis, Lathbur}^ & Spackman, the Hunt Engineering Company, F. L. 
Smidth & Company, and other prominent engineering firms, also con- 
tributed greatly to the successful work. If all the improvements in the 
grinding and crushing side of the industry had been made and the old 
crackers and buhr mills discarded without a new form of calcining appa- 
ratus, the enormous amount of material these forms of improved crushing 
and grinding apparatus produced would have been far in excess of the 
capacity of kilns of the old vertical type. On the other hand, had the rotary 
kiln been developed to its full extent without the improved crushing and 
grinding machinery, there never would have been sufficient material to 
meet its great capacity. Thus it was fortunate that contemporaneous with 
the introduction of the rotary kiln and keeping pace with its commercial 
establishment, there was the great development in crushing and grinding 
machinery. 

Typical Example of Progress in the Mechanical Side of the Industry 

This chapter might well conclude with the story of the Glens Falls 
Portland Cement Company's founding and development as told by Mr. 
Bayle, for as stated previously, the experience of that company was typical 
of the period that witnessed the discarding of the vertical intermittent 
kilns for those of the rotarj^ type as well as changes in crushing and grind- 
ing machinery. Mr. Bayle says: 

For some years previous to and during the time of the Civil War, and continuing 
in a lesser degree to the present day, one of the important industries of Glens Falls was 
the production of lime, made from an extensive deposit of black marble, which underlaid 
strata of clay and inferior lime rock locally known as "buckwheat." These upper strata 
varied in thickness of from 4 to 15 feet. About 1885 the Jointa Lime Company contem- 
plated the manufacture of brick from this clay deposit, and in its search for proper 
machinery, fell in with an intelligent Scotchman who had worked in cement plants in 
the old countrJ^ He had been making some experiments with the product at Howes 
Cave, New York, with minor success and was employed to experiment with the lime- 
stone and clay at Glens Falls. 

After somewhat more extended investigation the Glens Falls Portland Cement 
Company was organized early in 1893 with a capital of $48,000, estimated as sufficient 
to erect a plant capable of profitable production of 100 barrels a day. This plant was 
completed during 1893. It was a well-built plant but had several mechanical and 
scientific defects; for instance, the clay dryer would not dry the clay, the mill could not 
reduce the rock, and the kiln could not produce the clinker. Were a cement expert of 
the present day to investigate it without a guide, he would wonder what it was intended 
to produce. No indication of discouragement existed among the projectors of the 
enterprise. Cement had been produced from the raw materials and a commercial article 
was possible through intelligent persistence. They had nearly absorbed their capital 
without results, and early in 1894 the capital was increased to $72,000. Two Schoefer 
kilns were erected and machinery was installed to prepare the materials and reduce the 
clinker. The problem of maintaining the uniform product was worked out to some 
extent. 



128 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

The first few barrels of cement produced set as hard as the sides of an iron clad 
the moment they came near water. The Federation of Labor in those days had not 
instructed its members in the matter of efficiency and rapidity of motion to a sufficient 
extent to make the product of commercial value. A few barrels were finally produced 
called "slow setting," and one of the prominent stockholders was induced to lay a new 
cellar floor on his property. It is said that the floor is still in existence and holds the 
finger prints of a majority of the then stockholders. 

About this time the bank of the Champlain Canal adjoining the works gave way, 
washing out many foundations and depositing materials of much value into the Hudson 
River. It may be stated that this unauthorized watering of the stock was the only 
incident of its kind in the financial history of the company. 

In 1895 four more Schoefer kilns were erected, and the necessary machinery in- 
stalled. The reliability of the product began to be recognized in the trade. The capital 
was again increased, from $72,000 to $200,000, each increase in capital being absorbed 
by the stockholders taking their pro-rata share. The year failed to close without a 
discouraging incident. The 600 h.p. engine evidently concluded the plant was not working 
up to capacity, and took matters in its own hands. It raced up beyond its endurance and 
threw its 18-foot fly-wheel through the mill and to the heavens above. Fortunately the 
only casualty recorded was the seat from the trousers of the engineer. 

In 1899 four new Schoefer kilns were added to the six already in use, but before 
they were put into commission the entire plant was destroyed by fire, leaving only the 
ten kilns standing. As these were the only remaining asset, and the rotary kilns had 
not then developed their present admitted superiority, the plant was rebuilt by July, 
1900, with the old kilns as a nucleus. The principal advances made at the time of 
rebuilding included the installation of tunnels for drying the raw mixture bricks with 
waste heat gases from the power plant, and the addition of clay to limestone by auto- 
matic scales when each material had been crushed to one-half inch, and the combined 
material pulverized in a Grifiin mill to a complete raw mixture. This change seems 
simple enough today, but from the establishment of the plant these materials had been 
pulverized separately and then mixed together in the proper proportions bj^ batches 
in a rotating cylinder, and the change seemed quite revolutionary. Also, advantage was 
taken of the opportunity during reconstruction, to separate the raw and clinker depart- 
ments, providing separate steam power units and routing material in the direction of 
the successive steps of manufacture. 

The ten stationary Schoefer kilns were then producing about 600 to 700 barrels per 
day, as an average of one kiln was out of commission for refining at all times. About 
1902 induced draft was applied to these kilns by means of a fan system at the tops, and 
three shifts of burners instead of two were employed to increase the number of "draws." 
This increased the capacity to about 1,000 barrels per day. 

In order to decrease the loss of waste clinker caused by uneven burning, an old ball 
mill was loaded with it and rotated until the hard burned pellets of clinker pulverized 
the softer under-burned pieces which passed out through screens, and the retained hard 
burned part added to the good clinker. This mixture of "fines" (amounting sometimes 
to 10 per cent of the output) containing much hard burned clinker, had been previously 
thrown away. About the same time 5 per cent soft coal was added to the raw mix in 
the GriflBn mills to improve the uniformity of burning in the kilns and promote the 
soundness of the clinker, but without effect, although it made a better raw mix brick, 
which was more resistant to crushing in the kiln. 

About 1906 a deposit of cement rock was discovered and opened on the Saratoga 
County side of the Hudson River at about the same time that the initial pair of rotary 
kilns was being installed in hope of reducing labor costs. The use of this material reduced 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 129 

the amount of clay required, but compelled the addition of more efficient drying equip- 
ment for the stone, which carried more water than the 90 per cent "buckwheat" lime- 
stone in use before. These changes permitted the abandonment of the clay storage and 
dryer outfit previously operated, and the entire raw product was then passed through 
the raw mill crushers, greatly simplifying the raw grinding. 

When the first two rotary Ivilns were started up it was found that the same raw 
mixture, whether of limestone and clay, or plain cement rock, would not give a cement 
passing the boiling test in the rotarj^ kiln, while it would in the Schoefers. As the obvious 
economy of rotary kilns compelled their continued use, the problem was attacked in 
the direction of a better raw mix fineness for the rotary kilns. A tube mill was added for 
the purpose of increasing the fineness of the raw material being furnished to the rotaries, 
and an increase of 5 to 6 per cent on the 200-mesh sieve produced a fairly consistent 
boiling test from the rotary clinker, and demonstrated that a mix being clinkered in 20 
to 30 minutes would require a greater fineness to undergo complete reaction than one 
kept at red heat for many hours, as in the Schoefer kiln. 

As soon as the economic success of the combination of cement rock for raw material 
and rotary kilns for burning was proved, the entire Schoefer plant was discarded and 
two more rotary kilns of slightly larger diameter were purchased. At the same time the 
substitution of kominuters for ball mills enabled the company to reduce their raw grind- 
ing plant to the simple modern units of crusher, dryer, kominuter, and tube mill, turning 
out a raw mixture of 90 per cent through the 200 sieve. 

In the early period of rotary burning it was found that the variations in the compo- 
sition of the cement rock raw mix were too great to produce a uniform cement. On 
account of the large amount of material in the Schoefer kiln in proportion to the output, 
variations of 3 to 5 per cent in lime carbonate had not been prohibitive, especially as 
the quality of the cement was largely dependent upon the burning which, while good 
on the average, could not be closely controlled. 

In the rotary kiln a small stream of material passing rapidly through the kiln 
showed these variations to such an extent as to reduce the capacity of the kiln and 
threaten the quality of the output. As a remedy the automatic scale system was removed 
and six bins were placed between the kominuters and tube mills, and their contents 
after analysis while filling, were blended with succeeding bins in proportion to their 
variation from correct composition by means of variable speed worm conveyors. The 
accumulation of too many high or low bins was prevented by addition of either high 
calcium limestone or clay at the crushers, as indicated by the composition of the bins 
already on hand. The additional cost of this system is considered compensated for by 
the extra storage capacity it affords, and the increased output of the kilns with 
uniform raw mixture. 



CHAPTER X 
COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE INDUSTRY 

Pioneers in the Field of Cement Salesmanship 

To establish a new product in a market where its use in great build- 
ings and engineering works involved great responsibility to the architect 
and engineer was no easy task. The difference in cost between imported 
and domestic cements was so slight in proportion to the total cost of any 
building project as to make the change from the well-known foreign to the 
domestic cement a matter of slight financial interest. Consequently, the 
early days of the industry also brought forth brilliant salesmen. They 
were hard fighters, always having the affirmative of the question, always 
having to lead the attack upon an established product. It was due to the 
tact and intelligence of these men in their contact with engineers and the 
convincing arguments they presented, that the commercial growth of 
American portland cement forged ahead. 

To Johnson & Wilson, the representatives of Saylor's cement in New 
York and in most of the Western country, the use of that brand upon the 
Eads jetties at New Orleans, upon the great works of the Lackawanna 
Steel Company at Scranton, and upon other monumental engineering 
works in the country was directly and distinctly due. It was through their 
able presentation of the cause of the American portland cement manufac- 
turer, that American portland cement began to receive favorable considera- 
tion at the hands of the American engineer. 

The firm of Lesley & Trinkle, which had been large importers of for- 
eign Portland cement, and which was also associated with David O. 
Saylor in the introduction of "Saylor's Portland Cement," and later on in 
the introduction of the "Giant Portland Cement" of the American Cement 
Company, did similar work. It was due possibly to the work of Robert AY. 
Lesley, who was the senior partner of the last-named firm, and later Presi- 
dent of the American Cement Company, that the engineering world became 
better acquainted with the qualities of American portland cement. Lesley's 
papers presented at various meetings of engineering societies, his associa- 
tion with tlTe very beginning of the industry as well as with leading engi- 
neers, and his membership in many of the engineering associations, en- 
abled him, both in pubhc discussion and private argument, to convince 
engineers and scientists of the value of the American product. An argu- 

130 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



131 



merit presented by him to Alphonse Ftely, Chief Engineer of the Croton 
Aqueduct Board, was the means whereby the use of American portland 
cement was permitted to be used "under closest scrutiny" in that import- 
ant engineering work to the extent of milhons of barrels when the 
original specification called for "imported portland cement." A 




A beautiful example of portland cement stucco over concrete, at Los Angeles. 



similar argument presented to the engineers of the Third Avenue Railway, 
in New York, secured the adoption of American portland cement in the 
conduits of that line, while by personal argument the engineers of the 
Metropolitan Street Railway were likewise persuaded to use the Ameiican 
product. 

Hiram Snyder, of New York, an old Rosendale man, James Davis, of 
Boston, Donaldson of Philadelphia, were all salesmen of wonderful abilitj^ 
and talent in presenting the case of the American portland cement manu- 
facturer. By degrees the American cause found equally able advocates in 
the West, and by the selling qualities and force of character and the 
ingenious arguments of these men, American portland cement may be 
said to have been put upon the map. 

To mention the progressive and able engineers who listened to these 
arguments and who, after investigation, were convinced of their value 
and gave effect to their weight by permitting the domestic article to be 
used in lieu of the foreign, would be to name a list of all great engineers who 
were foremost in the field of engineering construction at the time. Among 
them were Alphonse Ftely, Chas. S. Gowan, Robert Ridgway, Alfred 



132 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

Craven, George S, Rice, Jr., of the New York Croton Aqueduct and later 
one of the New York Aqueduct Board; William N. Brown and Joseph T. 
Richards, of the Pennsylvania Railroad; A. Katte, of the New York Central 
Railroad; Alfred P. Boiler and Thomas Curtis Clarke, the great bridge 
engineers; George B. Burbank, the engineer of the first Niagara tunnel; 
Eads, the builder of the Mississippi jetties; William W. Scranton, the 
builder of the Lackawanna Steel Works; Andrew Carnegie, of the great 
steel works in Pittsburgh; Joseph M. Wilson of Philadelphia; George S. 
Webster, of the Philadelphia Bureau of Surveys; William M. Marple, of 
the Scranton Water Works; and Frederick Pike Stearns and Thomas E. 
Richardson of the Metropolitan Water Board of Boston. 

Whole books could be written on the difficulties of the early pioneers 
in the field of cement salesmanship, of the continuous butting of heads 
against the stone wall of established practice and prejudice, of the days and 
nights spent in assiduous personal solicitation of customers, of the personal 
visits to important engineering works, and the supervision of concrete 
mixing and testing of briquettes to satisfy both the technical and practical 
minds in charge of the work. Interesting stories could be told of personal 
guarantees given by many of these men to introduce their product, and 
how, day in and day out, for better or for worse, in times of car shortage, 
in times of coal shortage, in times of delay in manufacturing, they kept the 
work going and kept quality up to the highest standard. 

Too much cannot be said in praise of these men and their work. To 
them the brand they sold was a fetish; its reputation was to be guarded 
like that of Caesar's wife. No task was too great, no labor too severe to 
maintain the reputation and the trade they had built up. 

The Favor Accorded a Brand Name 

In these early days the brand was the thing. Testing was in its early 
stages. The dead level of many brands of equal quality had not been 
reached, for the manufacturers were few and each fought bitterly to main- 
tain his own standard and his own brand. 

People Did Not Believe Good Portland Cement Could Be Made in 

Rotary Kiln 

In the period following the introduction of the rotary kiln, the "War 
of the Roses" was nothing to the battle waged between those who were 
the advocates of the "substantial, well-established old methods of Europe" 
against the "new-fangled abomination of cement made in rotary kilns." 
The clever salesmen, in many cases members of engineering clubs and 
engineering societies, were constantly called upon to read papers or make 
arguments before crowded meetings on this important subject, and it got 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 133 

to be a well-known fact in engineering circles that whenever a crowded 
meeting was required and interest was to be awakened, a discussion be- 
tween representatives of vertical kilns and rotary kilns in the cement 
industry would draw full houses. In those days it was doubtful whether a 
great prize fight aroused more public interest than the fight between repre- 
sentatives of these two sides of the cement industry. This work, however, 
was all propaganda of the highest degree. It centered the attention of 
engineers of the country upon the growth of a great and valuable industry. 
It set many to thinking of the potential worth of this plastic material, and 
of the great field which it was destined to fill ; and while, in a general way, 
wishing "plague on both your houses," the engineers ceased thinking in 
terms of foreign portland cement in favor of the American or home-made 
article. 

Early American Portland Cement Often Condemned Without Reason 

Those days were filled with the sad tales of ''condemned" cement, a 
word with which all the old manufacturers were thoroughly fa.miliar. 
While in many cases any old foreign portland cement would go through on 
its brand, American cement was always received, as described in the words 
of Alphonse Ftely, Chief Engineer of the Croton Aqueduct Board, "with 
strictest scrutiny." For this reason the slightest defect in time of setting, 
fineness, color or any other slight deviation, would be sufficient excuse to 
turn the cement down, a situation requiring the immediate attention of the 
higher officials of the company, who, in those days, were what were known 
to engineers as "cement doctors." 

It was no boy's job to maintain the sacred reputation of American 
Portland cement. Owing to the fact that the earliest works first commer- 
cially successful were located in the Lehigh district, it was there that the 
principal portland cement testing laboratories made their appearance. In 
Philadelphia many cement securities were owned, and two engineering 
firms in that city. Booth, Garrett & Blair, and Lathbur}'- & Spackman, 
were prominent figures in both testing and engineering in connection with 
early cement. It was generally to their laboratories that disputed questions 
were referred for final test and arbitration. In New York, Dr. McKenna 
had entered the field with his chemical laboratory, and in Boston, Eliot C. 
Clark, of the Metropolitan Sewerage Department, had also become an 
authority, while Maclay 's work in the New York Dock Board had made him 
an arbiter of cement quality. 

In reminiscences contributed by Frederick H. Lewis, much interesting 
information is given as to the connection of the firm of Booth, Garrett & 
Blair with the cement industry, and also of Mr. Lewis' own experience. 
His first interest in portland cement as a material of construction began in 



134 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

1890, in which year American production of portland cement amounted to 
335,000 barrels. The domestic cement was getting a foothold, though, as 
Mr. Lewis states, engineers continued to specify some brands of imported 
Portland cement. As the laboratory of Booth, Garrett & Blair, Philadel- 
phia, had for years been identified with another Pennsylvania industry, the 
chemical analysis and physical testing of iron and steel, it was but natural 
that the American portland cement manufacturers in the vicinity of Phil- 
adelphia should, when in trouble, seek the assistance of this well-known 
firm. Many were the days when those who were upbuilders of American 
Portland cement spent hours in the old laboratorj'^ on Locust Street making 
cement pats, supervising the making of briquettes and then testing, thus 
endeavoring to overcome through the arbitration of engineers the com- 
plaints made by contractors and others unfamiliar with the advance in 
cement making in this country. It is true, as Mr. Lewis says, that Amer- 
ican technology in portland cement was quite limited in scope and rudi- 
mentary in quality throughout the period between 1880 and 1892, and 
aside from Eckert, who was a trained chemist then superintending manu- 
facture by the American Cement Company, and Pierre Giron, the Belgian 
engineer who later went into the employ of the Atlas Company, there were 
few, if any, cement workers whose knowledge corresponded to the well- 
known "technikers" usually in charge of the German cement works, at 
that time the most scientifically successful in the world. Lewis went to 
Europe in 1892, visiting representative laboratories and hunting up cement 
technology. "I returned," he says, "convinced that portland cement in 
America represented a great business opportunity, and on the technical 
side I was very keenly interested in the experiments and the theories of 
Le Chatelier and Candlot, the French experts whose writings were then, 
and I think are still, the best technical treatises on portland cement." 
This visit put the Booth, Garrett & Blair firm, with which Mr. Lewis was 
associated, far ahead in the field of scientific testing and handling of both 
American and foreign portland cements. Mr. Lewis says: 

Mr. Whitfield did the chemical work and I did the physical testing, and our senior 
partner, Andrew A. Blair, cordially cooperated with both of us. Every American and 
every European brand to be found in America came under our scrutiny. We had put in 
a lot of special grinding machinery and built laboratory kilns, in which we burned manj' 
batches of cement clinker, using a few pounds at a time. We ground each lot into cement 
for experimental purposes. There was no phase of the portland cement problem which 
did not receive our attention between 1893 and 1897, and during that time I acquired an 
intimate personal acquaintance with American cement plants, both natural and port- 
land. ^ 

In 1897, Mr. Lewis went to Europe again, visiting cement plants in 
England, Belgium, Germany and France, as well as the great laboratories 
abroad, bringing back much information and many technical books. He 
was essentially one of the men upon whom American manufacturers leaned 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 135 

during the formative period between 1890 and 1900. He was among the 
first to test and reaHze the value of rotary kiln cement, and had much to 
do with giving it a standing among engineers at the time the bitter war of 
the old companies was being waged upon this new product. As Lewis says 
in summing up the discovery of the rotary process and his investigations 
in Europe: 

Europe had cheap labor and expensive coal; America paid wages from two to four 
times that of Europe, but bought coal for half the European prices. The short kilns or 
the ring ovens in England and Germany were quite economical in fuel, much more 
economical than could be expected of a rotary kiln, but required far more labor than an 
American could afford. If, therefore, good cement clinker could be produced in a con- 
tinuous rotary kiln at anj^ reasonable cost, then an American portland cement industry 
was assured. The preparation of material for the rotary kiln, the handling of the clinker 
from such kilns, and the handling of the kilns themselves, could all be done with very 
low unit cost for labor. 

It was with these thoughts in mind that Mr. Lewis, while progressive 
and fair to all the manufacturers of the old type of cement, was inclined 
to believe in the new t^'pc and from that point of view engaged in exhaustive 
study of rotary kiln cement. 

The Firm of Lathbury and Spackman 

Another firm, that of Lathbury & Spackman, composed of B. B. Lath- 
bury and Henry S. Spackman, both engineers of distinction, had also 
become established in Philadelphia, and like Booth, Garrett & Blair, were 
constantly consulted as experts. They, too, had numerous clients among 
the Pennsylvania manufacturers, and their reputation as cement experts 
spread far and wide, just as Maclay's contribution to the literature of 
cement had made him an arbiter in New York, and Clarke's work had 
given him distinction in Boston. 

The firm of Lathbury & Spackman, subsequently the Henry S. 
Spackman Engineering Company, was one of the first to enter the cement 
industry. Mr. Lathbury had established a laboratory in Philadelphia for 
the inspection and testing of cement and other engineering materials in 
1895. He was employed by the architects of the Philadelphia Bourse Build- 
ing to inspect the cement used in its construction, and in this way became 
interested in the subject of portland cement generally. This work made it 
necessary for him to study the manufacture of cement at the mill and he 
became familiar with that side of the industry. While conducting experi- 
ments and tests he demonstrated the practicability and economy of pow- 
dered coal as fuel in rotar}' kilns. 

In 1897, Henry S. Spackman became a member of the firm which 
opened offices and laboratories on Filbert Street, Philadelphia. Shortly 
after, the Alpha Cement Company, at whose plant Mr. Lathbury had 



136 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



gained his early experience, was unable to supply cement to its Pittsburgh 
agents. They decided to construct a mill of their own near the marl beds at 
Castalia, Ohio. In looking for engineers competent to build the mill, the 
firm of Lathbury & Spackman was recommended, the sponsor stating that 
there was only one firm, to his knowledge, who knew anything at all about 
cement manufacture and that "thej^ knew damned little," this flattering 




This dream city is a portion of the setting and courtyard for Douglas Fairbanks' 
photoplay, "The Thief of Bagdad." Both the courtyard and the buildings are of 
concrete. 



recommendation referring to Lathburj' & Spackman. They were engaged 
to build the Castalia plant and to superintend the erection and first opera- 
tion of the mill, manufacture beginning in the spring of 1898. The usual 
difficulties were encountered and in course of time it was found that certain 
mechanical apphances did not have sufficient capacity to meet require- 
ments. 

First Mill Built for Burning Powdered Coal in Kiln 

To Lathbury & Spackman has been given the credit of designing the 
first mill equipped specifically for burning powdered coal as fuel in the 
rotary kiln, although it was a close race between them and Matcham, who 
left the Alpha Company to design and build the first mill of the Lehigh 
Portland Cement Company. Matcham, however, did not commence his 
plans for this mill until some time after work on plans of the Castalia 
plant had started. It is interesting in this connection to note the marked 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 137 

difference between the cost of machinery installed in the early mills and 
that now in use. The mill of the Castalia Compan}'' cost, ready to operate, 
exclusive of ground, less than $125,000. 

The success attending the construction of the Castalia plant led to the 
retention of Lathbury & Spackman by a number of companies during 1898 
and 1899. During this period they built mills in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Utah, 
and Michigan, and were employed by manufacturers abroad, designing and 
constructing important plants in Denmark, Canada and England, 

Having entered the cement industry with minds trained along engi- 
neering and chemical lines, and without being hampered by old traditions 
and preconceived opinions or the precedents so venerated by those brought 
up in the cement industry, the work of the firm was accompanied by many 
innovations and improvements, marking wide divergence from standard 
practice. Today these have become standard in mill construction, but their 
early adoption required courage and the spirit of the pioneer. In a;ddition 
to bringing into general use powdered coal as fuel, they may be credited 
with the first successful installations of rotary kilns in Europe. It is said 
that they were the first to use electric power transmission, which was 
introduced in the Alma Portland Cement Company plant and the Utah 
Portland Cement Company plant. They were the first to manufacture 
Portland cement from blast-furnace slag and limestone, which occurred at 
the Clinton Cement Company plant in Pittsburgh in 1898, and the first to 
use limestone and clay by the dry process in rotary kilns, which occurred 
the same year. Lathbury & Spackman were again pioneers in the use of 
waste from the alkali industrj^, and the first to install rotary kilns for lime 
burning, which took place between 1902 and 1904. 

Enlarging the Field in Cement Mill Construction 

Upon Mr. Lathbury's retirement in 1904, Mr. Spackman continued 
the business under the name of Henrj^ S. Spackman Engineering Companj-, 
greatly enlarging his field, especially the business of inspection and testing. 
The firm has built approximately twenty large and important mills, located 
in all parts of the world. In the United States they designed and con- 
structed plants in Ohio, New York, Pennsylvania, Michigan, Indiana, 
North Dakota, Maine and California; while their foreign work included 
plants in Germany, New Zealand, Cuba and Mexico. They were also 
retained to make examinations and reports on cement properties, these 
comprising some fifteen localities throughout the United States, two in 
England, one in Canada, and one in France. 

Mr. Spackman is the author of manj^ valuable papers relating to 
cement and concrete, having been a contributor in this field for years. 
His chemical and physical research covers the testing and use of cement 



138 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

as well as its manufacture. He has taken an active part in the work of 
Committee C-1 of the American Society for Testing Materials since its 
formation. 

In referring to all this testing of cement as part of the commercial 
development of the industry, it must be understood that there was required 
just such work as was done by testing laboratories of established reputation 
before the American cement could acquire merited standing. 

In those days there were no definite specifications, though there were 
standard methods for the testing of cement adopted by the American 
Society of Civil Engineers in 1885, these accompanied by suggestions as 
to possible requirements. With this door open and in dealing with a new 
material, it was common practice for nearly every engineer to make his 
own specifications, and consequently "condemned" cement was not, in 
man}' cases, so much a matter of careless manufacture as varying specifi- 
cations. 

In looking at trade conditions and the general growth of the industry 
from a retrospective point of view, it may well be said that for many years 
the commercial or selling side of the industry was just as important as the 
mechanical or manufacturing side. In those days knowledge of the subject 
and personal equation counted heavily and the man fitted by these to 
make sales in large quantities at good prices was a factor of the greatest 
value to a newly established company, his capabilities having as much to 
do with successful results as did the iron and steel fashioned into the 
important mechanical devices that produced the cement. 

Captains of Industry Begin to Appear in Cement Manufacturing 

As time went on, what may be termed the second formation in the 
industry arrived. New conditions supplanted those attending the work 
of the pioneers from 1880 to 1900. The selling side began to shrink into 
a position of secondary importance. This was because portland cement 
was becoming a staple article of commerce carried by dealers all over the 
country, who distributed it in large and small quantities to customers. 
Therefore, in many cases, the great arguments that had been addressed 
by skilled salesmen and the engineering t3^pe of vendors to trained engi- 
neers, ceased to have their former powerful influence and effect. The 
material was better known, had a standing of its own, and through estab- 
lished dealers was beginning to find a market everywhere. So it was that 
when the second period marking the organization of captains of industry 
who began to operate and own cement works of great capacity between 
1900 and 1910 was reached, machinery of great capacity, great quarries, 
great facilities, began to occupy their minds in a fuller degree than the 
salesmanship which, in the earlier days, had been so instrumental in 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 139 

building up the industry. This is said in full realization of the fact that 
with greatly increased output of cement, salesmanship is as important now 
as it ever was, and that it is never to be belittled in any great industry. 
The purpose is to make clear the distinction between modern salesmanship 
and that of early years when salesmen fought like the single warriors of 
ancient Rome or the feudal period as distinguished from the thoroughly 
officered and fully equipped great arm}'- engaged in fighting the battles of 
the world in this day. 



CHAPTER XI 
THE SCIENTIFIC SIDE 

To understand and appreciate the enormous importance and develop- 
ment of the scientific side of the portland cement industry one must 
turn back to the period when the early manufacturers began their work 
so as to realize conditions that pertained to the testing and use of cement. 

Scientific Studies Handicapped by Lack of Literature 

There was little or no literature on the manufacture or use of portland 
cement. American scientific papers contained little reference to this 
material, and when the American manufacturer would scan the French, 
German and Enghsh engineering papers he was seldom rewarded for his 
efforts. A paragraph now and then was a great prize and highly valued. 
Some few writers in Germany and England had begun to contribute their 
experience, and while distinguished engineers in the latter country had 
written papers on the use of portland cement and had read them before the 
British Institute of Engineers, there was very little literature in this country 
relating to the material. Hardly anything was known of the many uses to 
which cement is now adapted or employed. It is necessary to visualize 
a practically clear and untraveled field. There were no paths nor even foot- 
prints to guide the American manufacturer of cement or the American 
producer of concrete in any of its forms. 

These were the days of the late seventies and the early eighties, and 
specifications were rare. The quality and methods for testing cement had 
just begun to be understood and to take some definite shape. Among the 
earliest tests of portland cement in the United States were those made by 
Eliot C. Clarke, in charge of the Boston Main Drainage Works, who, 
in his report covering the period from 1878 to 1884, gave the following 
figures as his results of tests of portland cement, practically all of it foreign 
brands : 



Neat Cement 
Portland Cement 


1 day 
102 


1 week 
303 

160 


1 month 
412 

225 


6 months 
468 

347 


12 months 
494 


With Sand 
Portland Cement 


387 









140 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 141 

Preliminary Report of Committee on Uniform Tests 

It was just about that time that the American Society of Civil Engi- 
neers received at its annual meeting on January 16, 1884, the preluninary 
report of its Committee on Uniform System for Tests of Cement. The 
members of the committee submitting the above report were: Q. A. Gill- 



^^^H ^^^^^Hr^~~ 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^1 




in 


pmfl 


^^^^^^^K^^^^^^^^^m ' ' ' 


kI j ;ifl 


m 



A modernized adaptation of the house that inspired John Howard Payne to write 
"Home, Sweet Home." Built on the White House grounds by the Better Homes 
Movement, the house is now occupied b^^ the Girl Scouts. 

more, D. J. Whittemore, J. Herbert Shedd, Ehot C. Clarke, Alfred Noble, 
F. O. Norton, and W. W. Maclay. In commenting upon the report, Mr. 
Whittemore stated: 

The relative importance of the two cements, the American hydraulic cement and 
the Portland cement, might well be brought out at this meeting. I am placed in a posi- 
tion to assert pretty confidently that the amount of American (natural) hydraulic cement 
anually used in this country this side of Buffalo is nearly 2,000,000 barrels; that made on 
the other side amounts to about 1,250,000 barrels a year. The amount of portland 
cement used in this country is, as 3'ou know, very much less than that; that is to say, 
perhaps half a million barrels would cover the entire annual consumption of portland 
cement on this continent at the present time. So when we are devising methods for 
testing cement we want to bear in mind what a very large proportion of the cement 
used is the product of our own country. 

The following year, on January 21, 1885, the committee, to which had 
been added Leonard F. Beckwith and Thomas C. McCollom, submitted 
its report which dealt practically with methods of testing and not with 



142 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

actual specifications for portland cement. In the report the committee 
started with the truism, ''The testing of cement is not so simple a process 
as it is sometimes thought to be," and then gave methods by which cements 
of both natural and portland types should be tested, and at one point it 
inserted a table, "showing the average minimum and maximum tensile 
strength per square inch which some good cements have attained under the 
conditions specified elsewhere in this report." 

American and foreign portland cements, neat: 1 day, 1 hour, or until set, in air; 
the rest of the 24 hours in water, from 11 pounds to 140 pounds. 

1 week, 1 day in air, 6 days in water, from 250 pounds to 550 pounds. 

1 month (28 days), 1 day in air, 27 days in water, from 350 pounds to 700 pounds. 

1 year, 1 day in air, the remainder in water, from 450 pounds to 800 pounds. 

It will be noted that there is a wide margin in these requirements and 
that in a way the figures compare with those given above as being obtained 
by Mr. Clarke, of the Boston Sewerage System. 

In dealing with the question of sampling, the committee again illus- 
trates the condition of the art of testing by stating: 

There is no uniformity of practice among engineers as to sampling of the cement 
to be tested, some testing every tenth barrel, others every fifth and others still every 
barrel delivered. 

The committee went on to say, however, that the "testing of ever}^ 
fifth barrel would answer for ordinary work where the cement had a good 
reputation, but in important construction where strength might be affected 
by a particular barrel, each should be tested." 

Prominent Engineers and Others Assist in Developing Testing Standards 

The membership of the committee itself represented men of the highest 
distinction in engineering and in knowledge of cements. General Q. A. 
Gillmore was Chief of Engineers of the United States Army. Don J. Whitte- 
more was the Chief Engineer of the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul 
Railroad. J. Herbert Shedd was in charge of the Providence, R. I., Public 
Works. Eliot C. Clarke was the Engineer of the Boston Main Drainage 
Works. Alfred Noble was one of the most distinguished civil engineers in 
New York. F. O. Norton was the manufacturer of the well-known "Norton 
Brand" of Rosendale cement. Captain W. W. Maclay was in charge of 
the concrete work for the New York Dock Department. Thomas C. Mc- 
Collom was an engineer of construction for the United States Navy and 
building dry docks at League Island, while L. F. Beckwith was another 
well-known -engineer in New York State. The committee worked hard 
and did good work, making a foundation upon which specifications were 
later built. 

It was under these methods recommended by the American Society 
of Civil Engineers that the use of manj^ millions of barrels of both portland 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 143 

and natural cement in the United States were made, and their elasticity and 
definiteness produced a state of facts that was bound to lead to new 
specifications. And it was to meet the "57 varieties" of specifications 
which engineers of all sorts prepared to suit their own ideas of requirements 
that the American manufacturer of portland cement struggled from 1886 
to 1904. The specifications for various pieces of engineering work, which 
have been commented upon above, were the subject of a paper on cement 
and cement testing read by Robert W. Lesley, associate member of the 
American Society of Civil Engineers, before the Engineers' Club of Phila- 
delphia, in 1898, and were also the subject of an article in "Brown's Direc- 
tory of Cement Industries," issued in 1901. Mr. Lesle}^ in his paper states 
that in a period of six or eight years he had gathered various specifications 
for all kinds of work numbering altogether between two and three hundred, 
no two of which were alike; while Brown in his book mentions no fewer 
than sLxty different specifications. In the Lesley paper the variations in 
specifications are classified and many interesting things are shown, among 
them the great differences between the specifications of engineers in the 
same department of the government or municipality, the enormous varia- 
tions in the types of tests to be applied, the variations required in tensile 
strength and fineness, and the tests for constancy of volume. The author 
states : 

By many specifications, pats of cement in air and water are observed for a period 
of twenty-eight days for checking and cracking; while by other specifications they are 
submitted to accelerated tests by heat, by boiling, cooking, stewing, simmering, and 
other forms of violence for the same purpose. 

In addition there were requirements for tests for adhesion, for porosity, 
for density, for specific gravity, and chemical tests of all kinds and sorts. 

Under such conditions it seems a marvel that the American product 
was able to make its way against the variety of obstacles encountered in 
these many and differing specifications. However, every evil soon brings 
about its remedy, and during 1896, at the instigation of Richard L. 
Humphrey, who for many years had charge of testing for the Bureau of 
Surveys, City of Philadelphia, and who was himself one of the pioneers 
in cement testing in this country, a series of editorials appeared in the 
Engineering Record, New York, calling attention to the inadequacy of 
the recommendations for cement testing of the American Society of Civil 
Engineers, and urging the appointment of a new committee to revise them. 

Following this a resolution was presented by Edward P. North at a 
meeting of the American Society of Civil Engineers held November 4, 1896, 
requesting the Board of Direction to report on the advisability of appoint- 
ing a committee to report on "The Proper Manipulation of the Tests of 
Cement." 



144 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

The Board reported at the annual meeting of the society on January 
20, 1897, and on July 1st of the same year the Board appointed a committee 
consisting of George F, Swain, Boston; Alfred Noble, New York; George 
S. Webster, Philadelphia; W. B. W. Howe, L. C. Sabin, 0. M. Carter and 
H. M. York. The last two members subsequently resigned. On January 
16, 1901, the Board of Direction was authorized to increase the member- 
ship of this committee to nine, and in accordance therewith appointed 
S. B. Newberry, Clifford Richardson, Richard L. Humphre}^, and F. H. 
Lewis. Professor Swain was elected Chairman and Mr. Humphrey, 
Secretary. 

Of the men forming this committee, many had most important inter- 
ests involving the use of cement and their influence in the matter of specifi- 
cations, as well as the use of cement and concrete, was pronounced. Mr. 
Swain was one of the leading engineers in Boston, in charge of most impor- 
tant municipal and state work. Mr. Noble, of New York, was later in charge 
of all the Pennsylvania railroad system of terminals and tunnels into that 
city. Mr. Webster was the Chief of the Bureau of Surveys of the City of 
Philadelphia. Mr. Sabin was a distinguished government engineer. Mr. 
Newberr}'' was then, and throughout his life* remained, one of the great 
scientific men of the cement industry. Mr. Richardson, who had been in 
charge of the cement testing laboratory of the United States Government 
at Washington, has for many years been one of the great chemists and 
scientists in connection with cement. Mr. Lewis was of the Booth, Garrett 
& Blair laboratories, and in other chapters of this book his work is fully 
described, while Mr. Humphrey was then, and is today, one of the leading 
engineers in cement and concrete, and has given unselfish, continuous, and 
valuable service to the making of specifications for cement and concrete 
in the United States. 

While this committee was at work, the Board of United States Engi- 
neers, appointed by the authority of the Secretary of War, presented a 
report on methods of testing hydraulic cements, to which was appended 
standard specifications for both natural and portland cements. 

Concurrent with this, the American members of the various com- 
mittees of the International Association for Testing Materials endeavored 
to secure the adoption of standard specifications for cement, but this effort 
came to naught in the way of definite results. 

_First Step Toward a Standard Specification 

This was the state of affairs when at the first meeting of the American 
Society for Testing Materials in June, 1902, this society, then newly organ- 
ized and taking the place of the American Section of the International 

*Died November 28, 1922. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 145 

Association for Testing Materials, the Executive Committee on motion of 
Robert W. Lesley was authorized to appoint a committee to report on 
standard specifications for cement. This was the first step toward specifica- 
tions, and it will be noted further that this action marked the dividing line 
between the work of the American Societ}^ of Civil Engineers, which dealt 
with methods of testing in its cement committee work, and the Society for 
Testing Materials, which dealt with the specifications to govern the accept- 
ance of the material itself. The members of the committee named were 
Robert W. Lesley, Booth, Garrett & Blair, A. W. Dow, Edward M. Hagar, 
Richard L. Humphrey, Lathbury & Spackman, Andreas Lundteigen, 
Charles F. McKenna, W. W. Maclay, S. B. Newberry, J. M. Porter, 
Clifford Richardson and George F. Swain. This committee had power to 
increase its membership with the approval of the Executive Committee. 

The committee assembled at the call of Robert W. Lesley, member of 
the Executive Committee and temporary Chairman, on October 30, 1902, 
and organized by the election of George F. Swain, Chairman; George S. 
Webster, Vice Chairman; and Richard L. Humphrey, Secretary. 

The committee was increased by the addition of the following mem- 
bers: T. J. Brady, C. W. Boynton, Spencer Cosby, T. H. Dumary, A. F. 
Gerstell, William H. Harding, F. H. Lewis, John B. Lober, Charles A. 
Matcham, Alfred Noble, H. W. Parkhurst, Joseph T. Richards, L. C. 
Sabin, H. J. Seaman, S. S. Voorhees, W. J. Wilgus, George S. Webster, 
H. G. Kelly, Vice-President, American Railway Engineering and Main- 
tenance of Way Association; and W. S. Eames, President, American Insti- 
tute of Architects. 

The names composing the committee show that the entire membership 
of the American Society of Civil Engineers' Committee was appointed on 
this new committee; that there were representatives of the Association of 
American Portland Cement Manufacturers, representatives of the great 
railroads of the country, representatives of the American Railway Engi- 
neering and Maintenance of Way Association, and of the American Institute 
of Architects. It is a very interesting historical fact that this was possibly 
one of the earliest joint committees appointed by the engineering societies 
in the United States, a practice which now is universal in dealing with all 
important engineering subjects. 

The American Society of Civil Engineers' committee made a progress 
report on uniform methods for tests of cement on January 21, 1903, and 
on February 4, 1903, the new Committee on Standard Specifications for 
Cement of the American Society for Testing Materials adopted as a basis 
for its work the rep.ort on uniform methods for tests of cement as above 
stated. A number of examinations of materials were made in order to 
obtain data for a specification, and finally a tentative specification was 
presented by Richard L. Humphrej^, Secretary, which was considered on 



146 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

December 3, 1903, approved March 29, 1904, and adopted by the com- 
mittee by letter ballot on June 11, 1904. It was finally, after approval by 
the American Society for Testing Materials at its annual meeting, adopted 
by letter ballot by the Society on November 14, 1904. 

Contemporaneous with this work, the Association of American Portland 
Cement Manufacturers, in December, 1902, appointed a committee on 
Standard Specifications for Cement, consisting of W. W. Maclay, Chair- 
man; A. F. Gerstell, W. H. Harding, S. B. Newberry, Charles A. Matcham, 
H. J. Seaman, and Charles F. Wade. The latter committee recommended 
these specifications for cement, and they were adopted by this Association 
on June 16, 1904. 

On March 19, 1903, the American Railway Engineering and Main- 
tenance of Way Association, at its annual convention, was also at work on 
specifications. In concluding its report adopting the specifications, the 
committee on cement specifications stated : 

These reports on Uniform Tests of Cement and Standard Specifications for Cement 
are the result of over six years' labor of a thoroughly representative body of experts, 
covering every field from the manufacturer to the consumer; they stand for the very 
best thought on the subject. 

The various committees are still in existence and will from time to time recommend 
such changes as are found by experience to be desirable, thus gradually perfecting the 
specifications as a whole. 

In the meanwhile by the adoption of these specifications a standard of excellence 
is set which will enable the manufacturer to concentrate his efforts in operating his 
plant so as to produce uniformly the grade of cement required, and at a minimum cost 
to the consumer. 

This was a great step forward, but as will be shown later, b}- no means 
completed work in this field, although it did mean just what the last para- 
graph of the report said, namely, an opportunity for the American manu- 
facturer, who had shown a spirit of cooperation and willingness to meet 
every requirement of the engineering profession in the preparation of his 
product, to manufacture a standard and uniform product — an Amci-ican 
Portland cement which would meet every requirement of the most ciitical 
buyer for every type of engineering work. It was this opportunity of co- 
operation that brought the great engineers of the country and the early 
manufacturers of portland cement in close union, and while differences 
would exist in meetings, the spirit of give and take was alvrays manifested 
and fair play ruled all the deliberations. It was due to the manifestation 
of this same "Spirit of cooperation between manufacturer and consumer that 
permanent results were achieved. Engineering comment throughout the 
country was emphatic in its praise of the liberal and conscientious wa\' 
in which the cement manufacturers had cooperated with the engineering 
profession. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



147 



Leaving the matter of specifications aside, these early years were not 
lacking in other developments on the scientific side of the industry. There 
were, as stated in previous chapters, all the developments in machinery 
and kilns, for example, such as marked Thomas A. Edison's advent into 
the field of cement manufacture. This well-known inventor, whose long 
kiln has been described, also devised a system of fine grinding which was 




The nineteen-story Medical Arts Building, Dallas, 
Texas, is now the tallest reinforced concrete 
building in the world. 



used first at the Edison cement works. There were also the numerous 
contributions by S. B. Newberry, former Professor of Chemistry at Cornell 
University; those of Professor R. C. Carpenter of the same institution; 
those of Mr. Richardson and Mr. Sabin on rotary kilns and their use, while 
William B. Newberry, Professor A. B. Bleininger, Professor E. D. Camp- 



148 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

bell, Richard K. Meade, and others wrote not only on kilns but also on the 
chemical constitution of portland cement, the use of calcium chloride and 
g3^psum to retard the setting time of cement, and man}' other subjects of 
great scientific interest in connection with the industry. 

To these were added papers upon cement manufacture appearing in 
the technical press by Newberry, Lathbury, Spackman, Leslej^ Carpenter, 
Eckel, Meade, Lewis and Lundteigen. 

Several trade papers, such as Cement Age, Concretej Concrete 
Engineering, Cement and Engineering News, and Rock Products, sprang 
into existence, while a number of important books on the subject of portland 
cement manufacture were published. As a matter of fact everyone inter- 
ested in cement contributed to the literature current during the period 
covered by the work of the committees of the American Society of Civil 
Engineers and the American Society for Testing Materials. 

Madison Porter investigated the lack of uniformity in cement testing 
methods, as stated by Meade in his paper delivered before the American 
Chemical Society in September, 1906. Maclay, Lundteigen, Lewis and 
W. Purvis Taylor made a study of the accelerated tests for constancy of 
volume; Lazell showed the lack of uniformitj'- in standard sieves. Meade 
proved the sieve test to be inadequate for determining fineness in cements 
ground by different processes. Taylor investigated the influence of aeration 
on specific gravity. Spaulding, Jamison, Meade and Tajdor published trea- 
tises upon the subject of cement testing. Meade says on the subject: 

Much improved apparatus for testing cement has also been perfected in this 
country. Jackson and McKenna have both devised apparatus for determining specific 
gravit}-. Gillmore's Needles were for a long time used for testing and setting time of 
cement, and now that the Vicat apparatus has been recommended, Bramwell has sim- 
plified this. The Fairbanks Company manufacture an improved form of testing machine 
which is much used and possesses many points of advantage over its standard German 
counterpart, the Michaelis machine. Olsen and Riehle have also brought forward excel- 
lent testing machines which are much used in this countrj-. Much has also been done in 
improving methods of analysis. The New York Section of the Society of Chemical 
Industry appointed a committee to investigate the subject as did also the Lehigh Valley 
Section of the American Chemical Society. Both committees reported and advised 
methods of analysis. 

Common Lack of Knowledge on Possibilities of Concrete 

The same conditions that governed methods of testing of portland 
cement, and the same lack of knowledge and experience as marked that 
branch of th"!? business, were most noticeable in connection with the use 
of cement in the form of concrete and reinforced concrete. The foreign 
Portland cement brought into this country had been used largely for side- 
walks, concrete foundations, brickwork and heavy masonry types of 
construction. Reinforced concrete was but little known, and while among 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 149 

engineers there had been considerable study of the work of Coignet, Borde- 
nave and Hennebique in France, Italy and along the Suez Canal, there was 
little or no general knowledge on the subject. In fact, so marked was this 
state of affairs during the late nineties that a distinguished contractor and 
engineer of New York who had been asked to investigate the work of the 
French concrete engineers with a view of engaging in the reinforced con- 
crete business in this country, reported to his principals that he would not 
stake his reputation as an engineer upon any such reinforced concrete 
work as was being done in France, because American labor was too careless 
and inefficient to observe the nice requirements of successful construction. 

Committee Appointed to Study Concrete -Steel Construction 

With an illustration of this kind showing the lack of actual informa- 
tion on the tremendous possibilities of reinforced concrete, it is easy to 
understand how the engineering mind began to focus itself upon the neces- 
sity for specifications or methods governing this new art. The American 
Society of Civil Engineers at its annual convention in Asheville, June, 1903, 
adopted a resolution for "the appointment of a special committee to take 
up the question of concrete and steel concrete and that such committee co- 
operate with the American Society for Testing Materials and the American 
Railway Engineering and Maintenance of Way Association." Such com- 
mittee was appointed in May, 1904, consisting of the following members: 
J. E. Greiner, Consulting Engineer, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Balti- 
more; W. K. Hatt, Professor of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, 
Lafayette, Indiana; Olaf Hoff, Vice President, Butler Brothers, Hoff & 
Company, New York City; Richard L. Humphrey, Consulting Engineer 
and Engineer in Charge of St. Louis Structural Materials Testing Labora- 
tories of United States Geological Survey, Philadelphia; Robert W. Lesley, 
President, American Cement Company, Philadelphia; J. W. Schaub, 
Consulting Engineer, Chicago; C. C. Schneider, Consulting Engineer, 
Philadelphia; Emile Swensson, Consulting Engineer, Pittsburgh, Penn- 
sylvania; A. N. Talbot, Professor of Municipal and Sanitary Engineering, 
in Charge of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, University of Illinois, 
Urbana; J. R. Worcester, Consulting Engineer, Boston. 

The first meeting was held at Atlantic City in June, 1904, and the 
name was changed to Special Committee on Concrete and Reinforced 
Concrete. C. C. Schneider was appointed Chairman, and J. W. Schaub, 
Secretary. Subsequently, Mr. Schaub resigned and Richard L. Humphrey 
was appointed Secretary on October 11, 1905. 



150 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

Formation of Joint Committee on Concrete and Reinforced Concrete 

Concurrent with this work of the American Society of Civil Engineers' 
committee, the American Society for Testing ^Materials in December, 
1903, appointed a Committee on Reinforced Concrete while the American 
Railway Engineering and Maintenance of Way Association, in ]March, 
190-4, authorized its Conmiittee on ]\Iasonry to cooperate with the Special 
Committee on Concrete and Reinforced Concrete of the American Society 
of Civil Engineers referred to above. At a meeting of the several special 
committees representing the above mentioned societies held at Atlantic 
City, June 17, 1904, arrangements were completed for collaborating the 
work of these several committees through the formation of a Joint Com- 
mittee on Concrete and Reinforced Concrete. C. C. Schneider was elected 
temporary Chairman and Professor A. N. Talbot temporary Secretary', 
and among the first acts of the new Joint Committee was the extending of 
an invitation to the Association of American Portland Cement Manu- 
facturers to join in its dehberations through a committee appointed for 
the purpose. 

The Joint Committee thus formed consisted of ten appointees from 
the American Society of Civil Engineers, fifteen from the American Society 
for Testing Alaterials, five from the American Railway Engineering Associ- 
ation, and four from the Association of American Portland Cement 
^Manufacturers. To follow the history of this committee from its organiza- 
tion in 1904 to the present date would involve the writing of a book on 
concrete and reinforced concrete. The progress report presented to the 
various constituent societies in the year 1912-1913 embodied a bibliography 
of the art and a series of chapters dealing with the materials, the uses, the 
adaptability of concrete and reinforced concrete, forms, design, and the 
various other elements entering into the successful use of these new 
materials of construction. It was no easy task to obtain the practically 
unanimous report on a subject of such wide scope and much credit is due 
to the secretary, Richard L. Humphrey, who certainly kept the committee 
in action and contributed much to the important results obtained. At 
one time it became necessary almost to keep the committee together like a 
"hung jury," hardly permitting them to separate for sleep and practically 
insisting that they should take all their meals together until their delibera- 
tions produced fruit. 

In both of the preceding cases the appointment of committees and the 
ensuing results grew out of evils and lack of knowledge among those having 
to do with the subject matter under discussion. The adoption of a uniform 
cement specification had been a great step forward and so was the Progress 
Report of the Committee on Concrete and Reinforced Concrete. In both 
cases new light was obtained and evils were cured, and it is a remarkable 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMEXT INDUSTRY 151 

fact in considering the work mentioned that the joint committees or com- 
mittees formed of representatives of aU interests were engaged in the work 
and practically marked the advent of a new form of engineering coopera- 
tion. It was still further remarkable that wliile the subject under considera- 
tion was that of cement in wliich large interests were involved on its 
manufacturing side, nevertheless, in the case of both of these committees 
there was a large preponderance of representatives of consumers (engineers, 
testing laboratories, etc.) as distinguished from producers (manufacturers, 
contractors, etc.) thus showing the fair spirit in which the cement manu- 
facturer had dealt with the subject of tests from the earhest days of dis- 
cussion. This marked a material difference in respect to these committees 
as compared with other and similar bodies of the American Society for 
Testing ^laterials so far as the representative proportionate constituents 
of producers and consumers were concerned. 

Through these two great engineering bodies, working along the lines 
stated, many e^41s were remedied and much work of great value was done; 
but there remained still another side of the subject and one that involved 
great peril to the growing industry- of cement and its many uses. While 
the reconuiiendations for the tests of cement and the recommendations 
for the use of concrete and reinforced concrete showed the way in broad 
and greater lines, there had developed a large field for the use of cement in 
sidewalk work and in the making of brick and block. It was necessary 
that some method of supervision or at least of correlated thought should 
be found to obviate any possible evils growing out of bad work in these 
two fields. 

National Association of Cement Users Organized 

The formation in 1905 of the National Association of Cement Users, 
whose first convention was held at Indianapolis that year, was a step in 
this direction. The purpose of this association, which was incorporated 
in 1906, was to bring into one organization that great body of smaller 
contractors and cement users who were working in the fields mentioned. 
Especially was it the purpose to gather together the proper information 
and data to govern the manufacture of cement block and brick, which were 
coming into use in a large way and causing considerable trouble and di.'^- 
credit in some cases to the makers and sometimes to cement itseK. 

At the first meeting of this association, Richard L. Humphrey was 
elected president and continued in that office from 1905 until 1915 as 
President of the National Association of Cement Users, and its successor, 
the American Concrete Institute, a strong and flourishing organization. 
Interesting contrasts between the early days of this organization, whose 
members at first were chiefly the non-teclmical but very practical type of 
working contractors and block makers, to the more deliberative and 



152 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

scientific organization that now exists, may be cited. The one great feature 
of the early conventions was the "Question Box," in which every one who 
did not know, was invited to put his question to be answered by someone 
who did know. This produced excellent results and was one of the elements 
that bound the early members thoroughly together. The development, 
however, of the society from its early purposes, which were rather along 
the lines of selection of different types of block making machinery and of 
the methods of making block and sidewalks, to the high engineering lines 
it now covers, was due to the fact that from its earliest day the society 
had at its head an engineer preeminent in the field and whose influence 
was always toward the elevation of the standards and ideals of the organ- 
ization. When Mr. Humphrey resigned he was succeeded by Leonard C. 
Wason, another leading exponent of concrete construction. Mr. Wason 
was succeeded by Professor W. K. Hatt, and he in turn by H. C. Turner, 
all eminent authorities in the field. 

It was a fitting tribute to the development of the art of testing and of 
the making of specifications for materials in the United States when the 
International Association for Testing Materials, representing practically all 
the leading nations of the world decided to hold its Fifth International Con- 
gress in New York in 1912, where the subjects should have the widest dis- 
cussion by authorities of world-wide standing. Illustrating the growth of 
cement and of concrete and reinforced concrete in the engineering mind, it 
is sufficient to state that one section of this great congress was devoted to 
these subjects alone, and papers were read and discussion had upon their 
many-sided elements by men of the greatest distinction from France, 
Germany, England, Denmark, Russia, Italy, and some of the South Amer- 
ican countries. The deliberations were in French, in German, and in 
English, and the section over which Robert W. Lesley, the Vice President of 
the American Society for Testing Materials presided, had among its other 
presiding officials. Dr. Schule, of Switzerland; Dr. Reitler, of Vienna, and 
Dr. Foss, of Copenhagen. 

Single Standard Specification Adopted by All Engineermg Societies and 
United States Government 

After the presentation of the first report of Committee C-1 on Cement 
Specifications in 1904, wherein the first standard specifications were 
adopted, it was found that a number of changes requiring revisions of 
the specifications were necessary. This led to the first revision adopted 
in 1908 and a second revision in 1909; and for a time the specification was 
in existence and successfully used in practically all branches of the engi- 
neering profession except under government contracts. As a result of 
efforts to correlate the government specifications with those of the Com- 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 153 

mittee C-1 on Cement Specifications, manj'- conferences were had, covering 
a period of several years, between representatives of the government and 
of the committee above referred to. As a result of this, a third revision 
was adopted in 1916 to become effective January 1, 1917, which repre- 
sented practically an agreement between the United States Government 
engineers and representatives of the committee. Much heated discussion 
was had at various meetings before the adoption of this specification. 
Under nine sub-connnittees of the general Committee C-1, dealing with 
the elements of the specification, an agreement was arrived at on all points 
and the result of the study of the committee, which was published by it 
under the auspices of the American Society for Testing Materials, is a 
classic so far as records of various methods of testing are concerned. The 
final agreement under the fourth revision was adopted in 1920 and became 
effective January 1, 1921, and represents an agreement between all author- 
ities in the United States having to do with the making of a single uniform 
cement specification. This specification, approved January 15, 1921, is 
the first standard United States Specification to be adopted by the new 
Engineering Standards Committee of all the engineering societies. The 
Committee C-1, whose specifications are above referred to, consisted of 
thirty-seven non-producers (consumers, engineers, testing laboratories, 
etc.) and twenty-five producers (manufacturers of portland cement). 

On March 31, 1922, this specification became the first American Stand- 
ard Specification marking common accord among the various engineering 
societies who had long contributed to the work. The United States Govern- 
ment Specification also included exactly the same requirements. These 
specifications are given in Appendix D of this volume. 

As mentioned before, the Committee on Concrete and Reinforced 
Concrete originally appointed by the American Society of Civil Engineers, 
subsequently forming the Joint Committee, whose report on dealing prac- 
tically with methods of concrete and reinforced concrete construction had 
been approved by the various constituent organizations, finished its report. 
The subject, however, like the subject of cement specifications and methods 
of testing cement, was not finally concluded, as it remained still a duty for 
someone to actually make specifications for reinforced concrete. Accord- 
ingty, on June 27, 1917, Committee C-2 of the American Society for Testing 
Materials considered the recommending of specifications for concrete and 
reinforced concrete and adopted resolutions to that end. In August, 1917, 
its recommendations in the matter were presented to the Executive Com- 
mittee of the American Society for Testing Materials. This Committee 
took favorable action upon the report of Committee C-2 recommending 
that the American Society of Civil Engineers, the American Railway 
Engineering Association, the American Concrete Institute and the Portland 
Cement Association be invited to "form with our Society a Joint Committee 



154 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



for the purpose of preparing specifications for reinforced concrete," these 
four organizations, with the American Society for Testing Materials, having 
cooperated in the work of the former Joint Committee on Concrete and 
Reinforced Concrete. The Executive Committee extended invitations to 
these four organizations, and by November 22, 1919, acceptances had been 
received from all of them. The five cooperating bodies agreed to appoint 




An interior view of the Sacred Heart Church, 

Washington, D. C. The concrete work was 

executed by John J. Earh', architectural 
sculptor. 



five representatives each to the Joint Committee. After receipt of these 
replies naming the representatives, a call was issued by the Executive 
Committee of the Society for Testing Materials to the 25 rei)resontatives 
thus appointed to attend an organization meeting on February 11, 1920. 
At this meeting Richard L. Humphrey was elected Chairman, J. J. Yates, 
Vice Chairman and Duff A. Abrams, Secretary. Committees were ap- 
pointed on the subject of: materials other than reinforcing, metal reinforce- 
ment, proportioning and mixing, forms and placing, design, details of 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 155 

construction and fireproofing, waterproofing and protective treatment, 
surface finish, form of specification. 

The first report of this committee, entitled, ''Progress Report of the 
Joint Committee on Standard Specifications for Concrete and Reinforced 
Concrete," was pubHshed in June, 1921. Since that time the report has 
been thoroughly discussed before each of the constituent societies and by 
individuals through the medium of the technical press and otherwise. 
In the light of this discussion and of field tests to demonstrate the prac- 
ticability of some of the recommendations contained in the progress report, 
the committee has made quite a number of amendments which, included 
in a new report, are pubhshed in the October (1924) proceedings of the 
American Society of Civil Engineers. 

Much that represents a distinct advance with regard to refinements 
of design is included in the report. Recognition of the dependability of the 
strength of concrete when scientifically proportioned, carefully placed, and 
properly cured, shows that marked advance has been made in the scientific 
study of this material and of its practical uses. 

The report is not submitted as final and future amendments will prob- 
ably be made, but in the general application of the specifications, the com- 
mittee considers its forthcoming report as practically completing its 
endeavors. 

At the present time (October, 1924), the membership of the Joint 
Committee is as follows: 

AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 
W. A. Slater, Chairman, 

Engineer-Physicist, U. S. Bureau of Standards, Washington, D. C. 
Milton H. Freeman, 

Division Engineer, N. Y. & N. J. Bridge & Tunnel Comm., New York City. 
A. E. Lindau, 

President, American Wire Fence Company, Chicago; formerly General 

Manager of Sales, Corrugated Bar Company, Buffalo, N. Y. 
Franklin R. McMillan, 

Consulting Engineer, 628 Metropolitan Bank Building, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Appointed to fill vacancy. 
Sanford E. Thompson, 

Consulting Engineer, Boston, Mass. 
W. K. Hatt, 

Professor of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 

Resigned Sept. 14, 1921. Succeeded by Milton H. Freeman. 
Rudolph P. Miller, 

Consulting Engineer, New York City. 

Resigned March 28, 1921. Succeeded as Chairman by W. A. Slater. 
AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING MATERIALS 
Richard L. Humphrey, Chairman, 

Consulting Engineer, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Albert T. Goldbeck, 

Engineer of Tests, U. S. Bureau of Public Roads, Washington, D. C. 



156 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

Edward E. Hughes, 

Vice-President, Franklin Steel Works, Franklin, Pa. 
Henry H. Quimby, 

Chief Engineer, Department of City Transit, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Leon S. Moisseiff, 

Engineer of Design, Delaware River Bridge, Brookhn, X. Y. 
AMERICAN RAILWAY ENGINEERING ASSOCIATION* 
J. J. Yates, Chairman, 

Bridge Engineer, Central Railroad of New Jersey, Jersey City, N. J. 
T. L. D. Hadwen, 

Engineer of Masonry Construction, Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Ry., 

Chicago. 
Frederick E. Schall, 

Bridge Engineer, Lehigh Valley Railroad, Bethlehem, Pa. 
C. C. Westfall, 

Engineer of Bridges, Illinois Central Railroad Companj-, Chicago. 
George E. Boyd, 

Division Engineer, Delaware, Lackawanna and Western R. R., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Resigned November 7, 1921. Succeeded by T. L. D. Hadwen. 
H. T. Welty, 

Engineer of Structures, New York Central Railroad, New York City. 

Resigned December 27, 1922. 
AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE* 
S. C. Hollister, Chairman, 

Consulting Engineer, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Robert W. Lesley, 

Past President, Portland Cement Association, Pennsylvania Building, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 
Egbert J. Moore, 

Vice President, Turner Construction Company', New York Cit3^ 
Angus B. McMillan, 

Chief Engineer, Aberthaw Construction Companj', Boston, Mass. 
Arthur R. Lord, 

President, Lord Engineering Company, Chicago. 

Resigned April 17, 1923. 
Leonard C. Wason, 

President, Aberthaw Construction Company, Boston, Mass. 

Resigned October 19, 1920. Succeeded by Angus B. McMillan. 
PORTLAND CEMENT ASSOCIATION 
Frederick W. Kelley, Chairman, 

President, Portland Cement Association, 126 State Street, Albany, N. Y. 
Duff A. Abrams, 

Professor in Charge, Structural Materials Research Laboratory, Lewis 

Institute, Chicago. 
Ernest Ashton, 

Chemical Engineer, Lehigh Portland Cement Co., Allentown, Pa. 
Edward D. Boyer, 

Cement Expert, .Vtlas Portland Cement Company, New York Cit3\ 
A. C. Irwin, 

Engineer, Structural Bureau, Portland Cement Association, Chicago. 

*At the time of the completion of this report a vacancy existed in the representation of both the 
American Railway Engineering Association and the American Concrete Institute. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 157 

Many Cooperate in Study of Cement, Concrete and Aggregates 

To give some idea of the importance of the field covered b}' cement 
and concrete in the work of the American Society for Testing Materials 
alone, it may be stated that the number of committees having to do with 
the two subjects is no fewer than twenty-eight; and again it may be 
stated that in each of the great main committees, namely, the committees 
on cement, concrete and reinforced concrete and on aggregates, the 
representation of consumers and producers is respectively 37 nonpro- 
ducers, 25 producers; 16 nonproducers, 5 producers; and 23 nonproducers, 
11 producers, again emphasizing the fair play that governed the consti- 
tution of the committees and the work in general. 

In looking over the names of those who had to do with all the work 
above described, certain individuals stand out, among them C. C. Schneider 
and Emil Swensson, who were on the original Committee on Concrete and 
Reinforced Concrete and represented important steel and bridge construct- 
ing interests, but who took active part in the early work of the committee. 
There were also Professor W. K. Hatt, of Purdue University; John B.Lober, 
Vulcanite Portland Cement Company; Robert W. Lesley, American 
Cement Company; S. B. Newberry, Sandusky Cement Company; Ernest 
Ashton, Lehigh Portland Cement Company; George S. Webster, Phila- 
delphia; Rudolph J. Wig, United States Bureau of Standards; R. B. Young, 
Pennsylvania Railroad; H. H. Quimby, Bureau of Surveys, Philadelphia; 
Sanford E. Thompson, Boston; S. T. Wagner, Philadelphia; A. N. Talbot, 
University of Illinois. All these men contributed of their time and ability 
to the furtherance of the work and may be classed among those who were 
associated with the committees in their early days and many of whom are 
with them still. 

With the growth of new thought and the advent of new men, valuable 
additions have been made to the committee by the appointment of A. C. 
Tagge, Canada Cement Company; F. W. Kelley, Helderberg Cement 
Company; W. M. Kinney, Portland Cement Association; P. H. Bates, 
United States Bureau of Standards; R. S. Greenman, New York Canal 
Board; A. T. Goldbeck, United States Bureau of Public Roads; S. C. 
Hollister; E. L. Conwell, Conwell Testing Laboratories; C. N. Chapman 
and N. C. Johnson, all of them representing modern thought and ideas. 

It is difficult to enumerate in this day all the writers of importance 
in the field of cement and reinforced concrete within the past fifteen years. 
While the earlier writers were few and far between, the field has so broad- 
ened and so many men of distinction and great minds and intelligence have 
contributed in scientific papers and in magazine articles, books, etc., to 
the subject, that it would take up considerable space to name them. So, 
too, it would be invidious to name some to the exclusion of others of that 



158 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

body of disinterested scientists who at the various meetings of the Portland 
Cement Association contributed papers dealing with all branches of con- 
crete and of the manufacture of cement. These papers form in themselves 
a compendium of knowledge and emphasize, as do all the proceedings, the 
broad and thorough development of the scientific side of the industry. 
From an examination of the preceding facts it will be noted with what 
full spirit of cooperation and with what unselfish, altruistic interest the 
cement industry gave itself to the solution of the problems involving the 
specifications for its material and the use of concrete and reinforced con- 
crete. The broad definition of "service" may well apply to the work done. 
In time, in money, in suggestion, and in action, the cement manufacturers 
were found at all times in the forefront of the various committees and 
organizations dealing with these important subjects pertaining to their 
product. It is a tribute to a trade organization such as the Portland Cement 
Association that in all the joint committees dealing with cement, concrete, 
and reinforced concrete that body should have a definite representation 
and be invited to ioin in the action to be taken. 



CHAPTER XII 

THE DAY|OF THE PROMOTER 

Michigan and Kansas Give the Promoter His Cue 

The great development of the cement industry by the construction 
of new mills in the marl fields of Michigan and in the gas territory of 
Kansas was a signal for the "promoter" to rush in and organize new com- 
panies. The growth of the Michigan and Kansas fields, together with the 
increase of cement business generally throughout the country, resulted in 
many exaggerated statements concerning the profits of the industry. The 
attention of unscrupulous promoters was attracted to this promising field 
for their talent, beginning as far back as 1897 and continuing all through 
the first decade of the present centurj-. They were ready to take advantage 
of the situation following the wonderful growth of the new industry in the 
short period since it had been founded, and began organizing companies 
in which the get-rich-quick appeal was successfully used. 

The stock salesman, the banker, the printing press, the photographer 
and the lithographer were all impressed into the service, and while the 
number of promoters was small compared with the number in some other 
industries, notably mining, the situation became sufficiently acute to 
attract attention. In 1908 Edwin C. Eckel, in his book entitled "The 
Portland Cement Industry from a Financial Standpoint," pubHshed an 
interesting account of this phase of the industry, the following paragraph 
from the preface of his book describing the situation concisely: 

Eckel Warns Against the Promoter 

There is at present everj' indication that the first broad improvement in the general 
business situation will be the signal for the attempted flotation of an unprecedentedly 
large mass of cement securities. Some of the enterprises against which these securities 
are issued will ultimately prove successful and profitable; some, though exploited hon- 
estly, will prove to have been mistakenly planned; a third and not inconsiderable group 
of projects will be exploited for the sole purpose of defrauding the investors. 

Typical Example of His Methods 

After calling attention to the great and growing importance of the 
Portland cement industry, and how properly financed, located, constructed 
and managed plants had made satisfactory returns to the stockholders, 
Eckel exposed the fraudulent methods in operation. A promoter, he said, 

159 



160 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

passing through a prairie state might notice an abandoned lime kiln, and 
in his mind would be created immediately the Great Plains Cement Cor- 
poration. He might secure an option at SIO per acre on 200 acres of land 
worthless for farming purposes and obtain from some state geologist or 
college professor a perfectly honest statement to the effect that the land 
contained some fifty million tons of cement raw materials. Inasmuch as 
the United States Geological Survej^ reports showed that the average value 
of the limestone quarried the preceding 3'ear was $1.20 per ton, the pro- 
moter was in a position to convince prospective investors that even at ten 
cents a ton the limestone deposit upon which he had obtained an option, 
or had purchased outright, was worth at least So, 000, 000, to say nothing 
of the value of the shale for brick-making purposes. Thereupon the stock- 
holders were congratulated upon being the owners of this magnificent 
reserve of raw material at a cost of less than one-twentieth of its real value 
as certified to by experts. 

Panama Canal Project Used to Lure Investors 

Glowing prospectuses were sent out, most of them to the effect that 
the Portland cement industry had an in)mense future and that failures 
among manufacturers were unknown. The Panama Canal project was 
stressed to the breaking point. A favorite statement was that the con- 
struction of the canal would consume daily more than a third of the entire 
output of Portland cement, thus serving to increase the price. Estimates 
of profits were easy to figure, even where costs of production were placed 
at the maximum "to be on the safe side." The following is a sample 
statement given by Eckel: 

3,000 barrels per day, 1,095,000 barrels per year, at $1.50 SI, 642, 500 

Cost to manufacture, 1,095,000 barrels, at 60 cents 657,000 

Profit of company per year S 985,500 

The entire plant will cost, ready for operation, not over $750,000. 

In reading some of the prospectuses — among them those sent out with 
honest intent — the only conclusion to be formed was that the Almighty, 
in creating the world, had set aside certain tracts for the advantage of these 
specific enterprises. In some cases waterways and railways extended from 
the site to the most profitable markets of the country. Water needed for 
industrial purposes flowed through the premises. Not only were all 
necessary materials on the ground, but so arranged as to be convenientlj' 
accessible, even including the coal required for burning. The store of these 
was inexhaustible and their quality superb and uniform, the cement ma- 
terial testing higher than any previously discovered. The site of the mill 
had been prearranged so that materials would slide into it by gravity. 
Even the climate was admirable, and for some strange reason all the 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 161 

workingmen who had chanced to settle in the community were of loyal, 
native stock not hkely to be in sympathy with labor agitators. The fore- 
going may appear as an exaggerated statement, but precisely such claims 
may be found in some of the old prospectuses. 

Generally the Promoter Knew Nothing About the Business 

The period was marked by the general distribution of prospectuses 
of all kinds describing all sorts of property available for cement manu- 
facturing, located in all parts of the United States, and embracing' materials 
of all kinds and character. Many of them were issued by people entirely 
unfamiliar with the business, while others were skillfully and carefully 
prepared to attract the unwary investor. Some of these represented the 
highest standards in the art of engraving, printing, and binding, and the 
text or literary effort was exceedingly clever and plausible. Through these 
circulars, especially in the farming country of the Middle West, and notably 
in the Michigan territory, large numbers of small investors were drawn 
into the business, many of them receiving little or no returns for their 
investments. 

As far back as 1897 an Ohio prospectus was filled with striking data. 
After stating that "the ancients used cement with success on a grand scale 
that awakens astonishment in the mind of the modern engineer," it refers 
to the probable large increase in the American product from the 2,340,000 
barrels then made. The property described by the prospectus was said 
to contain "large deposits of carbonate of lime, clay, and fuel of the required 
physical and chemical characteristics in economical proximity, which are 
so rare as to give to the owners of these quarries a practical monopoly of 
the manufacture of portland cement on a large scale west of the Alleghenies. 
This practical monopoly will be worth millions for the purpose of a large 
factor^^" It continues: "Where small deposits of the requisite materials 
exist, a number of small factories have sprung up, but the limited supply 
of the material prevents the expansion of these plants as well as the use 
of the best machinery which is costly. Their combined output will not 
equal 500,000 barrels per annum and can never be an important factor in 
the American portland cement industry." The prospectus promised profits 
of from 40 to 80 per cent per annum. 

It is safe to state that this works was never built and the small mills 
then existing in the West still live. 

The Usual Way of Figuring Profits 

A modest type of prospectus of the early days was that of the cement 
company which intended to build a plant on a tract near the town of 



162 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



Phillipsburg, N. J. Only $150,000 was required to start the business, 
apportioned as follows: 

Land— 75 acres at $750, will cost $56,250 

Buildings and machinery complete as per accompanying estimates . . 50,000 

Working capital needed during first year's run 20,000 

Balance of stock — to be issued as needed 23,750 

These figures as contrasted with the average prospectus are so modest 
that the claim of $1 per barrel as the price of manufacturing and $1.60 
as the selling price shocked no one and illustrate in what small beginnings 
great works had their origin. A final supplementary statement says: 

The manager of the company is ready to agree to deliver cement on hoard cars 
at $1.10, and that "Mr. Bonneville will take all they can turn out at $1..50 per barrel." 




The concrete tennis courts of the Los Angeles Tennis Club on which many championship 
matches have been played. 

A Nebraska prospectus at the town of Superior, with a population in 
1900 of 2,1-00 souls, is dated New York, March 6, 1902. It proposes a works 
of 1,000 barrels capacity for $231,000 and claims the ability to deliver 
cement in the large markets of Colorado, Wyoming, Nebraska, Kansas, 
Oklahoma, Iowa, Missouri, Minnesota and Montana at an average of 
40 cents lower than any other plants in that vicinity. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 163 

The original prospectus of a Colorado company promised control of 
the Rocky Mountain market, and states that "of the $2 per barrel that 
the dealer pays here $1.25 should be profit to the producer." The material 
is alleged to be "a most natural quality of cretaceous rock of the exact 
proportions and the chemical combinations proper and desirable both for 
quality of cement and facility of manufacture." The mill is all operated 
by gravity and also, "fine grinding of the raw material is not essential as 
nature has already accomplished a proper mixture." 

A very moderate capitalization was contemplated by land owners in 
Texas, where one offering a property for sale stated that, "a friend of mine 
here owns a stupendous deposit of limestone and shale adjacent to the 
corporate Hmits of this cit3^" 

A Portland cement company proposed to build a plant in Ohio. Need- 
less to say, the land contained an ample supply of raw materials of the best 
quality, exceptional transportation facilities, abundance of fuel and water 
and a plant site. The tests made, of course, equalled the best American 
brands then in existence and all the materials were lower than could be 
obtained anywhere else. 

The first works to be financed upon the basis of the limestones in the 
Western Pennsylvania district was to cover a 1,000,000 barrel output 
to be sold at $2 per barrel. The annual net profit, after pajang 7 per cent 
on $1,250,000 of preferred stock, was figured at $1,312,500, which was 
"going some," even in those days. 

Another Ohio cement company, with a capital of $600,000 in stock 
and $400,000 in bonds proposed a factory of only 1,200 barrels per day, 
which would make, on the basis of $1.65 per barrel, a mere bagatelle of 
$299,400. Honesty prevented them from running it up to the even $300,000. 

In New Jersey a plant was projected which required $650,000 capital 
and which modestly proposed to make cement for 55 cents a barrel. The 
cost of machinery was modestly stated as $89,000, and as an appeal to 
prospective stockholders, it was stated that dividends of other cement 
companies had run as high as 37 per cent per annum. 

A works projected in Penns3dvania had among its most attractive 
features the fact that it was the onlj^ cement works on the great Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad system, and it was stated that the millsite was so near the 
quarry that the "closeness of the underlying rock to the surface insures 
good foundations for the massive machinery at a comparatively low cost." 
This concern proposed to have its own railroad to connect with the Penn- 
sylvania system, and to yield to the common stockholders nearly 10 per 
cent on their investment, after paying 7 per cent on the preferred. 

A Kentucky prospectus was predicated upon the fact that hmestone, 
clay and shale were all found on a single property which, together with the 
"topographical situation makes it possible to collect the materials for 



164 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

making cement at the lowest possible cost." A further advantage was that 
coal, "which represents about one-half of the cost of the manufacturing 
of Portland cement at mills where the fuel is burdened with expensive 
transportation, is on this property so that the cost of manufacturing will 
be at figures unapproachable by mills not having the same fortunate com- 
bination of fuel and materials." 

One of the most remarkable of all these prospectuses was, however, 
that of a Michigan companj^ which had a capitalization of $5,000,000 and 
owned 6,200 acres of land in Michigan. Regarding this it was stated that 
this was "the greatest area of raw material owned by any portland cement 
company in America or Europe and will supply a plant of 12,000 barrels 
per day capacity for nearly 100 years, while the buildings of the completed 
plant will cover about 17 acres." The original estimate was made upon a 
cost of 59.90 cents per barrel with a selling price of $1.40, while in a later 
"summary" of the prospectus it was figured that the cement could be 
manufactured for 50 cents per barrel. The "Table of Estimated Earnings," 
covering a period of 10 years, started with earnings of $1,168,000, on a 
capacity of 4,000 barrels a day, and ended with a capacity of 12,000 barrels 
a day, by which time a surplus of $4,658,634.60 would have been accumu- 
lated, of which, if the cement could be made at 50 cents per barrel as stated 
in the "summary" $3,577,000 would be added to the profits for the 10-year 
period. This was an actual concern which started to build a plant, spent 
a great amount of money and constructed a town of its own in the State of 
Michigan. Later on the property was sold under mortgage, and added one 
more to the list of unsuccessful promotions. 

Effect of Wildcat Promotion on Industry 

The effect of some of these promotions upon the industry was any- 
thing but constructive, as the values given and profits sought brought into 
being in many cases plants which at the time of their construction had no 
logical right to exist. 

The subject of this boom is largely covered in the interesting book by 
Eckel already referred to and in his article published in the Engineering 
Magazine, March, 1911, under the title of, "The Iron and Cement Indus- 
try," as well as in two pamphlets published at the time, one in 1916 
entitled "Has the Cement Bubble Burst?" by E. W. Stanfield, Kansas 
City, and the last, a most important and interesting one, entitled, "The 
Pathetic Case of the Gointohel Cement Company." These all throw a most 
interesting^ight on the subject and bring into the field of the pioneer and 
the developer of the industry, the new character of the promoter, whose 
efforts spread all over the land. Some of his work still lives, while much 
of it has gone the way of all flesh, even where projected with honest intent 
and the conviction that he had a sound proposition. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 165 

The result of a great many of these promotions, together with the 
extremely low prices prevailing, in the industry during the years 1908-9-10 
and 1911, was to put into the hands of creditors 32 mills, which were 
either reorganized at great loss to their stockholders, or were at that time — 
when a tariff bill was under discussion — idle. 

While this promotion of individual works was going on, and many 
misadventures came to investors, several consolidations of various cement 
plants were proposed by financiers and promoters. But none of them was 
effected and the industry remained "the most individuahstic of the larger 
branches of manufacture." 



CHAPTER XIII 

THE CONSTRUCTORS 

An Early Period of Rapid Transition 

The period from 1900 to 1910, according to figures of the United States 
Geological Survey, was one of remarkable and rapid growth. The output 
increased from 8,402,020 barrels, valued at $9,280,525, in 1900, to 76,- 
549,951 barrels, valued at $68,205,800, in 1910. The sahent feature of this 
decade was the enormous amount of new capital that had come into the 
business and the great improvement in mechanical and commercial meth- 
ods. The pioneers of the early days were left far behind, one might say, 
their conception of works being a plant with an output of 200 to 300 barrels 
a day. Even those who were concerned with the growth in the secondary 
formation began to take back seats. This third period of readjustment in 
the Portland cement industry represented the incoming of financial insti- 
tutions, banking interests and captains of industry, and also the beginning 
of what now marks the great groupings in the cement trade. First and 
foremost was the search for greater economies in production; second, the 
increase in size and extent of quarries and mechanical devices; and third, 
the search for new and cheaper fuel and for fuel conservation, as well as 
more varied material for production. 

Discovery of Natural Gas as Kiln Fuel 

The first part of this chapter may well be devoted to the remarkable 
discovery of the adaptability of natural gas to rotary kilns, and the fact 
that in Kansas a great natural gas region had developed where this fuel 
could be had at practically nominal cost and in what were then claimed to 
be inexhaustible quantities. This led to the rapid development of plants 
in Kansas. The first of these, the lola Portland Cement Company, was 
financed in New York and St. Louis and was a success almost from the 
early days of its operation. George E. Nicholson was the President and 
the Leigh Hunt Engineering Company built the works. This plant 
was followed by that of the Kansas Portland Cement Company nearby, 
and in the sftme year, 1905, a third plant was projected at Independence. 
The raw materials, limestone and clay or shales, were satisfactory, but the 
real advantage lay in the cheap fuel found in natural gas. Owing to the 
success of the first mills, a wild era of stock promotion started in and 

166 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 167 

millions of dollars were poured into this field by investors from all parts of 
the country, so that in 1910 Kansas ranked fourth among the portland 
cement producing states, being exceeded only by Pennsylvania, Indiana 
and California. 

The state then had ten plants, all except one using a mixture of carbon- 
iferous limestone and shale; the exception using chalk}^ limestone and shale. 
All of the plants in the natural gas area originally used the natural fuel, 
but in 1911 three used oil exclusively and others oil with gas, while the 
rest were preparing to use oil or coal in case of scarcity of gas. Thirteen 
plants were in operation in 1911 and ten were operated in 1912. The state 
produced nearly 5,000,000 barrels of portland cement in 1911 and about 
3,250,000 in 1912. By 1920 the number of plants had fallen to seven, with 
a production of about 3,000,000 barrels. After the maximum had been 
reached in the number of mills and production, the latter finally exceeded 
the market requirements, which the manufacturers charge was largely, if 
not wholly, due to discriminatory freight rates adjustment and the building 
of competing mills east of the jNlissouri River, which enjoyed a lower scale 
of freight rates, and which, it was alleged, more than offset the supposed 
advantage of cheap fuel. As a consequence but seven mills were operating 
in 1920, and of these, three had gone through bankruptcy one or more 
times, while the others were compelled to reorganize and work out plans 
to raise money to re-establish plants and provide for heavy financial losses. 
It was estimated in 1920 that interest at 6 per cent for an average of twelve 
years on the money lost in cement securities and investments in Kansas 
would amount to considerably over 18,000,000. A great part of the loss in 
this district was caused by the exhaustion of the natural gas. At the end 
of the period, when the gas was still available, pipe lines of forty and fifty 
miles were built to bring in additional supplies from far-off territory, and 
finally these pipe lines were sold and the mills turned generally to coal 
as a fuel. 

In this same period the Michigan* region, which had also developed 
in a time of high prices, was forced, owing to the character of its raw ma- 
terials and the handling of them by the wet process with higher priced 
fuel, to seek economies. As a result, a number of mills were successful in 
securing limestone within reasonable reach of their plants and turned from 
the wet to the dry process and abandoned the marl beds which, in many 
cases, were exhausted. In this region, as already indicated, and in the 
country at large, capital began to come in in large sums and the days of 
wild promotion described in a previous chapter gave way to consolidations 
or groups of plants under a single management. 

*A more extended account of the development of the industry in Michigan appears in the chapter 
on "Early Manufacturers." 



168 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



Pacific Coast States Enter Portland Cement Field 

During this period, namely, the decade from 1900 to 1910, California 
began to produce portland cement. As a portland cement manufacturing 
center the Pacific coast, in the early days, was as detached ahnost as a 
foreign country in so far as its relation to Eastern progress in the industry 
was concerned. Large quantities of cement had been imported at San 
Francisco for years, beginning in 1864 with about 13,000 barrels, which 
reached approximately 150,000 barrels in 1884, importations in New York 
that year amounting to about 350,000 barrels, showing that the Pacific 
coast was a large user of cement at that period. Seattle, Portland and 
San Francisco were the natural markets for the use and distribution of this 
foreign cement. 




Building the Wilson Dam at Muscle Shoals, Alabama. This is the largest concrete 
masonr}^ dam in the world. 

Conditions governing the importations of portland cement on the 
eastern coast, so far as tramp vessels and low freight rates were concerned, 
were even more marked on the western slope of the L^nited States. One 
of the old wooden sailing type of vessels would start from London, Antwerp 
or Rotterdam with large cargoes of cement practically going as ballast 
and get high-paying return cargoes of grain from the shipping centers on 
the Pacific coast. It took them six months to make the trip from Europe 
around the Horn to California or Oregon. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 169 

The first plant to make a true portland cement on the Pacific coast 
was that estabUshed in Oregon in 1884 under the management of Middle- 
ton, which has been described in detail elsewhere. Among those who 
became interested in the future of this region at an early period was Uriah 
Cummings, who looked over the field in 1894, contemplating establishing 
a plant at Los Angeles. He found that railroad tariffs were so excessive 
that Httle profit was promised and so abandoned his purpose. According 
to Charles A. Newhall, in Concrete-Cement Age, the first plant to operate 
in California was started in 1898 by the California Portland Cement 
Company at Colton, about fifty miles east of Los Angeles. This plant 
had an initial capacity of 500 barrels per day and in its early years suffered 
from nearly all the diseases to which cement manufacturing was subject. 
Later on it was remodeled, and the capacity increased to an output of 
about 2,500 barrels per day. T. J. Fleming was .the man who worked 
through all the trouble and reorganized and rebuilt the plant. Up to the 
time of his death (February 27, 1924) he was one of the most successful 
manufacturers in southern California. 

In 1901 the Pacific Portland Cement Company was incorporated, and 
began operating its plant in northern California in 1902. It had for its 
president General Stone, who had been a distinguished soldier in the Civil 
War. He had as associates Nathan L. Bell and Morris Kind, the latter 
now the President of the Hercules Portland Cement Company, Philadel- 
phia. General Stone was always willing to do his mite for the industry, 
and his work in connection with Messrs. Henshaw, Lober, Leslej^, and 
others in the matter of the Government construction of the Roosevelt 
Dam was most valuable, believing with others, as he did, that the building 
of cement works was no function of the Government. 

In the same vicinity the Standard Portland Cement works was estab- 
lished in 1902 — at Napa Junction — and began operations in 1903. 
William J. Dingee, a California capitahst and Dr. Irving A. Bachman, 
who had come to the Pacific field after some chemical knowledge of the 
Nazareth district in Pennsylvania, were in charge. These men were also 
the pioneers and managers in the construction of the Santa Cruz Portland 
Cement works, which went into operation in 1901. Beheving in the great 
future of the portland cement industry, which in the period mentioned 
was successful in many parts of the United States, these men started to 
build a plant in Washington, but did not carry their operation to a con- 
clusion. However, they did build a very large plant in Pennsylvania, known 
as the Atlantic Portland Cement Company. The foundations and partly 
completed buildings of this plant, together with much of the machinery, 
were subsequently sold under bond-holders' sale and purchased by the Her- 



170 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

cules Portland Cement Company now in operation there. After the finan- 
cial failure of the Dingee-Bachman cement syndicate, the Santa Cruz and 
Standard works were purchased by the Crocker-Cameron banking inter- 
ests of San Francisco. 

William G. Henshaw, a banker of Oakland, California, had been inter- 
ested in the early nineties in some of the Pacific works, and in 1909 built one 
of the most successful plants on the Pacific coast, at Riverside in southern 
California. An interesting fact in connection with this plant is that the 
mill, which was located in territory filled with orange, lemon and other 
fruit trees, became involved in litigation growing out of an alleged dust 
nuisance produced in its manufacturing operations. This dust, it was 
alleged, discolored and injured the fruit, and after a long litigation the case 
was settled and the dust nuisance was abated to a large degree by the use 
of the Cottrell process for potash recovery, which not only prevented the 
dust from doing damage to the surrounding property, but produced a 
large revenue for the plant from the sale of the potash. As a side-light, it 
may be stated that after the Riverside Company had purchased many of the 
orange groves and other outlying farm lands, and the products of all these 
purchases, in the shape of fruits and vegetables of various kinds, took all 
the prizes at the State Agricultural Fair, it was proved that cement dust, 
especially that which contains potash, is not a detriment but rather a 
benefit to vegetation. 

Mr. Henshaw died March 2, 1924. At that time he was president of 
the Riverside Portland Cement Company and the Golden State Portland 
Cement Company. 

In his death, California lost one of its foremost upbuilders. In addition 
to being interested in the manufacture of cement, he was activelj'^ identified 
with banking, salt, oil, mining and land development interests. To all of 
these enterprises he brought keen judgment and rare abilit3^ He enjoyed 
the enviable reputation of having had no business failure to mark his long 
career. His greatest and most valuable contribution to the state of Cali- 
fornia, which he loved so well, was the last one he made, namely, impound- 
ing and distributing water over the semi-arid county of San Diego. He 
lived to see this crowning effort attain success. 

About 1911, operations were begun by Mr. Ladd, a banker of Portland, 
Oregon, and some New York capitalists in connection with the construc- 
tion of a plant at San Juan, California. This plant was not finished until 
1918, but was finally reorganized and is now in successful oi)eration. 

In 1907 the Cowell Lime & Cement Company, who were large dealers 
and manufacturers of lime and importers of portland cement from l<]urope, 
organized a works in California which is now in successful operation. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 171 

City of Los Angeles Undertakes Manufacture of Portland Cement 

Another works was constructed in 1909 by the Los Angeles Aqueduct 
Commission of the City of Los Angeles. It was an experiment in municipal 
ownership. When the Aqueduct Commission called for bids on something 
like a million barrels of cement, manufacturers on the Coast quoted a figure 
regarded as too high. The engineers of the Commission then built a muni- 
cipal plant, which has since been taken over by and is now operated by 
the Monolith Portland Cement Company. 

In 1910 a plant was established on the Mohave Desert by the Golden 
State Portland Cement Company, and in 1911 the Inland Portland Cement 
Company, a subsidiary of the Lehigh Portland Cement Company of 
Pennsylvania, began operations at Metaline Falls, Washington, north of 
Spokane. 

The first plant in Washington of which there is record was built in 
1905 by A. F. Coats, a business man of Seattle. 

Another plant was that of the International Portland Cement Com- 
pany, located at Irvin, Washington, with an annual capacity of about 
500,000 barrels, of which C. A. Irvin, now interested in the Alpha works, 
was the general manager and successful operator. 

When American manufacturers by reason of their increased output 
had made it unprofitable to import European cement to the Pacific Coast, 
the great importing firm of Balfour, Guthrie & Company, of San Francisco, 
who had been largely interested as importers, built their own plant, with 
a capacity of 600,000 barrels, at Bellingham, Washington. 

Two other works were built on the northwestern Pacific Coast, those 
of the Superior Portland Cement Company, of Concrete, Washington, 
with a capacity of 1,600,000 barrels per annum, which was organized in 
1906, and the Oregon Portland Cement Company of Oswego, Oregon, with 
a capacity of 350,000 barrels, organized in 1915. The latter plant had for 
its president R. P. Butchart, one of the well-known Butchart family so 
largely interested in cement plants in the Rocky Mountain region and the 
Far Western states. 

At Victorville, California, a large plant was erected by the South- 
western Portland Cement Company, which owned the plant at El Paso, 
Texas. Charles Leonardt, of Los Angeles, long connected with artificial 
stone works and with the scientific side of portland cement, was the Presi- 
dent, and Charles Boettcher of Denver, whose cement activities extended 
throughout the greater part of the Far West, was the Vice President. 

Since 1884, when the single plant at Oregon City began operations 
with its 100 barrels per day capacity, the industry on the Pacific Coast 



172 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



has witnessed a remarkable development. As early as 1913 there were 13 
plants established, capitalized at about $24,000,000, and having a com- 
bined output of nearly 39,000 barrels per day. 

Over-production Threatened at an Early Date 

Looking back, one can see that even as early as 1900, over-production 
existed in the portland cement industry, and that as a result, prices fell 
to figures almost below the cost of production. 

An article b}'^ Frederick H. Lewis, the well-known portland cement 
engineer, published in Mineral Industry for 1901, contains the prediction 
that the day of the small mill with limited machinery and limited capital, 
was practically over and that the growth of the industry would be in the 
direction of large plants, with high-grade machinery, well officered and 
manned, and controlling raw materials in abundance. This prophecy, which 
was bound sooner or later to be realized, was at least a little early, as shown 
by the official returns of production, which indicated the following increases 
by years, as estimated by Dr. Charles S. McKenna in his article in Mineral 
Industry for 1902. 

RATE OF INCREASE IN THE ANNUAL PRODUCTION OF PORTLAND 
CEMENT IN THE UNITED STATES (a) 



Year 


Produc- 
tion 


Rate of 
Increase 
Over Pre- 
vious Year 


Rate of 
Increase 
Referred 
to 1894 


Year 


Produc- 
tion 


Rate of 
Increase 
Over Pre- 
vious Year 


Rate of 
Increase 
Referred 
to 1894 


1894 


Bbl. of 400 

Lb. 

611,229 

749,059 

1,577,283 

2,430,903 

3,584,586 


Per cent 


Per cent 


1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 


Bbl. of 400 

Lb. 

5,805,620 

7,991,639 

12,711,225 

16,535,000 


Per cent 

62.0 
37.6 
49.8 
30.0 


Per cent 
1,176.3 


1895 
1896 
1897 
1898 


22.5 

110.5 

54.0 

47.4 


22.5 
158.0 
297.7 
486.5 


1,204.6 
2,000.0 
2,606.2 



(a) 1894-1901, from THE MINERAL INDUSTRY, Vols. IV to X inclusive; 1902, 
estimated by Charles F. McKenna. 

These figures from another viewpoint, seem even more remarkable. 
From 1897 to 1899, the production almost doubled. The production of 
1901 was more than twice the production of 1899. Later figures show that 
the production of 1903 was almost double the production of 1901; the 
production of 1905 was half as much again as that of 1903; the production 
of 1906 was double that of 1903. With these staggering figures before the 
world, indicating the rapid and almost unbelievable growth of an industry, 
which, in the early eighties, seemed almost an exotic in our country, it was 
but natural that there should be a continuing inrush of new men and new 
money into the field, in some cases from logical sources and in others 
through the instrumentality of the promoter. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 173 

The childhood days of the industry may be described as those from 
1880 to 1900, when the workers in the field were gradually upbuilding a 
reputation for the American product and slowly feeling their way to the 
type and character of machinery which could be most economically used. 
With the advent of the rotary kiln and the iron mill, plant construction 
became more standardized. The promotor and his engineer were able to 
duplicate existing plants, and in fact improve upon some of them, while, 
the reputation of American portland cement having been established, 
there was a constant and growing demand which it was possible for new 
mills to find early opportunity to suppl3^ 

In those days, many men from many fields became part of the indus- 
trj^, bringing into it their prejudices, sentiments, habits, and experiences 
acquired in other fields of manufacture and commerce. At this time there 
was little or no engineering or scientific knowledge in the management of 
the business. Youth had not yet had an opportunity to become sufficiently 
experienced to take part in shaping the destiny of the industry; conse- 
quently, during the early years of the twentieth century, both manufactur- 
ing and selling methods had not j^et become thoroughly stabilized. It is 
true that railroad rates had become fixed under the rulings of the Interstate 
Commerce Commission and that cut prices and rebates which, in the early 
days, enabled cowpath billings and rebates to be made, had ceased, and it 
became more and more evident to the large interests then coming into the 
industr}^, that with a commodity such as cement, weighing nearly 400 
pounds to the barrel, the question of distribution was a vital one. It 
was no longer possible to transport cement from the Lehigh district to 
Chicago or from the Pittsburgh region to Boston, any more than it was to 
do any other reckless or uneconomic business thing. The fact was gradually 
forcing itself into the minds of those largely interested, that, in a way, 
Portland cement works resembled brickyards so far as deliveries in large 
cities were concerned, and that a location within easy and economic reach 
by rail or water, of great cement-using centers, was a necessary element of 
success. It was also clearly evident that the successful plant must be well 
located with reference to raw materials — coal, limestone and clay, and also 
to one or more lines of railroad or waterways. 

Changes in the Scene of Production 

In 1905, the supremacy of the Lehigh district as a manufacturing 
center began to disappear. From 72.6 per cent of the entire output, it had 
fallen to about 49 per cent in 1905, this being the first year to show a trans- 
ference of the center of the industry. Conditions resembled very much 
those that had prevailed in the case of the imported cement from Europe. 
This cement found its market on the Atlantic coast, on the Gulf coast, 



174 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



and had pushed its way practically across the continent. Little by little, 
with the advent of the American product, the foreign product had been 
driven out of one Western market after another until finally imports 
ceased. 

In the growth of the American industry, almost a parallel existed. 
States like California, Kansas, North and South Dakota, Nebraska and 
Oklahoma, which in the early days were importers of cement from the 
Lehigh district and some of the states in the Middle West, gradually 
began to have works either within their own area or within close geo- 
graphical reach, and little by little ceased to import cement from the Eastern 




The east side of the Grant Park Municipal Stadium on the Lake front at Chicago is 
jauilt entirely of concrete and faced with precast concrete stone. When the Stadium 
is completed, more than 100,000 people can be seated at one time. 



works. This condition reduced the percentage of the Lehigh output as 
above stated, and has reduced it at the present time to less than 26 per 
cent of the total. While the output of cement was steadily increasing during 
this period and was only stationary for practically the year 1907, it is 
nevertheless-true that prices were continually getting lower, due, doubtless, 
to the fact that many of the newcomers in the field had either faulty 
methods of cost accounting and therefore believed they were making 
cement cheaper than the fact, or had insuflficient capital and were forced 
to sell cement below cost. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 175 

Consolidations or Grouping of Plants Begins 

About this time, in order to meet some of the conditions noted as 
regarded plant locations, there began the system of grouping plants under 
a single management, in some cases the plants being located in an indi- 
vidual field, and in others being scattered over various parts of the country. 
In his book, ''The Portland Cement Industry from a Financial Standpoint," 
Edwin C. Eckel refers to this, and mentions the following grouping as 
existing in the portland cement industry in 1908: 

GROUPINGS IN THE PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY IN THE 
UNITED STATES IN 1908 

Names of Companies Location of Plants 

1. Alpha Portland Cement Company, Alpha, N. J Martins Creek, Pa. 

Martins Creek Portland Cement Company Martins Creek, Pa. 

2. American Cement Company Egypt, Pa. 

Central Cement Company Egypt, Pa. 

Reliance Cement Company Egypt, Pa. 

Tidewater Cement Company Norfolk, Va. 

3. Atlas Portland Cement Company Northampton, Pa. 

Hannibal, Mo. 

4. Lehigh Portland Cement Company, Ormrod, Pa Wellston, Ohio 

Shenango Portland Cement Company Newcastle, Pa. 

5. Nicholson or lola Group: 

lola Portland Cement Company lola, Kan. 

United Kansas Portland Cement Company 

Kansas Portland Cement Company lola, Kan. 

Independence Portland Cement Company Independence, Kan. 

Indian Portland Cement Company Neodesha, Kan. 

Dixie Portland Cement Company Copenhagen, Tenn. 

Iowa Portland Cement Company Des Moines, la. 

Texas Portland Cement Company Dallas, Tex. 

6. United States Steel Corporation Chicago, 111. 

Universal Portland Cement Company Buffington, Ind. 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 

7. Dingee Group: 

Standard Portland Cement Company Napa Junction, Calif. 

Santa Cruz Portland Cement Company Santa Cruz, Calif. 

Northwestern Portland Cement Company Kendall, Wash. 

Atlantic Portland Cement Company Stockertown, Pa. 

Northampton Portland Cement Company Stockertown, Pa. 

Quaker Portland Cement Company Sandts Eddy, Pa. 

8. Cowham Group: 

Peninsular Portland Cement Company Cement City, Mich. 

Southwestern States Portland Cement Company Dallas, Tex. 

Western States Portland Cement Company Independence, Kan. 

Northwestern States Portland Cement Company Mason City, la. 

9. Sandusky Portland Cement Company Bay Bridge, Ohio 

Dixon, 111. 
Syracuse, Ind. 
York, Pa. 



176 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

Name of Companies Location of Plants 

10. Cement Securities Company 

Portland Cement Company of Colorado Florence, Colo. 

Portland Cement Company of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah 

Union Portland Cement Company Devil's Slide, Utah 

Among the outstanding figures in the industry at this period were : 
A. F. Gerstell, of the Alpha Portland Cement Company; Robert W. Lesley, 
of the American Cement Compan}^; J, Rogers Maxwell, of the Atlas Port- 
land Cement Company; Col. H. C. Trexler and E. M. Young, of the Lehigh 
Portland Cement Company; E. R, Ackerman, of the Lawrence Cement 
Company; W. S. Mallory, of the Edison Portland Cement Company; 
George E. Nicholson, of the lola Portland Cement Company; Edward M. 
Hagar, of the Universal Portland Cement Company; William J. Dingee, of 
the Standard Portland Cement Company; W. F. Cowham, of the Peninsular 
Portland Cement Companj'; S. B, Newberry, of the Sandusky Portland 
Cement Company; Charles Boettcher, of the Portland Cement Company 
of Colorado; and John B. Lober, of the Vulcanite Portland Cement 
Company. 

While these leaders gave time and energy to the business end of their 
enterprise and did much to widen the market and spread the fame of 
American portland cement, they nevertheless were not lacking in foresight 
with reference to the scientific development of their manufacture and to 
the broadening of the field for the use of their product. Out of this point of 
view grew the Association of American Portland Cement Manufacturers, 
which was formed in September, 1902. This Association rapidly developed 
into an institution of science and service in the portland cement industry. 
Its work is fully described in Appendix A, containing the history of the 
Association and its surprising growth and wonderful work. 

Early Patents and Threatened Litigation in Connection Therewith 

Another subject which gave the early manufacturers much anxiety 
and trouble was that of patent suits brought and threatened under the 
Hurry and Seaman patents for the utilization of powdered coal in rotary 
kilns. Oil, the early fuel of the rotary kiln, had advanced in price to such 
a point as to be uneconomic, and the perfection of the coal burning proc- 
esses developed by Hurry and Seaman, of the Atlas Company, had secured 
their general adoption in one form or another in the rotarj'' kilns that were 
being built in all parts of the country. 

Litigation was begun under the Hurry and Seaman patents about 
1900. On this point the following is quoted from Mineral Industry, 1907 : 

Testimony was taken in all parts of the United States and Europe, and the most 
noted experts and manufacturers were called as witnesses. Six years were spent in 
preparation of the suit, and when the case was argued officers and attorneys of the lead- 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 177 

ing companies crowded the court room at Scran ton, Pennsylvania, where, in 1906, with 
the Alpha Portland Cement Company as defendant, and the Atlas Portland Cement 
Company as plaintiff, the case was brought to a final hearing. Before judgment was 
entered, however, five of the leading companies of the Lehigh district, including the 
defendant, came to terms with the Atlas Portland Cement Company and agreed to 
take out licenses recognizing the Hurry and Seaman patents, and to pay a substantial 
royalty. 

The North American Portland Cement Company was organized in the latter part 
of 1906, with a capital stock of $10,000,000, having among its purposes the acquiring 
from the Atlas Portland Cement Company of the Hurry and Seaman and other patents, 
and the licensing thereunder of portland cement manufacturers. During 1907 the North 
American Companj- was extremely active in prosecuting infringers of its patents and in 
acquiring other patents for the protection of its licensees. 

Birth of the Larger Rotary Kiln 

Another marked advance in the cement industry was due to Thomas A. Edison* 
who devised new kilns, together with several unique methods of fuel consumption. 
In particular, he designed and patented a rotary kiln 150 feet long, and 7 to 8 feet in 
diameter, having a daily capacity of from 700 to 1,000 barrels of cement. Until that 
time the largest kilns in use were 60 to 80 feet long and 5 to 6 feet in diameter, with a 
capacity of 200 to 300 barrels per day. The adoption of the long kiln by the portland 
cement industry in general, and the consequent infringement of the exclusive patents 
held by Edison covering it, proved to be a possible fertile source of litigation which 
was only recently terminated by the acquisition by the North American Company of 
the patents for long kilns, burners, and similar apparatus owned by Mr. Edison. 

As a result of the threatened litigation in the trade by reason of the patents above 
referred to, and others under similar control, the Association of Licensed Cement Manu- 
facturers was organized in New York on January 9, 1908, by the North American Port- 
land Cement Company', the Atlas, the Alpha, American, Lehigh, Lawrence and Vul- 
canite Portland Cement Companies, and various other important companies in the 
East and West, including among others, the Dexter, Edison, Nazareth, Pennsylvania, 
Penn-Allen, and Catskill, all of which have secured licenses under the Hurry and Seaman, 
Edison, Carpenter and other patents controlled by the North American Company. 

In an announcement published at the time the following statement 
was made by the Association: 

It is understood that all existing and properly equipped cement plants will be 
granted licenses and admitted to membership. Infringers of the patents above referred 
to will be rigorously prosecuted. 

Nearly 70 per cent of the output of the portland cement industry in this country is 
already represented by the Association, this being double the annual production in 
Great Britain, the pioneer portland cement manufacturing countrj^ equal to the com- 
bined output of England and France, and in excess of that of Germany. ***** 

The Association of Licensed Cement Manufacturers, with its facilities for tests 
and experiments, its investigation of mechanical and chemical problems, its establish- 
ment of standards of quality, and its assistance in obtaining proper shipping facilities 
and rates, is expected to be of great benefit to its members. 



178 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

North American Company and Subsidiaries Advance Scientific and 
Engineering Standards 

Much good work in the scientific and engineering fields was done by 
the North American Company and its associate companies, and consider- 
able publicity was given to new fields for the use of cement. Some years 
later litigation in reference to the Hurry and Seaman and Edison patents 
having been decided adversely to the Atlas and North American companies, 
the latter corporation and the Association of Licensed Portland Cement 
Manufacturers ceased to function, and at a still later period was formally 
dissolved. 

An Era of Record Low Prices 

During the period of the existence of the North American Company 
the lowest prices that were ever known in the cement industry were prac- 
tically in existence from year to year. Competition of the most reckless 
character was prevalent in many parts of the countiy, in some cases leading 
to the uneconomical practice of cross shipments of cement from the West 
to the East and f]-om the East to the West, trains passing each other on 
the way to their respective destinations. Naturall^^, when prices per barrel 
in the Lehigh district declined to about 70 cents in 1911 and as low as 67 
cents in 1912, there was a general condition of financial disaster prevalent 
throughout the entire industry, and as stated in the testimony before the 
Underwood Tariff Committee in Congress in 1913, failures and reorganiza- 
tions of nearly 33 per cent of the industry occurred. From a business 
standpoint, and considered as an economic proposition, the cement indus- 
try was not a success, and it was evident that notwithstanding the great 
development and wider markets, there existed conditions of great and 
permanent danger to those whose capital, energy and vitality were invested 
therein. The necessity of broadening markets, of finding new uses for 
cement and of building up new fields for sales, was constantly before the 
trade. 

Association of American Portland Cement Manufacturers 
Plays Its Part in Progress 

Plodding slowly in its chosen field, that of science and service, was 
the Association of American Portland Cement Manufacturers, which, 
from its very humble beginnings in 1902, began to increase its field of 
usefulness on the scientific side of cement testing and manufacture, and in 
the great field of service to all those who desii'cd information concerning 
existing and future uses of portland cement. This intensive work, carried 
on at first in the most modest way, gradually began to produce results, 
and year by year more and more inquii'ies for information and construction 
data came to the office of the Association, and more and more service was 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



179 



given by its staff in looking to increased use of portland cement. So much 
growth did this organization have that in 1915 it was reorganized on a 
very much larger scale. Headquarters were transferred from Philadelphia 
to Chicago, and an enlarged field of endeavor was mapped out. Through 
the work of the Association large and important fields developed. At the 
same time a laboratory in connection with the Lewis Institute of Chicago 
was established, and engineering offices opened in various parts of the 
country to render immediate service to those desiring it. The purpose of 
the Lewis Institute Laboratory was to deal with all problems of cement and 
concrete, and through it many discoveries of the highest value have been 
made, all of them of the greatest use to the engineer and private user. 

Intensive promotion on the part of the Association produced remark- 
able results. For example, it is recalled that around 1914 cement manu- 
facturers were surprised and encouraged when it was reported that pro- 
motion of concrete roads would probably increase consumption some 
4,000,000 or 5,000,000 barrels. But what vigorous campaigning in this 
field alone really meant was revealed in 1919, when it was reported thai 
contracts for concrete roads had exceeded 50,000,000 square yards, which 
may be roughly translated into 5,000 miles of 18-foot roads requiring 
approximately 18,000,000 barrels of cement. What actually happened 
from year to year in road promotion from the time the Wayne County, 
Michigan, concrete road system first attracted national attention is shown 
by the following table. The figures show the square yards of concrete 
pavement awarded in the United States by years from 1909 to 1923, 
inclusive. 

SQUARE YARDS OF CONCRETE PAVEMENT AWARDED 
IN THE UNITED STATES BY YEARS 



Year Awarded 



Prior to 1909. 

1909 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913 

1914 

1915 

1916 

1917 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1921 

1922 

1923 



Totals 296,327,266 



Roads 



34,061 

32,626 

1.51,148 

291,077 

1,869,486 

3,339,18.5 

10,608,421 

12,0.50,909 

15,906,801 

15,3.33,087 

12,990,519 

41,.335,342 

29,326,689 

43,862,503 

58,301,413 

50,893,999 



Streets 



444,864 

.325,158 

682,637 

1,011,440 

3,326,029 

3,946,219 

4,830,604 

5,933,879 

7,395,975 

5,238,062 

3,295,817 

11,086,419 

8,814,782 

10,695,548 

18,607,792 

24,385,497 



110,020,722 



AUey.s 



112,491 

86,825 

107,874 

1.36,674 

185,703 

.308,.365 

.300,138 

612,921 

880,179 

1,200,030 

.565,948 

1,038,173 

907,164 

1,606,085 

2,176,500 

2,658,276 



12,903,346 



Total 



591,416 

444,609 

941,659 

1,439,191 

5,381,218 

7,593,769 

15,739,163 

18,597,709 

24,182,955 

21,771,179 

16,872,284 

.53,459,934 

39,048,635 

56,164,136 

79,065,705 

77,937,772 



419,251,-334 



180 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



The construction of concrete pavements in 1923 required approxi- 
mately 29,000,000 barrels, or 21 per cent of the country's total output. 

Edward N. Hines, Pioneer in Concrete Road Construction 

The remarkable increase in concrete road construction from year to 
year, as shown by the foregoing table, should not be dismissed without 
reference to pioneer work in this field. Just as the ranks of the founders 
of the cement industry were recruited from farms and professional callings 
rather than manufacturing and scientific circles, so the first extended and 
systematic construction of concrete roads was begun by one whose faith 
in his project more than compensated for his lack of engineering knowledge. 




J^T^<^ 



■■-■ .^^^^-^ ^ 









1.1- Kr^ *x'^;im 




'^^g| 



Concrete was used in the construction of the forty-foot wide "Ideal Section" of the 
Lincoln Highway. 

To Edward N. Hines, of Detroit, printer and publisher, and Chairman, 
Board of County Road Commissioners, Wayne County, Michigan, the 
cement industry and the country at large are indebted for persistent 
effort in behalf of concrete roads, a purpose carried out in the face of 
skepticism on the part of many manufacturers as well as trained engineers. 
The systemT5f concrete roads built by Hines in Wayne County, Michigan, 
was the initial undertaking that put this type of highv/ay on the map. 

Since 1918 cement manufacturers have shared in the benefits from 
a large increase in construction work. In virtually all of this work there 
would be demanded cement for thoroughly standardized practices, but 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 181 

where the Association has been of great value to its members in this field 
is represented by a largely increased percentage in the use of cement along 
new lines as applied to many forms of construction, in brief, growing two 
blades of grass where formerly there was but one. And concerning the 
future, especially in the East, the three greatest potential outlets are streets, 
small dwellings and miscellaneous uses for cement about the home and 
on the farm, essentially fields that only cooperative effort such as is 
represented by the Association could have developed successfully. 

Among the manufacturers and members of the Association con- 
spicuously identified with all this important work were John B. Lober, for 
many years President of the Association and President of the Vulcanite 
Portland Cement Company; S. B. Newberry, President of the Sanduskj^ 
Cement Company; F. W. Kelley, President of the Helderberg Cement 
Compan3^,now President of the Association; B. F. Affleck, Past President 
of the Association and President of the Universal Portland Cement Com- 
pany, and L. T. Sunderland, Past President of the Association and Presi- 
dent of the Ash Grove Lime and Portland Cement Company. 

Production Falls Off for the First Time in Years 

Just as the years from 1880 to 1900 may be described as the childhood 
of the industry', so may the period from 1900 to 1913 be described as the 
youth of the industry — a period of vigor, strength, and virility, and possibly 
some excesses — but nevertheless stable and promising in its results. It was 
Edwin C. Eckel who, in 1906, when production had reached approximately 
47,000,000 barrels, predicted that before long must come a year when 
production would show a decline over the preceding one, and that when 
this occurred it would mark the passing of the youth of the industry and 
the beginning of the period of its maturity. Precisely this change took place. 
It occurred in 1914. The year 1913 had shown some 92,000,000 barrels as 
against approximately 83,000,000 in 1912; but in 1914 production had 
declined from the 1913 figures of 92,000,000 to about 88,000,000 barrels, 
or a decrease of about 4.20 per cent. This was the first decline since the 
industry began, and notwithstanding the fact that the situation was 
created largely by the beginning of the world war, undoubtedh^ matters 
had reached the stage when continued prosperity demanded increased 
consumption growing out of new uses of cement, for the uses established 
up to that period had not caught up with the capacity of the mills. This 
prediction was further verified in later years when the curve of production, 
instead of showing a steady rise, showed rise and fall from year to year. 
And it was more than a coincidence that the passing youth of the mere 
commercial side of the industry was largely superseded by the maturity 
of science and service in its later days. 

Finally came the trying period of America's entry into war. 



CHAPTER XIV 

THE CEMENT INDUSTRY IN RELATION TO THE WAR 

The stati]S of the cement industry during the war was more clearly 
discerned from the seat of Government than from any other point of view, 
Washington being the place from which emanated controlling influences 
that considered the industry solely with relation to the needs of the nation 
in its effort to win the war. For that reason the following analysis of the 
situation during the war period is quoted from the reports of the United 
States Geological Survey for 1918: 

The course of cement manufacture during the last five years affords an illustration 
of the way in which an industry of vital importance to the nation in war time can do its 
share and yet suffer depression as the result of conditions imposed by the war. 

In an earlier bulletin it was pointed out that the cement industry in the United 
States enjoys absolute independence of foreign supplies of raw materials or manufactur- 
ing machinery and that the United States produces more portland cement than is 
consumed within the country. The raw materials are abundant and cheap, and manu- 
facturing plants are well distributed throughout areas of notable consumption. 

The miUtary importance of cement can not be overestimated. It is used mostly 
as an ingredient in concrete, and concrete possesses great adaptability to a wide varietj- 
of uses. Besides being cheap, easily and quickly handled, sanitary, and durable, con- 
crete is suitable for structures that are submerged as well as those in dry places, and all 
these characteristics taken together render it of great military importance. Among 
the military structures in which concrete is used are armories, barracks, roads, bridges, 
coast and interior fortifications, gun emplacements, trench linings, bomb-proof shelters, 
magazines for explosives, tunnels, retaining walls, sea walls, wharves, dry docks, water 
reservoirs, aqueducts, sewers, sewage-treatment works, incinerators, stables, floors, roofs, 
munition-factory buildings, warehouses, fuel-oil tanks, barges, ships, and structures in 
the interior of battleships. 

Conditions During the War 

The year 1914 witnessed the first recorded decrease in annual production of port- 
land cement in the United States. The industry had experienced a remarkable growth 
during the preceding 10 years, and it was only natural that a slight check should come 
at this time. The average price per barrel in bulk at mills in 1914,92.7 cents, represented 
adecrease of7.8cents from the average of 1913, and indeed the beginning of the war in 
Europe may be said to have marked a depression in the American cement industry from 
which only a temporary recovery was made during the whole period of the war. 

The poufcland cement industry showed no noteworthy development in 1915, not- 
withstanding the greater activity in the metal industries. In view of the experiences of 
1914, manufacturers exercised considerable caution, the result of which was a slight 
increase in the volume of shipments, a small decrease in the quantity of cement manu- 
factured, and a considerable decrease in the stocks of cement on hand, all indicating a 

182 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 183 

correction of the tendency toward overproduction that had manifested itself at times 
during the preceding few years. The average price in 1915, 86 cents a barrel, represented 
a decrease of 6.7 cents a barrel below the price in 1914, and the estimated consumption 
of Portland cement per capita in the United States was 0.83 barrel, compared with 0.77 
barrel in 1914. The total production in 1915 represented about 66 per cent of the ap- 
parent actual manufacturing capacity, according to figures reported to the Geological 
Survey. 

In 1916 the conditions were more satisfactory. At the beginning of the year the 
industry was alrea^dj^ feeling the effects of the gradual revival of activity in construction 
work, and throughout the A'ear mills in all parts of the United States were busy manu- 
facturing and shipping cement at a rate greater than at any other time since 1913, 
although labor troubles and lack of freight cars operated as a handicap. Higher prices 
prevailed, averaging $1,103 a barrel at the mills, and six new plants reported their first 
production in 1916, one each in Califoi'nia, Minnesota, New York, Oklahoma, Oregon 
and Texas. The plants in Oregon and Texas are close to tidewater. About 68 per cent 
of the cement-manufacturing capacity was emploj^ed during 1916. 

As a result of increased business in 1916, stocks of portland cement were reduced 
below the normal, yet the reserve of more than 8,250,000 barrels on hand at the beginning 
of 1917 proved to be sufficient for emergencies. The consumption of portland cement per 
capita in 1916 was estimated at 0.89 barrel, the highest during the period of the war. 

In 1917 the cement industry, in common with most other manufacturing industries, 
faced unusual conditions. The demand for cement was generally very good during the 
first five to eight months but showed a decided falling off during the remainder of the 
year. The strong demand in the early part of the year so greatly stimulated production 
that the quantity of finished cement of all kinds manufactured reached a total of more 
than 93,000,000 barrels — the largest production ever recorded, and yet only about 68 
per cent of the manufacturing capacity was reported to have been emplo3'ed. The total 
shipments, on the other hand, decreased, and the stocks increased accordingly. The 
consumption per capita in 1917 was estimated at 0.84 barrel. The average price of 
cement ($1,354) represented an increase of 25 cents over the average for 1916, and 
although the net profits appear not to have been great, the effect of prices high enough 
to minimize the chances of loss and the absence of price cutting seem both to have 
stimulated production and to have encouraged the completion of three new mills and 
the resumption of operations at one mill that was idle in 1916. 

The only step taken by the Government to insure an adequate supply of cement 
for military purposes and at the same time hold prices at fair figures was taken in co- 
operation with representatives of the cement industry in 1917, shortly after the entrance 
of the United States into the war, when the first scale of prices was fixed. It was further- 
more agreed that the Government requirements should be distributed as evenly as 
possible among the cement mills tributary to the localities where the cement was needed. 

The adverse effects on the cement industry of the entrance of the United States 
into the European war began to be generally felt after the middle of the year and con- 
sisted mainly in shortage of fuel, railroad cars, and labor, and in the lessened demand for 
cement in some districts resulting from the curtailment of building operations not essen- 
tial to the war. The necessar}^ railroad embargoes were far-reaching; they affected 
supplies of fuel and other raw materials and of machinery and mill supplies and also 
shipments of cement to so great an extent that some mills had to be closed temporarily 
on account of lack of storage capacitj^ 

In 1918, as has already been stated, the production of cement was the lowest since 
1909. The average per capita consumption was 0.64 barrel in 1918 and the manufactur- 
ing capacity utilized was about 51 per cent of the total. The military requirements of the 



184 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

Government, amounting to about 11,000,000 barrels, were easil}^ met by the producers, 
the commercial business was subnormal on account of curtailment in construction work, 
and exports suffered through lack of ships. The average price per barrel ($1,596) repre- 
sented nearly as large an increase as in 1917 and was the highest price realized in the 
last 20 years. 

If the five years of the war are considered as a whole, the average annual production 
and shipments of portland cement each amounted to nearly 86,000,000 barrels — a quan- 
tity greater than the annual production of any year prior to 1913, but as compared with 
the average annual capacity of the mills for manufacturing cement fiuring this period, 
which is conservatively estimated at about 130,000,000 barrels, it is seen that the cement 
industry was abnormally restrained. The lowest factory prices during the war we.re 
about 14 per cent less than the pre-war price of 1913, and the highest prices were nearly 
59 per cent above the level of 1913. Wholesale market prices dropped correspondingly, 
but they also rose to greater excesses above the price of 1913, in some places recording 
advances of more than 110 per cent. 

War Prices for Cement 

The following was taken from "Government Control Over Prices," 
by Paul Willard Garrett, and published by the War Trade Board in co- 
operation with the War Industries Board, Bernard M. Baruch, Chairman: 

Portland cement ranked next in importance to lumber as a war building material. 
Its use in armories, barracks, gun placements, trench linings, bomb-proof shelter, incin- 
erators, munition factory buildings, warehouses, barges, and reinforced concrete ships 
gave cement prominence in the war program as early as April,1917, andthe congestion 
of Government orders at certain points along the Atlantic seaboard threatened to cause 
local shortages of cement and sharp rises in cement prices in the districts of heavy 
Government demand. The production of cement for the country as a whole was ample 
for the increased requirements of war even without drawing upon the excess productive 
capacity of the cement mills. In fact the declining consumption of cement that resulted 
from the curtailment of normal building operations had more than offset the new orders 
from the Government. Since portland cement is a bulky commodity, however, it is not 
profitable to ship it far from the mill, and since the limestone and coal that are the chief 
materials used in its manufacture are widely distributed throughout the United States 
conditions have been favorable for the establishment of cement mills in nearly ever}' 
state. Each cement mill thus enjoys a local monopoly, the radius of which is determined 
by its cost of production and by the proximity to other mills. The cement mills of the 
South, which possess an abundant supply of a limestone almost ideal for cement making, 
joined to a cheap supply of coal, can produce cheaper and send their product farther 
than the mills near New York City, which possess fewer advantages in respect to raw 
materials. Nevertheless the proximity to the great centers of population enables the 
mills in New York and the Lehigh district in Pennsylvania to offset the advantage of 
the Southern mills and allows them to hold the markets in the big cities against their 
Southern rivatei^ Thus the cement industry is split up into many local markets which 
are connected by a series of price differentials, but which nevertheless enjoy a large 
measure of independence. It is, therefore, possible for local shortages of cement to exist 
in some communities, notwithstanding the existence of an oversupply in other com- 
munities, and this is particularly true when the tremendous concentration of war goods, 
pouring towards the Atlantic seaboard, strained the normal means of transportation 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 185 

and put an embargo on bulky goods. To secure an adequate supply of cement for the 
Government it was, therefore, necessary to allocate the supply and to fix the prices at 
the points of congestion. 

The Portland cement industry had a large degree of cohesion before the war for 
the purpose of pushing the sale of cement in competition with lumber, brick, and stone, 
although the price competition between the various cement mills had bordered on the 
cut-throat variety. 

This organization nevertheless facilitated the quick appointment of a "cooperative 
committee on cement" under the Council of National Defense on April 21, 1917. This 
committee, composed of representatives of the industry and of the Government, at once 
began to act as a clearing house for assembling trade information preparatory to advising 
the committee on raw materials of the Council of National Defense as to available 
supplies and prices of cement. While this committee was acting, many purchases of 
cement were made by the Army and Navy at no definite price, but with the under- 
standing that a fair price was to be fixed later. On December 18, 1917, the first com- 
mittee was dissolved and a war service committee on portland cement was organized. 
No prices were fixed, however, until the price-fixing committee in April and May, 1918, 
after an investigation of costs by the Federal Trade Commission fixed prices for the 
Army and Navy purchases for the six months' period ending December 31, 1917, the 
four-month period ending April 30, 1918, and the four-month period ending August 
31, 1918. Later on, August 23, 1918, the price-fixing committee established prices for 
the four months ending December 31, 1918. The prices set for 1917 applied only to 
Army and Navy purchases, and they became effective when accepted by the industry 
and the purchasing departments. This first price list, which has a retroactive effect, 
covered 30 different producing points, and the prices varied from $1.30 a barrel in Texas 
to $1.90 a barrel in California. The second price list applying to all Government pur- 
chases for the first four months of 1918 was the same as the first. The third set of fixed 
prices for the four months ending August 31, 1918, marked an advance of as high as 45 
cents a barrel for the low-cost mills, dropped prices on some of the high-cost mills in the 
Pacific Coast states, and reduced the maximum variation in cement prices to 35 cents 
a barrel and the average variation to about 20 cents a barrel. The fourth price list for 
the four months ending December 31 was virtually the same as the third price list, 
except that the prices did not include bin inspection, and a reduction of 3 cents a barrel 
was made for the value of that service. 

The chief results of the price fixing of cement were to prevent a rise in price at a 
few congested points along the Atlantic seaboard and to facilitate the prompt delivery 
of cement on Government orders by eliminating price cutting with its attendant waste, 
confusion, and irregular production. The main current of cement prices throughout the 
country as a whole was not substantially affected. Only 11,813,076 barrels of cement 
were allocated at this fixed price during 1917 and 1918, out of a total production of 
92,814,202 barrels in 1917 and 71,632,000 barrels in 1918. 

The price of portland cement to the general public was never fixed, and this ranged 
about 30 cents a barrel higher than the price fixed to the Government. Price fixing 
leveled up market prices to some extent, thereby giving the low-cost mills large profits, 
while limiting the marginal mills to a low return. The concentration of production at 
the largest mills equipped with the most modern machinery would have enabled the 
Government to have fixed cement prices at a lower level, but the pooling necessary to 
bring this about involved too many practical administrative difficulties to justify the 
adoption of this policy. The prices fixed in 1917 yielded the cement industry as a whole 
12 per cent on its investment, and of course individual mills reaped a much liigher rate, 
but subsequent price fixing reduced this margin to 6 per cent merely by maintaining 



186 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

the status quo in the face of advancing costs. The general supply of cement was so 
ample, as compared with needs, that the Fuel Administration on April 13, 1918, reduced 
the fuel allotment of the cement mills to 75 per cent of normal on the theory that part 
of the fuel used in the cement industry could be better employed in other war industries. 
There was, consequently, no occasion for stimulating cement production by high prices, 
and the lowering of the margin of profit for the purpose of curtailing production was 
entirely justified. Cement prices rose in the open market less than any other basic 
building material during the war, and the reason for price fixing in the field of cement 
is to be foinid in the desire of the Government to prevent the stimulation of prices 
which its own large demand would normally have caused in certain congested building 
areas. 

Effect of War on Original Groupings of Companies 

Efforts of the Government to obtain maximum efficiency in the manu- 
facture and distribution of cement during the war had its effect upon the 
industry by enlarging the field of some of the groups already referred to, 
so that at the close of hostilities there remained of the original groupings 
five large groups as follows: 

Lehigh Portland Cement Company, with fifteen works consisting of 
three mills at Ormrod, Pennsylvania; one at West Coplaj^, Pennsylvania; 
one at Fogelsville, Penns^dvania; three at New Castle, Pennsylvania; two 
at Mitchell, Indiana; one at Fordwick, Virginia; one at Mason City, Iowa; 
one at Oglesby, Illinois; one at lola, Kansas; and one at Met aline Falls, 
Washington; these plants being distributed all over the country at places 
where good materials, fuel, and accessible markets were found. 

The Atlas Portland Cement Compan}', with plants at Coplay and 
Northampton, in Pennsylvania; Hannibal, Missouri; Hudson, New York; 
and Leeds, Alabama. 

The Sandusky Cement Companj^ with plants at Bay Bridge, Ohio; 
Syracuse, Indiana; Dixon, Illinois; and York, Pennsylvania. 

The Alpha Portland Cement Company, with plants at Alpha, New 
Jersey; Martins Creek, Pennsylvania; Manheim, West Virginia; Cementon 
and Jamesville, New York; Bellevue, Michigan; La Salle, Illinois; and 
fronton, Ohio. 

The Universal Portland Cement Company, with plants at Buffington, 
Indiana; Universal, Pennsylvania; and Duluth, Minnesota. 

Of the original groups there ceased to exist the Nicholson or lola 
group, the Dingce-Bachman group, the American Cement Company 
group, and the Cowham group. 

The handling of materials during the war was a great lesson to all 
manufactui-efs as to the necessity of delivering from the nearest mill to the 
point of use, and this practice has led to the formation of the groups refeired 
to and is likely to have a continuing effect upon the industry. 

The Portland Cement Association celebrated in Noveni})er, 1922, the 
20th anniversary of its formation, and that it was proper for the pioneers 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 187 

in the industry to take pride in their achievements in its behalf is shown 
by the following contribution to the occasion by Robert W. Lesley, first 
President of the Association: 

In assisting at the 20th anniversarj- of the formation of the Portland Cement 
Association, it is certainly permissible for the veterans who took part in the early days 
of the organization to refer to some of the conditions governing our Association in its 
formative period and at the present time. The great and remarkable fact is that a 
gathering of men, all intent upon the money-making side of their business and estab- 
lishing against a firmly entrenched foreign competition of an American industry, met 
in the furtherance of their business interests upon a call to deal with "the present methods 
of handling the subject of sacks, which are almost universally unsatisfactory"; and that 
out of the meeting called to deal with this strictly business and money-making proposi- 
tion grew the great scientific and altruistic organization now known as the Portland 
Cement Association. 

The pioneers who took part in these early meetings may be compared to sculptors. 
They had the raw material in the block, men energetic, full of enterprise, vitality, and 
some touch of selfishness, who had gathered together from many other fields and busi- 
nesses and were imbued with the thought of making a success in their new and chosen 
enterprise. Out of this raw material these sculptors, twenty years ago, blocked out in 
the rough the statue which in its perfection, its details, and its growth represent a great 
scientific and altruistic development of business enterprise, with ample funds and scien- 
tific knowledge, devoted not only to the development of the cement industry itself but 
to the service of consumers, buyers, engineers, the scientific world at large, in fact all 
who have to do with the great construction work of our country. 

Looking back to this early period, as shown by the proceedings of the early meetings 
of our Association, it will be found that almost every field of development, to which in 
its perfected form our Association is now devoted, had its inception in the minds of that 
little band of twenty-odd men who formed the Eastern Portland Cement Association 
away back in 1902. 

The character of the work of the Association was such that before twelve months 
had passed since it had been formed it was working in cooperation with scientific bodies 
of the highest standard; such as the American Society for Testing Materials, the American 
Society of Civil Engineers, the Institute of Architects, iron and steel associations, the 
Railway Maintenance Association, and even the Government of the United States. It 
was given the rare distinction seldom if ever bestowed upon a business organization, 
namely, that of participating with the leading engineering societies as a member in all 
committees having to do with specifications for portland cement and concrete. This 
was due largely to the character and scientific knowledge of the men representing the 
Association in the various technical committees and the high character of the scientific 
papers read before the Association. 

At the conclusion of the first year after the Association's founding, its membership 
represented 90 per cent of the total output of portland cement, then some 22,000,000 
barrels; and the United States then had 45 concerns producing over 20,000,000 barrels 
of cement, against a like production by some 96 associated concerns in Germany, the 
leading European producer of the material. Though, as was entirelj^ natural, the United 
States had gone into the industry with the dollar taking precedence over scientific 
achievement, yet, nevertheless, the American Association had, in a single year of its 
existence, enlisted the cooperation of all the leading American scientific bodies, whereas 
the Germans had been organized fifteen years before they were able to accomplish 
like results. 



188 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



This recognition of the Association in its early days by the leading engineering 
organizations in the United States was well described in an editorial in The Engineering 
Record in 1903, then one of the important engineering publications in the United States, 
which, in commenting on the first year's work of the Association, stated: 

"The Association work is something for which the engineering pro- 
fession has reason to be grateful. The old idea that the manufacturer of 
materials of construction is the enemy of the engineer falls to the ground 
in the face of such a record. In its one year of usefulness this manufacturers' 
organization has done more to advance sound masonry construction than 
all other societies together." 

In summing up, the engineer-editor said that the Association "had brought pro- 
ducer and manufacturer together, furnished facilities for elaborate investigations and 
shown itself ready to cooperate in every way to further the real interests of sound 
masonry construction." 




A cozj^ home of concrete and portland cement stucco at HoUyTvood, California. 



It was during this first year that the organization known as the Eastern Manu- 
facturers of Portland Cement took on a national character, when on March 10, 1903, 
it was joined by the representatives of the Central Cement Association, then consisting 
largely of manufacturers in the West and Middle West. With this addition, the mem- 
bership had now grown to forty-six companies, representing manufacturers from the 
Atlantic to tlte Pacific coasts and producing from 90 to 95 per cent of the total outp\it 
of the United States. 

By this time the rough stone in the block had begun to take shape, and a comparison 
of today's activities of our great Association will show that the statue blocked out 
twenty years ago by the early pioneers had most, if not all, of the outlines and members 
of the great and beautiful statue since developed by our organization. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 189 

In brief, then, the Association in its early days represents what it now stands for, 
namely, concerted effort in behalf of the industry, as distinguished from individual 
endeavor. After its foundation it soon became the forum or clearing-house for the sifting 
of facts calculated to be of value to the individual manufacturer in the operation of his 
plant. It revealed the importance of the industry as a great national asset, thereby stim- 
ulating confidence in its future. As a body, it was more concerned in the proper and 
economic uses of cement than the prices thereof, thus putting the industry as a whole 
on a very high plane insofar as its relations to the engineering profession and the public 
were concerned. It taught the people at large how to use cement for countless purposes 
of which they had no pre\'ious knowledge, something no individual concern could have 
accomplished. 

The Association became the official representative of the industry before technical 
and scientific bodies. It had appeared on the platform and written textbooks. And in 
all this work, it has been as though its engineers, experts and other agents were working 
for a single manufacturer, for each has been entitled to the full benefits thereof. 

Therefore, in looking back as a participant in all the activities of the Association 
from the day of its founding until today, and having an equally intimate and practical 
knowledge of the industry during the years preceding the forming of the Association, 
I feel that its organization was, in a sense, the establishment of progress in the industry, 
entailing no sacrifice of individual initiative or enterprise such as obtained in the earlier 
period when each was a law unto himself, and producing instead of haphazard work of 
divided effort, concentrated, definite, altruistic service for consumer, contractor and 
engineer. 



APPENDIX A 
HISTORY OF THE PORTLAND CEMENT ASSOCIATION 

No history of the portland cement industry in America would be 
complete unless supplemented by a history of the Portland Cement Associ- 
ation. And although portland cement attained its hundredth birthday in 
1924, it has been during the past twenty-two years, which period marks the 
life of the Portland Cement Association, that the industry in America 
secured its foothold and rose to the present eminent place among outstand- 
ing American industries. 

In 1902, the year in which the parent organization of the Portland 
Cement Association was formed, the production of portland cement in 
the United States, according to figures of the U.S. Geological Survey, was 
17,230,644 barrels. In 1923, according to figures from the same source, 
production reached 137,377,000 barrels. 

Among the factors which unquestionably have contributed to the 
progress which the foregoing figures illustrate, is the educational work of 
the Portland Cement Association. 

To make it easier for the reader to associate growth of the industiy 
with the activities of this Association as its history will be unfolded in the 
following pages, a brief summary of the objects and aims of the Association 
may well be presented now. 

There are probably few who have not at some time heard of the work 
of this Association of pioneer manufacturers. For convenience, it may be 
included in that large group commonly called "trade" associations. It is 
unfortunate, however, that many speak of the Portland Cement Associa- 
tion as a trade organization without further explanation. This causes 
frequent comparison of the Association with other groups of manufacturers, 
which, though in many instances similar, are quite different. 

Fundamentally, the Portland Cement Association is a service organ- 
ization. It is not incorporated and not a commercial body in the ordinary 
sense of the word. Membership is purely voluntary and its scheme of 
organization and policies is thoroughly democratic. Each member, without 
reference to size, has but one vote in helping to establish and promote its 
policies. 

Having nothing to do with the manufacture, sale or distribution of 
cement, the Portland Cement Association can concern itself strictl}' with 
the educational-research work for which it primarily exists. 

191 



192 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

Present Members of Portland Cement Association 

The financial resources of the Association are dues obtained from its 
membership. At the present writing the membership is as follows: 

Aetna Portland Cement Company Detroit, Mich. 

Allentown Portland Cement Company AUentown, Pa. 

Alpha Portland Cement Company Easton, Pa. 

Ash Grove Lime & Portland Cement Company Kansas City, Mo. 

Atlas Portland Cement Company, The New York, N. Y. 

Bath Portland Cement Company Philadelphia, Pa. 

Beaver Portland Cement Company Portland, Ore. 

Bessemer Limestone and Cement Company Youngstown, Ohio 

British Columbia Cement Company, Ltd Victoria, B. C, Can. 

Canada Cement Company, Ltd Montreal, Que., Can. 

Clinchfield Portland Cement Corporation Kingsport, Tenn. 

Colorado Portland Cement Company Denver, Colo. 

Cowell Portland Cement Company San Francisco, Calif. 

Crescent Portland Cement Company Wampum, Pa. 

Dewey Portland Cement Company Kansas City, Mo. 

Dexter Portland Cement Company Nazareth, Pa. 

Diamond Portland Cement Company, The Cleveland, Ohio 

Dixie Portland Cement Company Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Edison Portland Cement Company New York, N. Y. 

Giant Portland Cement Company Philadelphia, Pa. 

Gilmore Portland Cement Corporation Gilmore City, la. 

Glens Falls Portland Cement Company, The Glens Falls, N. Y. 

Golden State Portland Cement Company Los Angeles, Calif. 

Great Western Portland Cement Company, The Kansas City, Mo. 

Gulf States Portland Cement Company, The Demopolis, Ala. 

Hawkeye Portland Cement Company Des Moines, la. 

Helderberg Cement Company, The Albany, N. Y. 

Hercules Cement Corporation Philadelphia, Pa. 

Hermitage Portland Cement Company Nashville, Tenn. 

Huron Portland Cement Company Detroit, Mich. 

Indiana Portland Cement Company Indianapolis, Ind. 

International Cement Corporation New York, N. Y. 

International Portland Cement Company, Ltd Spokane, Wash. 

Kansas Portland Cement Company, The Kansas Citj', Mo. 

I^ickerbocker Portland Cement Company, Inc Albany, N. Y. 

Kosmos Portland Cement Company Jefferson Co., Ky. 

"La Tolteca," Cia. de Cemento Portland, S. A., Independencia 

No. 8 Mexico City, D. F. 

Mexico 

Lawrence Portland Cement Company Siegfried, Pa. 

Lehigh Portland Cement Company Allentown, Pa. 

Louisville Ceurent Company Louisville, Ky. 

Manitowoc Portland Cement Company Manitowoc, Wis. 

Marlboro Cement Company Edmonton, Alta., Can. 

Marquette Cement Manufacturing Company Chicago, 111. 

Missouri Portland Cement Company St. Louis, Mo. 

Monarch Cement Company, The • Humboldt, Kans. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 193 

Monolith Portland Cement Company Los Angeles, Calif. 

National Cement Company Birmingham, Ala. 

Nazareth Cement Companj' Nazareth, Pa. 

Nebraska Cement Company Denver, Colo. 

Newaygo Portland Cement Company Newaygo, Mich. 

New Egyptian Portland Cement Company Detroit, Mich. 

Northwestern States Portland Cement Company Mason City, la. 

Ogden Portland Cement Company, The Ogden, Utah. 

Oklahoma Portland Cement Company Denver, Colo. 

Olympic Portland Cement Company, Ltd., The Seattle, Wash. 

Oregon Portland Cement Company Portland, Ore. 

Pacific Portland Cement Company, Consolidated San Francisco, CaUf . 

Peerless Portland Cement Company Detroit, Mich. 

Peninsular Portland Cement Company Cement City, Mich. 

Penn-Allen Cement Company Allentown, Pa. 

Pennsylvania Cement Company New York, N. Y. 

Petoskey Portland Cement Company Petoskey, Mich. 

Phoenix Portland Cement Company Philadelphia, Pa. 

Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company, Columbia Chemical Division, 

Limestone Products Department Zanesville, Ohio 

Portland Cement Company of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah 

Pyramid Portland Cement Company Des Moines, la. 

Riverside Portland Cement Companj^ Riverside, Calif. 

San Antonio Portland Cement Company San Antonio, Tex. 

Sandusky Cement Company Cleveland, Ohio 

Santa Cruz Portland Cement Company San Francisco, Cahf . 

Security Cement & Lime Company Hagerstown, Md. 

Signal Mountain Portland Cement Company Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Southern States Portland Cement Company Rockmart, Ga. 

Southwestern Portland Cement Company Los Angeles, Calif. 

St. Mary's Cement Company, Ltd Toronto, Ont., Can. 

Sun Portland Cement Company Portland, Ore. 

Superior Portland Cement Company Seattle, Wash. 

Texas Portland Cement Company Dallas, Tex. 

Three Forks Portland Cement Company Denver, Colo. 

Tidewater Portland Cement Company Baltimore, Md. 

Trinity Portland Cement Company Dallas, Tex. 

Union Portland Cement Company Denver, Colo. 

United States Portland Cement Company ; Denver, Colo. 

Universal Portland Cement Company Chicago, 111. 

Vulcanite Portland Cement Company Philadelphia, Pa. 

Wabash Portland Cement Company Detroit, Mich. 

Wolverine Portland Cement Company Coldwater, Mich. 

W3^andotte Portland Cement Company Detroit, Mich. 

Membership Extends Beyond Borders of United States 

Although one of the slogans of the Association describes it as, "A 
National Organization to Improve and Extend the Uses of Concrete," it 
will be seen from the above list of members that cement manufacturing 
companies in Canada, Cuba, Mexico and South America constitute its 



194 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

personnel, so that in a sense its scope is more than national. However, 
members outside of the United States proper are considered in the Con- 
stitution and By-Laws under the classification "foreign" and do not sub- 
scribe to the work of the Association at the same rate of dues as domestic 
members since the major activities of the Association are carried on strictly 
within the borders of the Ignited States. 

General and District Office Organization 

The national headquarters of the Association are in the Conway 
Building, 111 West Washington Street, Chicago. In addition, there are 

District Offices in the following cities: 

Atlanta Jacksonville Parkersburg 

Birmingham Kansas City Philadelphia 

Boston Los Angeles Pittsburgh 

Charlotte, N. C. Memphis Portland, Oreg. 

Chicago Milwaukee Salt Lake City 

Dallas Minneapolis San Francisco 

Denver New Orleans Seattle 

Des Moines New York St. Louis 

Detroit Oklahoma City Vancouver, B. C. 

Indianapolis Washington, D. C. 

District offices are primarily service stations of the organization and 
have been established as a consequence of need made evident by the grow- 
ing demand for reliable information on the many applications of concrete. 
Their convenient location makes them time savers for those who want full 
and dependable information quickly. 

The headquarters of the Association, refei-red to as the "General 
Office," is departmentized so that various classes of educational-research 
work in the interest of concrete and its uses and the dissemination of the 
resulting information are done by these several departments. 

For example, the Highways Bureau consults and advises with those 
interested in the permanent improvement of roads, streets, alleys or other 
thoroughfares which may require paving. This bureau gives helpful advice 
on the preparation of special specifications or the adaptation of existing 
ones, to officials or others having to do with highway improvement. 

The Structural Bureau, another one of the headquarters departments, 
renders consulting, advisory service to engineers, contractors, architects 
or others by suggesting or recommending ways and means of using concrete 
effectively for any structural purpose other than roads, streets and alleys, 
except as uoted later. Anyone familiar with the breadth of meaning of the 
term "building construction" can readily see that the service which the 
Structural Bureau must be prepared to offer is almost limitless. 

Yet the work of this bureau docs not encroach upon the field which 
might be called "farm" structures. In that particular field the Cement 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 195 

Products Bureau, somewhat misleadingly named, functions. It is perhaps 
difficult for the outsider to associate this department with the many pro- 
motional activities in which it engages to improve and extend the use of 
concrete. Within itself, the Cement Products Bureau is departmentized. 
It has a personnel of specialists in farm structures, sewer work, drainage, 
the manufacture of such concrete units as building block, concrete brick 
and concrete structural tile, telegraph and telephone poles, fence posts, 
lighting standards, precast concrete stone for architectural trim, concrete 
sewer and culvert pipe. It also comprises a section devoted to concrete 
house promotion, although naturally work in this particular field calls in 
participation of the Structural Bureau. 

The fund of information which the Portland Cement Association has 
accumulated is of almost inestimable value because of the research work 
done by the Structural Materials Research Laboratory, Chicago. This 
laboratory is operated jointly by, and in cooperation with, the Lewis 
Institute. It is under the immediate charge of Duff A. Abrams, one of the 
most prominent research workers in the country, whose studies in concrete 
are generally conceded preeminent. The extensive research and the 
resultant disclosures from the many years of experiments carried on in the 
Structural Materials Research Laboratory, have established as facts the 
valuable information which is the Portland Cement Association's stock-in- 
trade, and which is furnished to those interested in making the most prac- 
tical applications, in no other laboratory in the world have there been, or 
are there being conducted, such numerous and exhaustive tests on the 
properties of cement and concrete, leading to a thorough understanding of 
these materials from the viewpoint of their adaptability to certain struc- 
tural requirements. 

Other departments at Association headquarters are: 

Administrative 

Auditing 

Purchasing 

Advertising and Publications 

Accident Prevention and Insurance 

Railways 

Conservation 

General Educational 

Library 

The purposes of these several bureaus and departments are suggested 
by their names. Their particular functions as may be necessary to elaborate 
upon will be referred to later. 

From the foregoing, the reader will have discerned that the Associa- 
tion's activities are coextensive with, but nevertheless confined within, the 
following limitations : 



196 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

(1). Its aim is to increase the knowledge, utility, and use of portland 
cement through scientific investigation, public education, and associated 
promotion. 

(2). It "sells" the idea "concrete for permanence"; in other words, 
the use of cement, but not the commodit3^ Therefore it is not concerned in 
the brand of cement used. 

(3). It performs only such functions as cannot as well, if at all, be per- 
formed by its members individually. 

(4). It undertakes only such activities as are for the connnon good 
and whose benefits when taken advantage of, accrue alike to all contribut- 
ing members. 

(5). Its conduct is jealously guarded and made to conform scrupu- 
lously in all respects to the highest concept of commercial morality and the 
strictest interpretation of the laws of the land. 

To conform with these precepts makes it evidently impossible for 
the Association to engage in any attempt to solve individual manufacturing 
problems of its members except where the nature of such problems is such 
as to invest them with common interest so that their solution would 
either directly benefit all alike or otherwise protect the whole industry 
against unfavorable reaction that likely would result from their neglect. 

The Association, with its successful blending of the self-interested and 
altruistic interests of its members, is unique. It has no counterpart in 
American industrial history. 

Every phase of Association work is well considered and none lacks 
importance. Each activity engaged in represents a crystallization of the 
widest experience and most constructive thought of the industry. This 
will be made more evident in what follows, as its early history and growth 
are unfolded. 

How the Portland Cement Association Came to Be Formed 

After reading the preceding chapter, it may seem somewhat incredible 
that an organization of the kind described should have had its inception 
in a little incident far removed from any thought of the possibilities of 
concrete as a building material. 

In 1902 a group of eastern cement manufacturers, intent as are all 
earnest business men upon the monej^ making side of their business and 
in establishing an American industry as against a firmly entrenched foreign 
competition, responded to a call for a meeting issued by one of their num- 
ber to disotiss and find a solution, if possible, for "the present methods of 
handling the subject of sacks, which are almost universally unsatisfactory." 
Out of the meeting called to deal with this strictly commercial proposition 
grew the great scientific and altruistic organization now known as the 
Portland Cement Association. But that is getting ahead of the story. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 197 

Everyone knows that cement is shipped almost universally in cloth 
sacks. Few people outside of the industry, however, know what a lot of 
trouble the cement sack, or rather the handling of it as between purchasers 
of cement and the repurchase of sacks by the manufacturer, has caused 
during the past twenty years. 

So in response to the pressure of a common interest, the call, shown in 
facsimile on page 198, was issued for a get-together on the ''sack question." 

In response to the circular letter embodying this call, which was 
issued by B. F. Stradley, General Sales Agent of the Vulcanite Portland 
Cement Company, dated September 4, 1902, the following named prepre- 
sentatives convened: 

Lehigh Portland Cement Company, C. A. Matcham, Gen. Mgr. 

Bonneville Portland Cement Company, W. H. Harding, Pres.; Howard L. Schoch. 

Alpha Portland Cement Company, A. F. Gerstell, Vice Pres.; John B. Wight. 

Northampton Portland Cement Company, B. Sherwood Dunn, Pres.; H. S. 
Thompson, C. W. Lyon, Edmund H. Carhart. 

Coplay Cement Manufacturing Company, Thos. J. Brady, Pres. 

Phoenix Cement Company, Wm. Turner, Pres.; Jos. W. Zipperlein. 

Catskill Cement Company, J. W. Kittrell, Sec. and Treas. 

Dexter Portland Cement Company, Geo. E. Bartol, Pres.; Jos. Brobston, Sec. and 
Treas. 

Glens Falls Portland Cement Company, W. W. Maclay, Pres.; BjTon Lapham. 

Cayuga Lake Cement Company, M. E. Calkins, Pres. 

Helderberg Cement Company, T. Henry Dumary, Pres. 

Vulcanite Portland Cement Company, Jno. B. Lober, Vice Pres.; B. F. Stradley; 
Geo. W. Elkins, Pres. 

American Cement Company, R. W. Lesley, Vice Pres.; Wallace King, Jr. 

Martins Creek Portland Cement Company, Geo. W. Roydhouse, Pres.; C. C. 
Murtha, Sec. 

Alsens Portland Cement Company, Mr. Barth; R. S. Sinclair. 

Lawrence Cement Company, Ernest R. Ackerman, Pres.; L. V. Clark, Jr. 

Nazareth Cement Company, P. H. Hampson, Treas. and Mgr. 

Atlas Portland Cement Companj^, H. W. Maxwell, Treas. 

Whitehall Portland Cement Company, W. B. Whitney, Treas. 

Edison Portland Cement Company, L. H. Carr. 

Empire Portland Cement Company, Chas. A. Lockhard, Mgr. 

Wayland Portland Cement Company, V. F. Whitmore, Pres. 

T. Millen & Company, O. Millen. 

Virginia Portland Cement Company, W. R. Warren, Pres. 

As a preliminary, these gentlemen were invited to kmcheon, at the 
conclusion of which Robert W. Lesley, of the American Cement Com- 
pany, expressed on behalf of those present, appreciation for what the 
officers of the Vulcanite Portland Cement Company had done in bringing 
the group together. John B. Lober, then Vice President of the Vulcanite 
Portland Cement Company, responded, predicting a successful meeting 
because of the representative attendance, and suggested adjournment to 



198 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



Tba vniaralgaedf n&nofacturars of Portland Ceaent* 
reeognlzlne tha fact that the oreeent methods of handling the 
subjflot of *eackB* aro almoet tinlTorsally unsatisfaotorr, and 
bellOTlng that tha question can ba profitably discussed and a 
eatlefactory plan evolrad at a maetlne of the represontatlres 
of the Baetern Mills, hereby pledge themselves to attend 
euch a meeting to be held at such tine and plaeo as oay be 
Bost conTenlont to a majority of those signing, 

THE VUIXAWTE POflTLANO COCffT CO. 

tftSKHX 



LEHIGH PORTLAND CEMENT CO. 
BoWtYEE PofiTUWD CeMENT G). 





-<-— «fS» 



lartin's Creek Portland Cement Ca 



ALPHAPORTLANDCZMENTCO. 





rruUnt 







Nazareth Cement CO. 
Atlas Portland^ment Coi 
TlKVnihdiallPorUaiS^eimCa'^ ' 



DEXIERPORTIM) CEMENT CO. 



TOt C108 TAUS POmANO COUCNT CO. 

CAYUGA LAKE CEMENT Ctt 



THE EDISON PORHANDOWaTCa 
Empire Portland Cement Ca 

^^ MANA.CEJC 

Wayland Portland Cement Co. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 199 

the adjoining room and temporary organization for the purpose of pro- 
ceeding with the business for which the group had assembled. 

Upon reassembhng, Mr. Lober expressed the opinion that it would be 
wise to proceed to a permanent organization. This resulted in the election 
of Robert W. Lesley, Chairman, and A. F. Gerstell, Vice President and Gen- 
eral Manager of the Alpha Portland Cement Company, as Secretary. 

The call for the meeting was read and the Chairman invited frank and 
free discussion of the subject referred to in the call. 

The minutes of the first meeting show that the invitation of the 
Chairman was taken advantage of. Early in the proceedings, cognizance 
was taken of the fact that a number of companies were represented by 
several individuals and a precedent was established on motion of Mr. 
Lober that in any vote taken in the meeting, each company should have 
but one vote. This was unanimously adopted. 

Following lengthy discussion, several resolutions were offered intended 
to govern the sale and return of empty sacks, the final one to be adopted 
being offered by G. W. Roydhouse, President of the Martins Creek Port- 
land Cement Company, as follows : 

WHEREAS, the Eastern Manufacturers of portland cement here assembled, are 
of the opinion that it would be greatly to the advantage of the Industry to organize a 
permanent association to meet at stated periods, for the purpose of discussing the vari- 
ous questions of interest to the trade, arising from time to time, and to exchange view, 
as to the best methods of extending and developing the business; therefore it is 

RESOLVED, that a Committee of seven (7) manufacturers be appointed by the 
Chairman of this meeting to prepare a plan for such organization, said Committee to 
report at a subsequent meeting: 

RESOLVED, that when this meeting adjourns it shall adjourn to meet again at 
the call of the Chairman at such time and place as he may designate. 

The resolution was unanimously passed. 

Among so-called "sack troubles" there existed in the early days some 
which still engage the attention of the industry. This is evidenced by B. S. 
Dunn calling attention at this first meeting to the fact that there had been 
considerable trouble experienced by the transportation companies in the 
return of empty sacks and that this trouble had reached such a point that 
the various railroads found it necessary to appoint a committee to take 
up this subject with several cement manufacturers. 

On motion of G. E. Bartol, the following resolutions were adopted: 

RESOLVED, that the Chairman appoint as a special committee a committee of 
five (5) to consider the bag question exclusively^ and also to consider and take up with 
the railroad companies the subject of the return of empty bags. 

On motion of W. R. Warren, it was 

RESOLVED, that each Company present here shall report its views in writing on 
the "sack" question, and that these reports shall be sent to the Chairman of the meet- 
ing to be forwarded by him to the special committee before October 1, 1902. 



200 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

On motion of W. H. Harding, it was 

RESOLVED, that the proceedings or minutes of the meeting be printed, and a 
copy be sent to each of the representatives present, the cost of which printing should be 
equally borne by the several companies represented. 

On motion of G. E. Bartol, a vote of thanks was extended to the 
officers of the Vulcanite Portland Cement Company for having been 
instrumental in bringing about this pleasant meeting, and one which gave 
promise to such happy results. 

These proceedings concluded the first meeting. 

As shown by the records of A. F. Gerstell, Secretary, the resolution 
leading to a permanent organization, as offered by G. W. Roydhouse, had 
been prepared in advance of the meeting by John B. Lober, who intended 
first to present it himself but later decided that it should be presented by 
Mr. Roydhouse. This is mentioned because to Mr. Lober's efforts, more 
than to those of any other individual, was due the call for the meeting just 
reported and the formation of a permanent organization which followed. 

The second meeting of the Eastern Portland Cement Manufacturers, 
as the group unofficially seems to have called themselves, was held at 
Sherry's, New York, October 23, 1902. Representatives of twenty com- 
panies were present. Robert W. Lesley acted as presiding officer. A Con- 
stitution and By-Laws were adopted and officers were elected as follows: 

Robert W. Lesley, President, 

American Cement Company. 
John B. Lober, Vice President, 

Vulcanite Portland Cement Company. 
A. F. Gerstell, Secretary, 

Alpha Portland Cement Company. 
E. M. Young, Treasurer, 

Lehigh Portland Cement Company. 

An Executive Committee was also elected, consisting of the following: 

H. W. Maxwell, 

Atlas Portland Cement Company. 
W. R. Warren, 

Virginia Portland Cement Company. 
E. R. Ackerman, 

Lawrence Cement Company. 

W. W. Maclay, 

Glens Falls Portland Cement Company. 
T. H. Dumary, 

Helderberg Cement Company. 
W. H. Harding, 

Bonneville Portland Cement Company. 
G. E. Bartol, 

Dexter Portland Cement Company 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 201 

A Nominating Committee was appointed, consisting of: 

W. H. Harding 
T. H. Dumary 
John B. Lober 
H. W. Maxwell 

The purpose in the minds of these early workers in organizing what is 
now the Portland Cement Association is characteristic of the organization 
today: first, a desire to progressively advance the science of cement making 
and the use of concrete, and thus render a sincere service to the users of 
cement that would give the product a prestige and self -impelling force, and 
thus enlarge and establish its reputation and its market. 

In the light of all that has transpired since the initial gathering of 
this group of manufacturers, twent3^-two years ago, it is interesting to note 
that the character of the work of the Association was such that before 
twelve months had passed from its formation, it was working in coopera- 
tion and harmony with scientific bodies of the highest standards. Among 
these may be mentioned the American Society for Testing Materials, the 
American Society of Civil Engineers, the American Institute of Architects, 
Iron and Steel Institute, American Railway Engineering Association, and 
even the United States Government. It was given the rare distinction, 
seldom bestowed upon a business organization, of participating with lead- 
ing engineering societies as a member on all committees having to do with 
the specifications for portland cement and concrete. This was due largely 
to the character and scientific knowledge of the men representing the 
Association in the various technical committees and the high character of 
the scientific papers read before the Association. 

At the conclusion of the Association's first year, its membership rep- 
resented 90 per cent of the total output of portland cement in the United 
States, then some 22,000,000 barrels. At this time there were 45 concerns 
in the country, producing over 20,000,000 barrels of cement annually, 
against a like production by some 96 associated concerns in Germany, 
which was then the leading European cement producing country. 

The minutes of the second meeting of the Eastern Portland Cement 
Manufacturers practically conclude by recording the appointment of a 
Sack Committee, consisting of the following: 

G. E. Bartol C. A. Lockard W. H. Harding 

T. H. Dumarj' Thos. J. Brady Robert W. Lesley, ex officio 

Preponderance of discussion at this meeting continued to occupy 
itself with the important subject of sacks, which remained a vexing topic 
for many years. 

At the first annual meeting of the Association, the name "Association 
of Portland Cement Manufacturers" was adopted. The meeting was held 



202 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

at the Hotel Bellevue, Philadelphia, December 9, 1902, with twenty 
members present. The following officers were re-elected: 
Robert W. Lesley, President, 

American Cement Company. 
John B. Lober, Vice President, 

Vulcanite Portland Cement Company. 
A. F. Gerstell, Secretary, 

Alpha Portland Cement Company. 
E. M. Young, Treasurer, 

Lehigh Portland Cement Company. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 
H. W. Maxwell, 

Atlas Portland Cement Company. 
W. R. Warren, 

Virginia Portland Cement Company. 
E. R. Ackerman, 

Lawrence Cement Compan}'. 
W. W. Maclay, 

Glens Falls Portland Cement Company. 
T. H. Dumary, 

Helderberg Cement Compan}^ 
W. H. Harding, 

Bonneville Portland Cement Company. 
G. E. Bartol, 

Dexter Portland Cement Company. 

At this time and for a considerable period afterward the Association 
had no official headquarters. Among the historical documents of the 
Association is a letter sent out September 22, 1903, bearing the Association 
name and the words "Office of the President." It was the office of the 
American Cement Company, 22 South 15th Street, Philadelphia. 

Robert W. Lesle.y, ffi'st President of the Association of Portland 
Cement Manufacturers, as the permanent organization was named, was 
born in Philadelphia, 1853. His early education was in France, later at the 
Langton School, Philadelphia. He entered the University of Pennsylvania 
in 1867, but left college to engage in business. Many years later, in 1908, 
the University graduated him with the degree A.M., as of the class of 1871. 
This was an unusual honor that made him a full alumnus of the University. 

Mr. Lesley's early business career began in the office of the Public 
Ledger, Philadelphia, of which paper he finally became assistant editor. 
He studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1879. His early association 
with the pioneers of the cement industry, of which he was one, have been 
fully given elsewhere. He has long been identified with many scientific and 
technical societies, and as a mark of honor and the esteem in which he has 
been held in the industry, he was elected to honorary membership in the 
Portland Cement Association, 1914. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 203 

In the history of the Association, he heads the hst of presidents, being 
the first to serve in that capacity. His term of office covered the year 1903 
(from the election at annual meeting December 9, 1902, until election at 
annual meeting December 8, 1903). The progress of the Association as out- 
lined on the pages which immediately follow is therefore assembled under 
the heading "Presidency of Robert W. Lesley." 

Presidency of Robert W. Lesley 

The 1902 annual meeting of the Association of Portland Cement 
Manufacturers records the appointment of important committees, indi- 
cating early realization of profitable Association activities. These included 
the following: 

Committee on Packages 

Committee on Transportation 

Committee on Finance 

Committee on Uniform Contracts 

Committee on Exports and Increase of Markets 

Committee on New Uses for Cement 

Committee on Uniform Specifications 

Committee on Rules and Legislation 

Most of these committees were destined to do important constructive 
work for the industry, but the committees dealing with specifications and 
new uses for cement soon proved of special importance. 

The package, or sack, question occupied the center of the stage each 
meeting, but as was true for many years, continued to fail in unanimity of 
opinion. Even during the second annual meeting, after a lively discussion, 
it was decided by a vote of nine to eight to postpone the whole subject 
indefinitely. 

Two matters brought before the second annual meeting marked the 
beginning of expansion along important lines. One was a communication 
from a New York publishing firm, soliciting financial aid in the publication 
of articles on cement. The other was a letter from the Central Association 
of Cement Manufacturers, expressing a desire to coopei-ate in the work of 
the new Association. 

A list of member companies registered at the second annual meeting, 
with the individuals representing, follows: 

Alpha Portland Cement Company, G. S. Brown; Mr. Longcope. 

Alsens Portland Cement Company, Mr. Barth; Mr. Babson; R. S. Sinclair. 

American Cement Company', Robert W. Lesley; H. B. Warner. 

Atlas Portland Cement Company, H. W. Maxwell. 

Bonneville Portland Cement Company, W. H. Harding; Mr. Schock. 

Cayuga Lake Cement Company, M. E. Calkins. 

Coplay Cement Manufacturing Company, G. Blumenthal; Mr. Blum. 



204 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

Dexter Portland Cement Company, G. E. Bartol; Jos. Brobston. 

Empire Portland Cement Company, Charles A. Lockard. 

Helderberg Cement Company, T. H. Dumary. 

Lawrence Cement Company, E. R. Ackerman; I. V. Clark; T. V. Osborne. 

Lehigh Portland Cement Company, E. M. Young. 

Martins Creek Portland Cement Companj% J. B. Wight. 

T. Millen & Company, T. Millen. 

Nazareth Portland Cement Companj-, P. H. Hampson; N. J. Warner. 

Phoenix Cement Company, J. W. Zipperlein. 

Virginia Portland Cement Companj', W. R. Warren; D. E. Reinhard; Wm. 

Burnham; F. W. White. 
Vulcanite Portland Cement Company, John B. Lober; W. D. Lober; George W. 

Elkins. 
Wayland Portland Cement Company, V. F. Whitmore; Mr. Birch. 
Whitehall Portland Cement Company,Thos. M.Righter; W.C.Kent; J.S.Wentz. 

Four quarterly meetings were held during President Lesley's term of 
office. The first of these was in New York, March 10, 1903. During this 
meeting there was an interchange of good will and cooperative spirit ex- 
pressed between the Association of Portland Cement Manufacturers and 
an organization known as the Central Cement Association. The latter 
was represented by Charles F. Wade, of the Omega Portland Cement 
Company, and Secretary of the Central Association, and William Wright, 
Vice President of the Newaygo Cement Company. At this quarterly meet- 
ing the Association entertained as guests representatives of the following 
eleven western companies: 

Omega Elk Rapids Hecla 

Castalia Peninsular Newaygo 

Peerless Alpena Wolverine 

Wabash Iroquois 

represented by Messrs. Wade, Johnson, Patterson, Duffield, Strove, Mo- 
naghan, Stroh, Wright, Wood and Davies. 

Dr. Wilhelm Michaelis and Dr. J. A. Holmes, representing the 
St. Louis Exposition, discussed a proposed collective exhibit of cement 
products at the Exposition, which resulted in bringing the eastern and 
western manufacturers into closer cooperative spirit than had prevailed up 
to that time. 

But no doubt the matter of greatest importance considered at this 
meeting was that of uniform specifications, although it might not have 
been admitted at this early day as important as some uniform method of 
sack procedure. The Committee on Uniform Specifications, whose per- 
sonnel was the following: 

W. W. Maclay, Chairman B. S. Dunn 

A. F. Gerstell T. M. Righter 

D. Millen 
made a brief report, following which President Lesley submitted the follow- 
ing statement: 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 205 

The Chair is able to say that there is a movement on foot, in fact walking very 
fast, toward a uniform specification in a manner which I think will produce what we 
have all been striving to get, viz., a specification which engineers, architects, the con- 
sumer, and the manufacturer can agree upon; and the method of arriving at it is through 
the American Society for Testing Materials, which has recently appointed a Committee 
on Cement and Cement Testing, and of that Committee the members of the Committee 
of the American Society of Civil Engineers who have so far reported on the manipulation 
of tests of cement are members. Members of the Committee of the War Department who 
prepared the specifications for the United States Government, are members, and also 
Chief Engineers of the Pennsylvania, Baltimore & Ohio, Illinois Central, and New 
York Central Railroads. 

Architects and also about ten members of the American Association of Portland 
Cement Manufacturers, embracing principally those who are on the Committee on 
Uniform Specifications for Cement, will also take part on the Committee. 

The deliberations of that Committee I think will be to this end: The Committee 
of the American Society of Civil Engineers is limited to the manipulation of tests only — 
its powers are only those of describing the methods of manipulation. It has cooperated 
as far as possible on the method of manipulation and has made a report thereon. All 
are now members of the Committee of Tests of the American Society for Testing Ma- 
terials, and their work up to the time of their report will be the basis upon which tests 
will be made, by sending samples of cement to the various mills to be tested. When 
the results come in an attempt will be made to strike an average and arrive at a specifi- 
cation which will meet the approval of the engineering profession, large consumers of 
cement, and cement manufacturers, and I believe the result will be a common ground . 

At the quarterl}'- meeting held June 15, 1903, at Atlantic City, further 
consideration was given to the matter of a collective exhibit at the St. Louis 
Exposition. This represented the first cooperative educational movement 
of this kind undertaken by American cement manufacturers. The exhibit 
included a reinforced concrete building, containing an Association labora- 
tory and a display of cement and cement products. 

Another important subject brought up for consideration was con- 
tained in a communication from the iron and steel interests. This sug- 
gested that cement manufacturers cooperate with these interests in prepar- 
ing specifications directed toward improved methods in reinforced concrete 
construction. As a result a Committee on Iron and Steel Concrete Con- 
struction was appointed, consisting of Messrs. Newberry, Brady, Hagar, 
Maclay and Wade. 

S. B. Newberry suggested the advisabihty of having scientific papers 
presented at Association meetings. So it can be seen that the quarterly 
meeting of June 15, 1903, marked the passing of a more or less passive 
attitude toward very important matters having to do with scientific and 
educational work, and showed for the first time that the cement sack, the 
lowly origin of the call for the first meeting, was unable to hold the center 
of the stage. 

The quarterly meeting of the Association, September 8, 1903, was 
held at Niagara Falls, New York. There were twenty-eight companies in 



206 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

attendance and nine absent, showing that at this time the Association had 
thirty-seven members. Three apphcations for membership received fa- 
vorable consideration, thus bringing the membership at this early day to 
almost half its present membership. Counting the three new members 
elected at this meeting, the membership represented 90 per cent of the 
total output of Portland cement in the United States. 

W. H. Harding, Chairman of the Committee on Exports and Increase 
of Markets, presented a plan for the formation of a Cement Selling and 
Warehousing Company. Described in a few words, this provided for an 
organization to be known as the Export Cement Company or the National 
Cement Company, which should represent the Association in the sale of 
cement to be marketed and exported under a general brand instead of the 
brands of individual manufacturers. 

Discussion of the subject resulted in the appointment of a special 
committee to consider it more fully and report later. The president sug- 
gested that the Association obtain actual figures on the monthly production 
and stocks on hand at the various mills. The Committee on Exports and 
Increase of Markets was instructed to obtain the data required. 

The subject of "Exports and Increase of Markets" finally passed into 
history, as did many other seemingly important subjects, which later on 
proved lacking in the importance first supposed. 

At the Annual Meeting, December 8, 1903, in New York, fortj^-two 
members were represented. The Executive Committee submitted its first 
annual report. So impressive was its summary of things accomplished that 
the membership was inspired to further achievement. 

The report follows: 

First Annual Report of the Association of Portland Cement Manufacturers 

New York, December 8, 1903. 

The Executive Committee beg to report as follows: 

Your Association grew out of a call, signed by twenty-three companies for a 
meeting at Sherry's, Forty-Fourth Street and Fifth Avenue, New York, on September 
11, 1902. 

The subject of the call was stated to be as follows: 

The undersigned, manufacturers of portland cement, recognizing the fact that 
the present methods of handling of "sacks" are almost universally unsatisfactory, and 
believing that the question can be profitably discussed and a satisfactory plan evolved 
at a meeting of the Eastern mills, hereby pledge themselves to attend such meeting. 

Prior to the meeting, the gentlemen in attendance enjoyed a very charming lunch 
and during ttle course of the informal speeches the thought of such an Association as 
we now have was brought forward. The thought was father to the deed, and our Asso- 
ciation was formed with twenty members signing the constitution. 

Needless to say, that at the first annual meeting of the Association, the question 
of "bags," out of which the Association grew, was promptly and indefinitely postponed. 
There was, however, submitted at this time to our Association, which was composed of 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 207 

representatives of Eastern mills only, a suggestion on behalf of the Central Association 
of Cement Manufacturers, composed of Western mills exclusively, that the two associa- 
tions should cooperate. This important suggestion met with the full approval of your 
Association, and at the quarterly meeting on March 10, 1903, ten companies, members 
of the Central Cement Association, were present, and all became members of our 
Association, thus making the Association of Portland Cement Manufacturers no longer 
local, but a National Association. The membership has now grown from twenty to 
forty-six, representing manufacturers from the Atlantic to the Pacific Coast. The esti- 
mated output of Portland cement which is now represented in our body is from 90 
per cent to 95 per cent of the total output of the United States. 

During the year there were brought fonvard many questions involving freight 
rates and also other transportation questions. The most important of these and the 
settlement of which was brought about by cooperation between our Association and 
the railroads was a uniform method regarding the return of empty bags. This action 
resulted in the issue of uniform circulars by all the members of our Association to their 
respective customers, and similar notices by all the railroads to their freight agents, 
resulting in a uniform method for the return of bags and the payment of freight thereon, 

In the fall there was also a reduction of freight to Chicago and Western points not 
taking the 60 per cent rates; another result of the work o!" our Transportation Com- 
mittee. 

Under similar lines of cooperation a committee was appointed by your Association 
to confer with representative manufacturers, members of the Iron and Steel Institute, 
in the matter of testing and standards for concrete steel construction. This suggestion, 
which had root in our Association, has extended from the two associations originally 
contemplated to the American Society for Testing Materials, which has appointed a 
committee to act in unison with those alreadj^ referred to. The effect of this will be that 
by standard methods in this important form of construction the possible danger to the 
cement industry by improper and careless construction of concrete steel bridges, build- 
ings, etc., will be entirely obviated. 

The importance of a standard specification for cement has certainly been recog- 
nized by all of those connected with cement, either as engineers, consumers or manufac- 
turers. Certainly, no class recognizes it more fully than the members of our Association. 
To do away with the many hundreds of varj-ing specifications which come to the mills 
during the course of the year, and to substitute for them a single specification well 
thought out, well considered, and well adjusted, would be of great value. 

Following the line of cooperation already referred to as part of the business of this 
Association, your Cement Committee has been represented upon a joint committee of 
the American Society for Testing Materials, and a suggested specification has now been 
sent for final examination and approval to all its members, with the object of having 
replies by February 1, 1904, at which time a meeting will be held for the final adoption 
of the specification. 

It is needless to say that a standard specification, which has grown from the intelli- 
gent work of the American Society of Civil Engineers' Committee, coupled with the 
thought of the United States army engineers, the American Railway Engineering and 
Maintenance of Way Association, the American Society for Testing Materials, and your 
own Association, and practically determined in the laboratories to which the samples 
were sent, will, when adopted, command the regard and respect of all engineers, con- 
sumers, and producers of cement. 

Further in the line of cooperation with sister societies may also be mentioned the 
meeting held in New York on December 1, 1903, between your Committee on Uniform 
Contracts and a committee appointed by the National Builders' Supply Association to 



208 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

confer with us on the subject named. This was the first meeting between the manu- 
facturers of, and the dealers in, cement, and it may be stated that the best of feehng and 
cooperation marked the meeting, and that it was thought highly advisable by both 
parties that many similar meetings should be held during the course of every business 
year, and the National Builders' Supply Association have emphasized their views on the 
subject by extending our Association an invitation to join the annual meeting of the 
National Builders' Supply Association, to be held at Buffalo, N. Y., on February 3, 1904. 

At the meeting of our Association on March 10, 1903, representatives of the St. 
Louis World's Fair were present, and outlined plans for a general exhibit of the cement 
manufacturers. A committee was appointed, with Mr. Robinson of St. Louis as Chair- 
man, and the report of that committee is before you. Hearty cooperation on behalf of 
all the cement manufacturers has been shown, and it is hoped that a building will be 
erected at the World's Fair, which will be a monument to the cement industry, not only 
for the 3'ear 1904, but for many years to come. 

The question of statistics of the cement industry has given your Executive Com- 
mittee considerable thought. During the year there have been sent to all members 
reports of figures of the United States Bureau of Statistics, showing the imports and 
exports of cement, and from these it has been possible to gather some idea of the conditions 
of our foreign trade, and of the effect of foreign importations upon our domestic industry. 
Following this line of thought it has been proposed that this Association should be made 
the center of the cement statistics of the United States, and that upon the plans used by 
the Iron and Steel Institute there shall be received by our Assistant Secretary monthly 
or quarterly reports of the stocks of cement on hand and of the number of mills that are 
in operation, from time to time, as bearing upon the general cement situation in the 
country. Your Executive Committee strongly urges the carrying into effect of this plan 
of gathering correct and valuable statistics. 

The manufacture of portland cement by the United States Government, on the 
site of the Tonto Dam, in Arizona, was brought before your Executive Committee by 
representatives of mills on the Pacific Coast, and in connection with these gentlemen 
who have now become members of our Association, an effective argument was addressed 
to the Secretary of the Interior, after a hearing of several hours, in which the matter was 
fully gone over, a decision was rendered giving the victory to the cement men, the Gov- 
ernment deciding not to make cement on the site of the dam, but to advertise for bids 
for cement under either of the two following methods, viz.: 

First — Cement manufactured elsewhere and shipped to Phoenix or Globe by rail, 
and then hauled to the dam site. 

Second — The Government to furnish a 250-barrel-per-day mill at the site with 
power to operate it, and the contractor to manufacture it there. 

In the relation sustained by our body to the Government, several communications 
have been addressed to the Secretary of War in the matter of changes by Government 
engineers of the requirements of the United States Army specifications, and communica- 
tions have also been had with the Census Bureau, by which modified forms of census 
reports have been allowed, and also communications with the State Department, secur- 
ing for us Consular reports on cement from all parts of the world. 

Better methods of warehousing cements have been before us at some of our meet- 
ings. _ 

Questions have also been considered in relation to the sending of American repre- 
sentatives to foreign countries for the purpose of developing the export trade of this 
country in our product. 

The j'ear's work has largely been of a constructive character, in view of the fact 
that the Association was a new one and had by degrees to find its proper field. With the 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 209 

incoming of a new year and the larger introduction of new blood into the organization, 
the Executive Committee expresses the hope that much good work and many new lines 
of thought may be found for our busy hands to do. 

Approval by the Association of this report stamped it as an official 
estimate of Association work as interpreted by its Executive Committee. 
That the importance and value of this work were not exaggerated was 
shown by the fact that outside interests were watching the progress of the 
Association and had arrived at conclusions entirely favorable to it. 

On December 19, 1903, the Engineering Record, New York, published 
the following editorial: 

The Association of Portland Cement Manufacturers 

The value of cooperation between establishments in the same industry is well 
shown in the history of the first year's work of the Association of Portland Cement 
Manufacturers, which held its second annual meeting in New York last week. This 
organization started as a local body, convened on September 11, 1902, to discuss the 
matter of handling empty sacks. The call for this meeting was signed by twenty-three 
Eastern companies, but very early in the session the question of sacks disappeared from 
sight for the time being before the more important subject of a permanent society. It 
was decided to invite the Central Association of Cement Manufacturers to join the 
Eastern companies, and in March of this year ten of them were admitted and the present 
organization thus started on its way as a national body. Today there are forty-six com- 
panies on its roll, representing all sections of the country where the industry is estab- 
lished and from ninety to ninety-five per cent of the total output. While the organization 
is thus a young one, it is thoroughly representative of American portland cement manu- 
facturers, and its work is of importance to all who make and use cement. 

In the report of the Executive Committee presented at last week's meeting by the 
retiring president, Robert W. Lesley, some interesting indications are given, of the 
important influence such an organization can exert in the improvement of engineering 
practice. The subject of concrete-steel construction may be taken as an example. It was 
recognized some time ago that the cement industry was open to a certain measure of 
injury by the possible failure of reinforced concrete structures. The interest in this sys- 
tem of building is so great that it is probable a certain number of serious accidents will 
result through the attempt to erect work on improper plans or by careless methods. To 
avoid such a danger so far as possible, the Association applied to representative members 
of the Iron and Steel Association for assistance in formulating and making public sound 
ideas on this subject. These two organizations were able to offer exceptional facilities 
for experiments, but in order to give such work the professional scientific standing it 
needs to carry weight, the cooperation of the technical organizations was sought. The 
American Society of Civil Engineers will take up the matter of such cooperation next 
month, while the American Society for Testing Materials has already appointed a com- 
mittee to act with the representatives of the other societies. 

The Association's action in relation to testing cement is also something for which 
the engineering profession has reason to be grateful. The number of specifications for 
cement that were in use a few years ago was legion: while the manufacturer could 
supply material satisfying all of them with few exceptions, the absence of uniformity 
caused a needless extra expense to the purchasers and unnecessary addition to the details 
of manufacture. Various attempts had been made to check the writing of a new form of 
specification for each concrete work, but little was accomplished until this Association 



210 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

took the subject in hand. The American Society of Civil Engineers had a committee 
which was doing good work on the restricted subject of the manipulation of tests of 
cement. The Association was able to add greatly to the value of the committee's work 
by placing at its disposal the resources of numerous works, laboratories, and ample 
quantities of cement of any grade desired. Meanwhile the American Society for Testing 
Materials appointed a cement committee to take up the whole subject of the tests of 
cement. As the work of the Civil Engineers' committee covered a part of this field, 
the committee was asked to join the new and great committee as a body, and this was 
done. The Association of Portland Cement Manufacturers was also able to secure on 
this large committee representatives of the American Railway Engineering & Mainte- 
nance of Way Association and of the engineering departments of the New York Central, 
Baltimore & Ohio, Illinois Central, and Pennsylvania railroads, and the American Insti- 
tute of Architects has been invited to take part also. As a result of all this work a scheme 
for a standard specification for cement has been drawn up and submitted to members of 
the committee for their consideration. It is needless to say that a specification which 
receives the endorsement of the representatives of all the interests now working har- 
moniously in this way will carry sufficient weight to become the standard for some years 
to come. It may not cover special requirements but for such requirements the purchaser 
must expect to pay a greater price than for the standard grades. 

In a business way the Association has also accomplished a great deal of good. 
The handling of empty bags by the railroads has been settled on a basis which is satis- 
factory to all concerned, and freight rates have been reduced to man}' points. The rela- 
tions between the manufacturers and supply men have been made more harmonious, and 
arrangements have been perfected for an interesting exhibit at the Louisiana Purchase 
Exposition. A still more important action was recently taken with regard to the manu- 
facture of Portland cement by the United States Government at the site of the Tonto 
River dam in Arizona. On account of the principle involved in this proposal, the Asso- 
ciation made representations to the Secretary of the Interior which resulted in a decision 
by the government not to make cement at the site of the dam but to advertise for bids 
for cement under either of the two following methods: First, cement made elsewhere 
and shipped to Phoenix or Globe by rail and then hauled to the dam site. Second, the 
Government to furnish a 250-barrel-per-day mill at the site with power to operate it, and 
the contractor to manufacture the cement there. Another important work which is still 
under consideration relates to the compilation of statistics of the cement industrj^ 
along the same lines as the statistical work of the Iron and Steel Association. The idea 
is to have monthly or quarterly reports sent to the Association headquarters of the 
stocks of cement on hand and the number of mills in operation. These figures are to be 
tabulated according to districts and not mills, so that the trade will know the general 
condition of stocks and mills and thus be in a position to handle its work to the best 
advantage. 

It is believed that this outline of the work of the Association during the first year 
of its existence is a good indication of the importance of its field. The old idea that the 
manufacturer of materials of construction is the enemy of the engineer falls to the 
ground in the face of such a record. In its one year of usefulness this manufacturers' 
organization has done more to advance sound masonry construction than all other 
societies together. It has brought purchaser and manufacturer together, furnished 
facilities for elaborate investigations, and shown itself ready to cooperate in every way 
to further the best interests of sound masonry construction. A large part of the success 
of this work has been due to the energy of Mr. Robert W. Lesley, the Association's 
first president, whose tact in harmonizing all interests, both business and professional, 
has been of the greatest value in the inauguration of its work. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 211 

If anything tended to make the second Annual Meeting of the Asso- 
ciation outdistance previous ones, it was evidence of more sincere co- 
operation and mutual confidence expressed in every action of the mem- 
bership. 

The matter of contributing information on monthly production and 
stocks on hand at the various mills formed a subject of discussion. John B. 
Lober urged prompt action and the discussion was terminated by a unani- 
mous vote on a proposition to have monthly production and stocks sta- 
tistics information on file. 

In retiring from the office of President, Mr. Lesley said : 

There is nothing more gratifying than to be in this room and hear the expressions 
of absohite confidence from member to meml)er — from all of those who are attending 
the deliberations of this Association. This is the first big ray of daylight that seems to 
have come into our body. It seems that we are an Association and not a set of members. 

The Committee on New Uses of Cement embodied in its report the 
greater portion of a lecture given before the Philadelphia Engineers' Club 
by President Lesley, in which emphasis was placed on the advantages of 
using concrete in many fields. 

The Committee on Uniform Contracts presented suggested forms to 
be used between manufacturers and dealers, and manufacturers and con- 
tractors. Conferences on this subject had been held by the Committee 
with representatives of the National Dealers' Association, which attracted 
the attention of that important body to the work of the Association, 
resulting in cooperation along several lines. 

Mr. Lesley declined a renomination as President. 

The Report of the Nominating Committee presented the following 
candidates, who were elected: 

John B. Lober, President E. M. Young, Secretary 

A. F. Gerstell, Vice President E. R. Ackerman, Treasurer 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

H. W. Maxwell W. R. Warren Edward M. Hagar 

W. H. Harding G. E. Bartol S. B. Newberry 

Robert ^^'. Leslej^ 

On taking the chair as second President of the Association, Mr. Lober 
called attention to the fact that the organization represented one of the 
most important industries in the country, which he predicted would rank 
second to the great iron and steeL industry. He emphasized especially 
the importance of cooperation with consumers of cement in the interest 
of intelligent and economic use as distinguished from a purely selfish 
policy. He prophesied that such a plan, once inaugurated and scrupu- 
lously followed, would assure the success of the Association. 

From that day to this, no manufacturer of portland cement has taken 
a more active and unselfish interest in the general success of the industry 



212 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

than has Mr. Lober. He was among the first to see the advantages of 
cooperation on the part of manufacturers in work such as the Association 
had mapped out for itself. He was always the most active participant in 
the proceedings of the many meetings to follow and foresaw that the Asso- 
ciation was to become not only the official representative of a great in- 
dustry, national in its activities, but also would attain a responsibility to 
the users of cement which could not be disregarded. 

President Lesley's term of office witnessed the building of the founda- 
tion of the Association. It was to the superstructure, Mr. Lober said, 
that members must henceforth devote themselves. He emphasized the 
importance of standardization in procedure along many lines, including 
methods of testing cement and establishing specifications for the product. 
He stressed the importance of promoting new uses for cement and urged 
that papers upon subjects of interest to the cement manufacturer and 
user be included in subsequent meeting programs. With far-seeing vision 
he urged elimination of all jealousies, personal animosities, and antagonism, 
in order that members might work together for a common good and to the 
advantage of the industry as a whole. 

At this meeting the Constitution of the Association was amended in 
accordance with the following proposal by Mr. Lober: 

The Association is formed for the purpose of discussing various questions of interest 
to the industry arising from time to time, and to exchange views as to the best method 
of manufacturing, extending, developing, and conducting the business, and to do all 
things incidental and conducive to the attainment of the above objects. 

Presidency of John B. Lober 
1904-1909 

John B. Lober was born in New Jersey in 1848. 

From 1877 to 1883 he was a member of the firm of Warren, Lober 
& Co., distillers of coal tar and manufacturers of coal tar products. 

From 1883 to 1901, Mr. Lober was Vice President of the Vulcanite 
Paving Company. 

In 1894, the Vulcanite Portland Cement Company was incorporated, 
Mr. Lober being one of the original incorporators. He was elected Vice 
President and General Manager of this company in 1898, and President 
in 1903. 

Mr. Lober served as President of the Portland Cement Association 
throughout two periods — 1904 to 1909 inclusive, and 1913 to 1915 in- 
clusive. He was also Treasurer of the Portland Cement Association 
during the years 1911 and 1913. 

This chapter deals with Mr. Lober's first term of office as President 
of the Association of Portland Cement Manufacturers. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 213 

The first quarterly meeting of 1904 was held March 8 and 9 at the 
Hotel Walton, Philadelphia. This marked the first occasion of a two 
days' session. 

Before the general session of the Association convened, the Executive 
Committee had been considering the subject of the Panama Canal. Atten- 
tion was called to the fact that there was no provision for the use of Ameri- 
can Portland cement on this work, but that the Canal would be built under 
the direction of the War Department, which department in its specifica- 
tions required the use of American portland cement. Further than this 
was the fact that the work on the Canal was to be in a neutral zone; and 
materials of American manufacture would enter free of duty, which would 
give American cement an advantage of practically 30 cents a barrel over 
the foreign made product. 

When the Committee on Statistics presented its report, it was found 
that a number of companies had not reported figures on production and 
stocks. On this subject President Lober made the following statement: 

If there is one business in which members and management have been entirely at 
sea, it is the cement business, and anything that will bring us down to a plane of actual 
facts is something we should all follow. 

The matter of the testing laboratory at the St. Louis Exposition was 
referred to the Executive Committee with the recommendation that 
Richard L. Humphrey, Consulting Engineer, be placed in charge. 

The very important decision was reached to have a thorough investi- 
gation made as to the behavior of concrete in the Baltimore fire. As a 
result, highly important facts were secured which were used to great 
advantage in later years. 

This meeting marked also the first discussion of a technical subject, 
the burning of cement, which was presented at a dinner given by Robert W. 
Lesley. The subject was discussed by Professor Joseph W. Richards, 
who explained his important investigations with a 60-foot rotary kiln at 
the plant of the Dexter Portland Cement Company, Nazareth, Pennsyl- 
vania. 

On the second day's sessions, the first formal presentation of technical 
papers was made. One of these papers related to the grinding of cement 
and was presented by George W. Frazer, New York. The other was by 
S. B. Newberry and related to work of the German Portland Cement 
Manufacturers' Association. This paper marked the initial step of the 
American Association in keeping in touch with foreign methods. 

The second quarterly meeting of 1904 was held June 14 and 15 at 
Atlantic City. This meeting recorded further progress along technical 
lines. 

The Committee on Uniform Specifications reported work in con- 
junction with a committee composed of officers of the United States 



214 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

Army, the American Institute of Architects, American Society of Civil 
Engineers, Railway Engineering and Maintenance of Way Association, 
and the American Society for Testing Materials. A specification pre- 
pared by the Committee represented all of these bocUes and had been sent 
out to members of the Committee, who had approved it by a very large 
majority, with comment that favorable action on the part of the American 
Society for Testing Materials was anticipated. The President urged that 
the Association come to a definite conclusion as to the requirements of the 
specification from the Association's point of view. It was finally decided 
to approve of the specification as prepared by the Committee of the 
American Society for Testing Materials. This marked a very important 
step at this early period. 

That foreign cement manufacturers were watching the progress of 
the Association is best indicated by stating that at this meeting an appli- 
cation for membership was received from Dyckerhoff & Sons, the great 
German cement manufacturers, but under the Constitution and By-laws 
of the Association, this application was necessarily rejected. 

Steps were taken to have responsibility for the activities of the 
Association made more binding upon its members. The matter came up 
when the appointment of a Committee to revise the Constitution and 
By-laws was under consideration. Discussion resulted in convincing 
members that they should be more thoroughly bound by the acts of the 
Association than had been theretofore the case. 

The first step to obtain full information on foreign uses of cement was 
taken at this time, following a resolution offered by W. R. Warren direct- 
ing the Executive Committee to formulate a plan for the purpose, and to 
report on the advisability of sending a competent engineer abroad to 
procure data on cement construction. 

The quarterly meeting of September 13, 1904, was held at St. Louis 
while the World's Fair was in progress. 

President Lober called attention to the fact that the Association had 
for the first time in its history assembled in a building of its own (the 
concrete exhibition building erected by the Association on the Fair 
Grounds), its own laboratory and scientific exhibit, and other visible evi- 
dence demonstrating the utility of concrete. The Association structure 
was substantial, attractire, fire-resistive and designed as a permanent 
building. The fact that the exhibition at the Fair was so successful, 
indicated that the Association had become liberal and broad minded to a 
degree quitij'in contrast with three years previous, when, as Mr. Lober 
said, it would have been impossible to have obtained funds for any such 
purposes. 

Among various committee reports presented at this meeting was 
that of the Committee on Iron and Steel Concrete, which announced that 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 215 

it had formed a joint committee with a committee on the same subject 
appointed by the American Society of Civil Engineers and the Railway 
Engineering and Maintenance of Way Association. As the result of this 
joint committee there had been appointed sub-committees on Plan and 
Scope, thus providing for extensive experiments on construction of col- 
umns, beams, etc., involving several years' study before a final and definite 
summary would be presented. 

The Annual Meeting of 1904 was held December 13 and 14 at the 
Hotel Astor, New York. 

At the suggestion of Mr. Carrere of the Penn Allen Portland Cement 
Company, the Constitution was amended so as to include the word "Ameri- 
can" in the title of the Association. Thereupon the name became the 
Association of American Portland Cement Manufacturers, which con- 
tinued up to 1916. 

At this Annual IMeeting increased dues of membership were ap- 
proved — an important step in the direction of greater activities. 

How the Association has expanded in this respect is an interesting 
item in its history. The first Treasurer's report referred to in the early 
minutes of the Association, was presented at the Annual Meeting, Decem- 
ber 9, 1902. E. M. Young, Treasurer, stated that he had received sub- 
scriptions from 18 members, amounting to $1800, with six companies to 
be heard from. At the Second Annual Meeting theTreasurer reported that 
the dues amounted to $2,500; in 1915 the financial resources amounted to 
$210,000; in 1916 the dues received amounted to approximately $600,000; 
b}^ 1920 the annual appropriation for promotional and educational work 
was in excess of $1,500,000, which by 1923 had increased approximately 
to $2,500,000. 

After increasing the dues at the 1904 meeting, the Association gave 
favorable consideration to a proposal that a paid Secretary be appointed. 
This marked another advance calculated to increase its efficiency as a 
working organization. 

In the report of the Executive Committee presented at this meeting 
was a statement that the membership then represented 90 per cent of the 
productive capacity of the portland cement mills of the United States. 

The annual election resulted in the following: 

John B. Lober, President 

A. F. Gerstell, Vice President 

E. R. Ackerman, Treasurer 

No Secretary being elected in view of the purpose to appoint a paid secretary. 



216 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

The Executive Committee was increased as to number, the following 
being elected : 

Charles P. Wade W. W. Maclay S. B. Newberry 

Edward M. Hagar S. H. Bassett Robert W. Lesley 

T. H. Dumary E. M. Young W. R. Warren 

T. J. Brady W. H. Harding D. McCool 

Papers read at this meeting and subsequently published, covered 
cement testing, reinforced concrete, and the constitution of portland 
cement. It had already become established practice of the Association 
to include with strictly technical papers an occasional contribution from 
manufacturers of cement machinery, in order that the membership might 
keep fully informed as to progress along mechanical lines. 

In the history of the Association up to and including this 1904 An- 
nual Meeting, there has been incorporated considerable detail which may 
be considered uninteresting reading by those who were not participants 
in these early proceedings, but only the high spots have been touched. 
Although enough has been written so far, and the records presented show 
that suggestions to make radical departures into new fields were favorably 
received in the main, there was nevertheless underneath the old spirit born 
of doubt calculated to arouse suspicion, if not distrust. The elimination of 
this was the first great achievement. Then came recognition of the Associa- 
tion's responsibihty to the users of cement and an awakening to the fact 
that everj^ advance along scientific and economic lines calculated to pro- 
mote the best interests of the consumer must redound to the ultimate 
advantage of the maker. To reach this point required courage, sound 
judgment, and honest purpose; and associated with the history and 
ultimate achievements of the Association will always appear the names of 
those who fought in the struggles of the first two years. 

Among matters taken up in 1905 directed towards increased use of 
cement was application of the product to building construction. Concrete 
block had begun to attract attention and made so favorable an impression 
at the outset that some enthusiasts believed they would largely supplant 
common brick. Not only did the Association seek to promote the manu- 
facture of concrete block, but it adopted the broad policy of attempting 
to have manufacturers turn out a first-class product. This was done in 
part by devising specifications for manufacture. In cooperation with 
Cement Age, prizes were offered for papers on the manufacture and use of 
concrete block. Competing interests were so concerned over the possible 
outcome of Association promotion in this field that many bricklayers 
refused to lay ordinary brick on concrete foundations. 

The Association also made an appropriation to carry on investiga- 
tions of the fire-resisting properties of concrete. It investigated the pes- 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 217 

sibilities of establishing a laboratory. Appropriations were made to 
assist the Committee on Concrete and Reinforced Concrete. And for the 
first time the Association acquired actual headquarters — a small office in 
the Land Title Building, Philadelphia. 

W. H. Harding, Chairman of the Committee on Standard Specifica- 
tions, encountered difficulties in getting, users of cement to agree upon 
standard specifications. The Navy Department was out of harmony 
with the idea and members of the Association were urged to decline 
bidding on any specifications other than the standard ones adopted by 
the American Society for Testing Materials. 

The Association's Committee on Technical Research came into ex- 
istence in 1905. The membership of this Committee was as follows : 

S. B. Newberry, Chairman Jos. Brobston C. A. Matcham 

Robert W. Lesley G. F. Bayle H. A. Schaffer 

A. F. Gerstell Edward M. Hagar A. Lundteigen 

W. H. Harding E. R. Ackerman W. R. Warren 

D. D. Drummond John B. Lobar 

In order to better establish the reputation and quality of portland 
cement, members agreed to manufacture only a true portland cement 
which was defined as follows: 

The undersigned members of the Association of American Portland Cement Manu- 
facturers agree and hereby bind themselves to put on the market, under the name of 
PORTLAND CEMENT, no product but one made by burning to the point of sintering, 
an intimate mixture consisting essentially of lime or carbonate of lime and silicious ma- 
terial of the general chemical composition of clay, and grinding the resultant clinker to 
fine powder, without any addition made subsequent to the burning other than that of 
material for the purpose of regulating the setting, the amount of which shall not exceed 
three per cent. 

The annual election resulted in the following: 
John B. Lober, President 
Chas. F. Wade, Vice President 

E. R. Ackerman, Treasurer 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

Robert W. Lesley W. R. Warren T. H. Dumary 

A. F. Gerstell W. J. Prentice Conrad Miller 

E. M. Young S. B. Newberry W. H. Harding 

Edward M. Hagar T. J. Brady Duane Millen 

The papers presented during 1905 described work of the St. Louis 
Laboratory, tests of cement at Watertown Arsenal, fuel consumption in 
cement burning, the grinding of portland cement, reinforced concrete 
from a commercial standpoint, air separation in portland cement grinding, 
hollow concrete block construction, methods of testing cement, artistic 
possibilities of concrete, and an abstract of report of the German Cement 
Manufacturers' Association. 



218 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

In 1906, a resolution was adopted by Congress providing that pur- 
chase of material and equipment for use in the construction of the Panama 
Canal should be restricted to articles of domestic production and manu- 
facture when not unreasonable in cost. This action may be considered 
as a direct result following a hearing granted to the Association Panama 
Canal Committee, whose members were the following: 

Robert W. Lesley J. Rogers Maxwell E. R. Ackerman 

H. C. Trexler A. F. Gerstell Edward M. Hagar 

S. B. Newberry 

Further impetus was given to the establishment of an Association 
laboratory. 

It was announced that approximately So, 000 had been raised to 
facilitate the work of the Committee on Iron and Steel Concrete, and an 
appropriation of S2,000 was made to provide for a prize competition 
among architects for concrete house plans, these to include both mono- 
lithic and block construction. 

During the year, President Lober and Robert W. Lesley were ap- 
pointed by President Theodore Roosevelt, members of the United States 
Advisory Board on Fuels and Structural Materials, Mr. Lober as represen- 
tative of the Association of American Portland Cement Manufacturers and 
Mr. Lesley as representative of the American Society for Testing Mate- 
rials, of which he was then 'S'ice President. 

The adaptability of concrete for fortifications and batteries was called 
to the attention of the Association b}^ a Government report on its use for 
such purposes during the Russo-Japanese War. 

Another contribution, in the form of facts relating to the utility and 
economy of concrete was a lecture by Richard L. Humphrey, illustrating 
the remarkable resistance of concrete to earthquake shock and fire in 
San Francisco, as was true in the case of the Baltimore fire. These facts 
served a most useful purpose in later years in the promotion of reinforced 
concrete. 

The scientific side of cement and concrete was advanced bj' a number 
of papers. The importance of using proper sand in concrete was discussed 
by Sanford E. Thompson. Wilham L. Price, of the architectural firm 
which designed the first reinforced concrete hotel at Atlantic City, spoke 
upon and emphasized the artistic possibilities of the material in that par- 
ticular construction field. The construction of concrete piles, cost re- 
duction in concrete construction, and a comparison of ancient and modern 
mortars, were among other subjects presented for the enlightenment of 
members. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 219 

The annual election resulted as follows : 

John B. Lober, President 
C. F. Wade, Vice President 
E. R. Ackerman, Treasurer 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

Robert W. Lesley Conrad Miller E. M. Young 

T. H. Dumary Duane Millen W. R. Warren 

Edward M. Hagar N. D. Fraser S. B. Newberry 

A. F. Gerstell W. H. Harding G. E. Nicholson 

The year 1907 was marked by a number of happenings or accomplish- 
ments contributing important progress to the Association. A committee 
representing the National Board of Fire Underwriters and the National 
Fire Protective Association, both of which organizations were in session 
that year, presented a report considered by cement manufacturers as 
unfair to concrete. The Association delegated to Robert W. Lesley the 
responsibility of refuting the general tenor of this report. Mr. Lesley was 
also appointed chairman of a committee to represent the Association before 
the New York Building Code Commission. Those who served with him 
were W. N. Beach and A. W. Paige. 

The refusal of financial institutions to lend money on concrete block 
houses was another matter taken up by the Association. 

During 1907 the Association issued its first periodical, "The Concrete 
Review." This met with a favorable reception in engineering circles, its 
contributors being authorities on all the subjects presented. 

A new architectural competition providing for more costly concrete 
dwellings than the one presented in the former competition was planned. 

A gratifying trend of the times was a more general acceptance of 
specifications. The cause of concrete failures was taken up, with the 
result that the Association produced convincing evidence that careless 
workmanship and poor design were chiefly responsible for such failures as 
had occurred. 

Although it was a number of years later before concrete obtained 
recognition as a paving material, it was in 1907 that the first important 
papers dealing with the use of concrete in street and road work were pre- 
sented to the Association. One road paper described the Hassam type 
of pavement, the forerunner of the modern concrete road. 

Initial steps had been taken the preceding year to secure a paid 
Secretary to direct the growing affairs of the Association. This resulted 
in the election by the Executive Committee of Percy H. Wilson. 

At the annual meeting the following were elected: 

John B. Lober, President 
Edward M. Hagar, Vice President 
E. R. Ackerman, Treasurer 



220 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

N. D. Fraser W. H. Harding L. M. Wing 

G. E. Nicholson E. M. Young W. R. Warren 

T. H. Dumary Robert W. Lesley J. W. Kittrell 

A. F. Gerstell Conrad Miller W. S. Mallory 

In 1908 the first steps were taken to familiarize farmers with the 
possibiHties of concrete construction. Practical bulletins covering a num- 
ber of subjects were printed and distributed in large editions. Farm 
papers and newspapers were supplied with reading matter and illustra- 
tions. The house competition plans were so popular that an additional 
10,000 copies were soon exhausted. 

The annual election resulted as follows: 

John B. Leber, President 
Edward M. Hagar, Vice President 
E. R. Ackerman, Treasurer 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

John B. Lober T. H. Dumary L. M. Wing 

Edward M. Hagar A. F. Gerstell J. W. Kittrell 

E. R. Ackerman W. H. Harding George S. Bartlett 

N. D. Fraser Robert W. Lesley E. M. Young 

G. E. Nicholson Conrad Miller W. S. Mallory 

Activities of the various Association committees were indicated by 
the reports which these committees presented in 1909. Among these 
were reports of the Committee on Concrete and Reinforced Concrete and 
the Committee in charge of the New York Building Code data. 

The work of the Committee on Concrete and Reinforced Concrete 
embodied the first rules looking toward better concrete. Much also had 
been accomplished in the way of design and research pertaining to working 
stresses. Included were important data on the fire-resistive properties 
of concrete. 

It was due largely to the efforts of the Association's New York Build- 
ing Code Committee that Mayor McClellan of that city vetoed the first 
code presented. 

The Association announced its ability to furnish standard Ottawa 
sand for testing purposes, this product being backed by the authority of 
engineering and technical associations. 

The United States Department of Agriculture cooperated with the 
Association in a number of ways. The Department had become interested 
in farm con*struction and concrete roads. Through its members the Asso- 
ciation donated cement for experimental roads, several important projects 
being launched in 1909. A great deal of educational matter on concrete 
was sent to agricultural colleges and experiment stations. Inquiries for 
bulletins from various sources to the number of 17,000 had been received. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 221 

The Association began the collection of a representative file of photo- 
graphs illustrating the varied uses of concrete. 

President Lober, owing to ill health, declined renomination and the 
election at the annual meeting resulted in the following: 

W. S. Mallory, President 

Edward M. Hagar, Vice President 

E. R. Ackerman, Treasurer 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

G. E. Nicholson E. M. Young C. H. Zehnder 

T. H. Dumary Robert W. Leslej^ Bethune DufReld 

A. F. Gerstell Conrad Miller Robert W. Kelley 

W. H. Harding George S. Bartlett 

Presidency of W. S. MaUory 
1910 

W. S. Mallory was born in New Haven, Connecticut, 1861. 

His early education was in the Baltimore schools. 

He entered the iron and steel business in 1881 in Chicago with Car- 
michael & Emmons, later buying out the concern and continuing it under 
the name of W. S. Mallory & Company until 1891. 

In 1888 Mr. Mallory became associated with Thomas A. Edison, 
interesting himself in the concentration of low grade iron ore. In 1891, 
Mr. Mallory sold out his interest in the firm of W. S. Mallory & Company 
and spent the next eight years studying iron ore concentration. 

In 1899, with Thomas A. Edison, Mr. Mallory assisted in forming 
the Edison Portland Cement Company. He was Vice President of this 
company until 1908, when he was elected President, and continued in 
that capacity until 1918, when he retired from active business. 

Mr. Mallory was elected Honorary Member, Portland Cement 
Association, December 1919. 

Only two meetings were held in 1910. The Semi-annual Meeting 
took place in Chicago in June and the Annual Meeting in New York in 
December. 

The general educational-publicity work of the Association at this 
time was attracting wide attention. Literature distribution and co- 
operation with various other organizations were responsible. The Asso- 
ciation had accumulated a considerable library on the uses of cement and 
concrete, which was believed to be the best in that particular line in the 
country. It had some 2500 photographs and some 1200 lantern slides, 
this material being placed at the disposal of lecturers, and in that way 
receiving liberal circulation. 

Expression was made at one of the meetings during 1910 that the 
consumption of cement by small users had increased annual production 



222 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

some 10,000,000 or 15,000,000 barrels, this being accredited solely to the 
piiblicit}^ work of the Association. Because of an established policy never 
to criticise or condemn competitive materials, nor to advocate cement for 
purposes for which it was not suited, the Association had won a large 
measure of public confidence. 

It was during President Mallory's term that the dues of members 
were fixed on the production basis and increased to facilitate further 
publicity work. 

The Constitution was amended at the Annual Meeting to provide for 
admitting foreign manufacturers to membership. 
The annual election resulted as follows : 

Edward M. Hagar, President 
W. S. Mallory, Vice President 
John B. Lober, Treasurer 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

E. R. Ackerman T. H. Dumary John R. Morron 

George S. Bartlett Robert W. Kelley S. B. Newberry 

A. H. Craney, Jr. Robert W. Lesley G. E. Nicholson 

Bethune Duffield Conrad Miller C. H. Zehnder 

Presidency of Edward M. Hagar 
1911, 1912 

Edward M. Hagar was born at Salem, Massachusetts, 1873. 

He was graduated from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 
1893, and the next year completed a post-graduate course at Cornell. 

Mr. Hagar's business career began through organizing the firm of 
Edward M. Hagar & Company, Chicago, representing various machinery 
manufacturers. In 1901, he was made Manager, Cement Department, 
Illinois Steel Company. On incorporation of the Cement Department as 
the Universal Portland Cement Company in 1906, Mr. Hagar became 
President of the new organization. 

In January, 1915, he resigned the Presidency of the Universal Port- 
land Cement Company and for the three years following was associated 
with a number of enterprises, among them the Wright-Martin Aircraft 
Corporation as President, then as President of the American International 
Steel Corporation. 

Mr. Hagar died after a short illness from pneumonia, January 18, 1918. 

On assuming the presidency of the Association, President Hagar ven- 
tured the prediction that 1911 would be one of the best the Association 
had witnessed for many j^ears. 

Technical progress during 1911 included Association cooperation in 
the proposed revision of the United States Government specifications for 
cement. The Association's Committee on Technical Research and the 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 223 

Association Laboratory worl^ed in cooperation with the Institute of 
Industrial Research in Washington. Important work was also accom- 
plished in cooperation with the United States Bureau of Standards. 

Further progress was recorded in the matter of standard cost account- 
ing, which had come to be regarded as of great importance. 

More favorable insurance rates on concrete buildings were obtained. 

Accident prevention work in member plants by the Association was 
also first attempted in 1911. 

Distribution of Association literature was largely increased and work 
was begun on the preparation of a book covering reinforced concrete 
factories and warehouses. The stock of photographs and slides was 
enlarged and a set of slides presented to each of the agricultural colleges 
in the country. Preparation of data calculated to assist the United States 
Department of Agriculture was continued. Through the distribution of 
printed matter, inquiries coming to the Association had increased to such an 
extent as to require a bureau to give them prompt and complete attention. 

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers established a Cement 
Section, which resulted in close contact between the Association and that 
organization. 

Through investigation of all complaints concerning the behavior of 
concrete under various conditions, the Association found that many of 
the complaints were without good ground, and proper educational work 
was done in this field. 

That the efforts of the Association to increase the use of cement were 
effective, was shown by comparing growth in the use of cement with the 
situation in other industries, where the demand for materials had fallen 
off. This was attributed entirely to the increased use of cement for small 
or individual undertakings, as contrasted with large engineering projects. 
To supplement this work, the Association undertook the preparation of 
bulletins on ornamental and decorative concrete, drain tile and sewer pipe, 
bridges and culverts, small farm buildings, grain elevators, houses, cot- 
tages and bungalows. Special attention was given to concrete road con- 
struction. 

The annual election resulted in the following: 

Edward M. Hagar, President 
W. S. Mallory, Vice President 
John B. Lober, Treasurer 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

Edward M. Hagar W. H. Harding John R. Morron 

A. H. Craney, Jr. Robert W. Lesley S. B. Newberry 

Bethune Duffield John B. Lober Whitney Newton 

T. H. Dumary W. S. Mallory G. E. Nicholson 

Robert W. Kelley Conrad Miller C. H. Zehnder 



224 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

The minutes of the Spring meeting of the Association, which was 
held in Chicago in May, 1912, consisted of 126 printed pages. There was 
also issued a pamphlet of 45 pages, containing papers and addresses 
presented before the Association. These publications serve as an index 
of the organization's progress and growth. 

Cost accounting and accident prevention work continued to occupy 
increasing attention on the part of the membership. An extended report 
of the work conducted by the Institute of Industrial Research was filed. 
This included data concerning the behavior of cement and concrete under 
stated conditions. The effect upon concrete of oils, various industrial 
solutions, and materials used in manufacture and the industrial arts, had 
been the subject of experiment, showing that concrete was suited to 
many industrial purposes to which previous conclusions, based largely 
upon assumption, had debarred its use. The United States Bureau of 
Standards inaugurated important experiments, among them tests of rein- 
forced concrete beams and slabs. 

Various engineering and technical organizations, the United States 
Government, and the Association grew nearer to accord as regards speci- 
fications and testing of cement than had been the case previously. 

General publicity work was continued with great success. Many 
lectures were given by members of the Association engineering staff — 
a new feature of educational work. A single bulletin prepared from data 
supplied by the Association was issued by the United States Department 
of Agriculture and reached a distribution of nearly half a million copies. A 
corresponding number of bulletins on concrete in the country was dis- 
tributed b}^ various Association members. As the result of distribution 
of the booklet covering reinforced concrete factories and warehouses, one 
member of the Association reported that at least five important buildings 
in his city had been built of concrete solely because the owners had seen 
this book. 

Interest in concrete roads continued to increase and during the year 
various persons presented important papers on the subject before the 
Association. One of these was by Logan Waller Page, of the United States 
Bureau of Public Roads. 

In another respect the year was remarkable. It marked the tenth 
anniversary of the founding of the Association. During the decade, 
production of portland cement had increased from some 17,000,000 bar- 
rels to more than 80,000,000 barrels, an increase of 365 per cent. Tlie 
Associatiofi began with twenty members and at its annual meeting in 
1912 had sixty-five. 

The Committee on Concrete and Reinforced Concrete presented in 
final form its report summarizing important achievements, which repre- 
sented a great deal of concentrated effort and hard work. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 225 

The annual election resulted as follows : 
John B. Lober, President 
Robert S. Sinclair, Vice President 
W. H. Harding, Treasurer 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

A. H. Craney, Jr. Robert W. Kelley John A. Miller 

T. H. Dumary Robert W. Lesley J. R. Morron 

Edward M. Hagar D. McCool L. T. Sunderland 

Richard Hardy W. S. Mallory Frank E. Tyler 

Presidency of John B. Lober 
1913-1915 

At a number of meetings prior to 1913, it was not uncommon for the 
President and Executive Committee and many members to draw par- 
ticular attention to the rapid strides which the Association was making 
in its work, and from perusing the history of the Association thus far 
the reader will have recognized in it a record of true progress in every 
sense of the word. It was during President Lober's second incumbencj^ 
that a stride more rapid than any previously recorded was made. The 
Executive Committee's report at the Annual Meeting in 1913 concisely 
summed up the year's work in the statement that never before had the 
Association been on such a firm basis, nor had any previous twelve months 
witnessed such rapid growth. Research work had progressed, the results 
achieved by the Publicity Committee in dissemination of literature and 
other educational information were marvelous, concrete roads had become 
a matter of absorbing interest and pointed to a promising expansion of 
the market for cement. 

The staff of the paid Secretary had been increased from time to time 
and at the close of 1913 included an Assistant Secretary and several en- 
gineers, the latter designated as fieldmen. The principal work of the 
field staff was concrete road promotion. It was estimated that, due to 
their efforts, use of cement had been increased by approximately 4,000,000 
barrels in 1913, with prospects that the following year would witness 
twice that increase. 

Farm uses of concrete and concrete roads were the major subjects 
before the Association. Without obligation, the Association placed the 
services of its engineering staff at the disposal of any concern or individual 
requiring assistance in the solution of construction problems involving 
concrete. On many occasions contractors reported the saving of time and 
money as the result of the advisory service thus afforded. The demand 
for technical information, as well as practical and economical means of 
using concrete, increased rapidly. 



226 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

In 1913, Robert W. Leslej^, whose last official work as a member of 
the Association had been completed with the presentation of the Committee 
report on Uniform Cost Sheets, tendered his resignation. 

In accepting this resignation, President Lober said: 

The Chairman of this Committee, Robert W. Lesley, has retired after his many years 
of active interest in the cement business, and in so retiring, has resigned as a member 
of our Executive Committee. The work Mr. Lesley has accomplished for the industry 
is so well known to you all that it seems hardly necessary to call attention to it. He was 
largely instrumental in forming this Association, and was its first President. And as the 
years passed, and the Association increased the importance of its work, he was chosen 
as Chairman of its most important committees. He believed in the Association, in its 
usefulness to the industry, and was ever ready to give freely his time and best efforts to 
its work. He foresaw the important part this Association was to play in the development 
of our industry, and during its darkest, most discouraging times, encouraged our efforts 
by words and deeds. We are glad to know that he proposes to continue his active interest 
in the work of the Association, and that we shall still have the benefit of his advice and 
assistance. 

Mr. Lesley was made an Honorary Member of the Association, a 
distinction shared later by W. S. Mallory and Norman D. Eraser. 

Among the papers presented to the Association during the year was 
one on the subject of concrete roads by Charles J. Bennett, State Highway 
Commissioner of Connecticut. Mr. Bennett subsequently was respon- 
sible for building an extended system of concrete highways through that 
state. 

The following were elected at the annual meeting: 

John B. Lober, President 

Robert S. Sinclair, Vice President 

Charles F. Conn, Treasurer 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

A. H. Craney, Jr. Richard Hardy John R. Morron 

T. H. Dumary Robert W. Kelley L. T. Sunderland 

A. F. Gerstell W. S. Mallory F. E. Tyler 

Edward M. Hagar D. McCool E. M. Young 

W. H. Harding John A. Miller 

At the close of 1914, the Association had a membership of 70 com- 
panies. It had also become firmly entrenched in the position of being 
regarded by technical organizations as an authority on cement and its 
uses. 

The educational publicity work recorded further advance. Some 260 
farm joui;^ls, representing more than 6,000,000 circulation, were using 
regular stories on the farm uses of concrete, text and illustrations for 
which were furnished by the Association's Publicity Bureau. 

Free inspection service to highway departments and road contractors 
was enlarged. In an eight-months jx'riod the Association field engineers 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 227 

had given inspection to 550 miles of concrete roads built during that 
period, involving the use of nearly 2,000,000 barrels of cement. 

It was in 1914 that the Association adopted as a slogan "Concrete for 
Permanence." 

The annual election resulted in the following: 

John B. Lober, President 
Robert S. Sinclair, Vice President 
Charles F. Conn, Treasurer 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

John R. Morron D. McCool A. H. Craney, Jr. 

E. M. Young Edward M. Hagar L. T. Sunderland 
G. S. Brown R. H. Hughes F. R. Bissel 

W. S. Mallory Robert W. Kelley F. P. Jones 

F. W. Kelley Richard Hardy 

No year in the history of the Association left a more impressive record 
than 1915. This j^ear also marked the conclusion of President Lober's 
second long term of service as leader. To President Lober more than to 
anyone interested in Association affairs, was the industry many times 
indebted for the steadfastness of purpose displayed in pointing to this 
group of manufacturers the way to greater things. 

In 1915 the Association had a membership of 79 companies, the 
maximum enrollment up to that time. The dues amounted to $210,000. 
In the Association membership was represented 95 per cent of the port- 
land cement producing capacity of the country. 

As those most actively concerned in the extension work of the Asso- 
ciation gave stud}' to the possibilities of expanding the markets for cement, 
it was evident everywhere that not even the surface of possibilities had 
been scratched. The increasing use of cement in the form of concrete 
roads made other heretofore neglected fields, such as the field of fire-safe 
construction, farm uses, and others, stand out the more conspicuously^ 
through the neglect these opportunities of expansion had suffered. 

At the September meeting of the Association of this year, the Ex- 
ecutive Committee adopted the resolution authorizing a general study of 
conditions in the cement industry and calling for a plan to enlarge the 
general educational work of the Association. A special Committee on 
Increased Activities was appointed and the preparation of the plan in 
question delegated to J. P. Beck. 

During 1915, territory covered by the members of the Association 
was divided into so-called engineering districts, each in charge of a 
member of the field staff to facilitate promotional work. An office of the 
Association was also opened in San Francisco. 

Starting with contributions in the form of educational stories to 
various classes of publications, followed b}^ the development of lectures. 



228 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

the educational work of the Association was supplemented by motion 
pictures. A scenario emphasizing the economy of concrete was presented 
in the form of a motion picture film under the title "The Stone of Baalbec." 
This film was shown in all important cities and the larger towns of the 
United States and proved immensely profitable from an entertainment 
as well as an educational viewpoint, so much so that it was subsequently 
followed by other films. 

The administrative affairs of the Association had assumed such 
magnitude that the Executive Committee found it necessary to appoint 
an advisory committee in order that monthly meetings of this committee 
would enable the Executive Committee to keep in closer touch with the 
administrative needs of the organization. 

A large amount of experimental work was being carried on under the 
direction of the Committee on Association Laboratory and Technical 
Research to determine facts on certain points raised by the Committee 
of the American Society for Testing Materials. 

In 1915, the Association became a member of the Chamber of Com- 
merce of the United States. 

At the second day's session of the Annual meeting, Wednesday, 
December 16, G. S. Brown, Chairman of the special Committee on In- 
creasing Activities of the Association, presented the Committee's report. 

This was based on a plan that had been prepared by J. P. Beck 
and which had been submitted to all members previous to the Annual 
Meeting in the form of a printed book of 198 pages. 

The report was adopted and in that action there was signalized a new 
era of Association expansion. 

The annual election resulted as follows: 

B. F. Affleck, President 

F. W. Kelley, First Vice President 
Richard Hardj', Second Vice President 

G. S. Brown, Treasurer 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

F. R. Bissell F. P. Jones Fred L. Muhs 

H. L. Block John B. Lobcr Clark M. Moore 

T. G. Dickinson D. McCool S. B. Newberry 

John C. Eden John A. Miller L. T. Sunderland 

R. L. Hughes John R. Morron E. M. Young 

In assuming the Chair, President Affleck made the following remarks: 
I certainly appreciate deeply the kind words which the retiring President has 
spoken, and in listening to him I am imjjressed more even than I was before with my 
unworthiness to succeed him, or to follow, rather, in his footsteps. I wish I could feel 
that there was some chance some time of my filling in the hearts of this Association the 
place which Mr. Lober fills. I realize, however, that that cannot, in the very nature of 
things, be possible. It will be my aim, however, to do the very best I can to merit the 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 229 

complete confidence and loyal support of every man in the cement business. I realize 
that this position is one of great honor, and while I appreciate the honor to the fullest 
possible degree, I realize that the position is one calling for a good deal of hard work, 
and a good deal of personal sacrifice. We all know that Mr. Lober has done the work 
and made the sacrifice. I will do the same to the extent of my ability. 

Presidency of B. F. Affleck 
1916-1920 

B. F. Affleck was born at Belleville, Illinois, in 1869. His early educa- 
tion was in the Belleville Grammar School. 

After four years in the employ of the Harrison Machine Works, 
Belleville, Illinois, Mr. Affleck entered the employ of the American Express 
Company at St. Louis as stenographer, and later went with the St. Louis, 
Alton & Terre Haute Railroad, now the Illinois Central, where he re- 
mained for six years. 

In 1896, he was Chief Clerk, Illinois Steel Company, St. Louis, then 
a salesman and later (in 1903) Sales Manager, Cement Department, 
Illinois Steel Company. 

In 1906, the Cement Department of the Ilhnois Steel Company was 
incorporated as the Universal Portland Cement Company. Mr. Affleck 
was Sales Manager of this company until he became its President in 1915, 
which office he still holds. 

The Spring Meeting of the Association in 1916, which was held in 
Chica*go, May 8, 9 and 10, was the first gathering of the membership 
since it adopted the plan of increased activities. As will be noted from 
the dates just given, three days instead of two were aUotted to the sessions. 

In his opening address. President Affleck said : 

In glancing through the minutes of previous meetings, I have frequently found 
reference to a particular meeting as "the most important one in the history of the 
Association," and as I read the records of the business transacted at these gatherings, I 
have felt that in no case could the speaker be accused of exaggeration. It has been an 
unusual feature of the Association that each meeting should exceed in interest and 
importance, every preceding one, and this fact indicates that nearly every one of our 
meetings is so far reaching in its results that none can be classed as the most important. 
The fact is that every meeting we have held since the Association was formed, nearlj- 
fourteen years ago, has been of the utmost importance in the development of the organ- 
ization. Each has presented new problems and in every case the discussion of these 
problems has added a noteworthy page to our history. 

Mr. Affleck further called attention to the fact that since the Annual 
Meeting in December, the membership had had opportunity to see the 
beginnings of the working out of the plan for enlarged activities then 
adopted. 

During 1916, so called district activities of the Association were 
definitely marked by the opening of offices in Atlanta, Chicago, Dallas, 
Indianapolis, Kansas City, New York, Parkersburg and Pittsburgh. 



230 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

The Association headquarters were transferred from Philadelphia to 
Chicago and J. P. Beck assumed the position of General Manager, which 
had been created under the extension of activities plan adopted at the 
preceding Annual Meeting. 

An amended Constitution and By-laws became effective in 1916, 
recording a change in the name of the Association to Portland Cement 
Association. Under this new Constitution, the former Executive Com- 
mittee became the Board of Directors and was empowered to appoint 
an Executive Committee of not more than five to manage affairs of 
the Association between meetings of the Board. 

Another important step in 1916 was the making of a contract with 
the Lewis Institute, Chicago, whereby the Association at last realized a 
hope entertained for many years, namely, the establishment of an Asso- 
ciation laboratory. The Lewis Institute was an endowed Institute of 
learning and the terms of the contract concerned the operation of the 
Structural Materials Research Laboratory of the Institute. Research 
pertaining to cement and concrete was to be conducted under an advisory 
committee upon which the Portland Cement Association had representa- 
tion, the Association to make yearly appropriations for the operation of 
the laboratory. Even before entering into this arrangement with the 
Institute, the Association had for about a year contributed at the rate of 
$8,000 per annum toward the Institute laboratory work. 

In making operative the enlarged activities, the general office was 
more definitely departmentized than previously. 

The following bureaus, departments or divisions represented the 
headquarters organization : 

Advertising Bureau 

Auditing Department 

Bureau of Accident Prevention and Insurance 

Cement Products Bureau 

Editorial Bureau 

Extension Division 

Educational Bureau 

Farm Bureau 

Lecture Bureau 

Library Bureau 

Trade Cooperation Bureau 

Fireproof Construction Bureau 

Road Bureau 

Statistical Bureau 

Structural Materials Research Laboratory 

Technical Division 

Uniform Cost Accounting. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 231 

The progress of Association work during 1916 was outlined in a pub- 
lished "Report of the President" to the membership— a printed volume of 
some 90 pages. In the ten months' period, January 1 to October 30, 1916, 
it was recorded that over 22,000,000 square yards of concrete highway 
pavement — roads, streets, and alley's — were placed under contract. 

While not an official part of the Association's histor}', nevertheless 
the Association was in a large measure responsible for two important 
meetings held in Chicago, each of these being designated as a National 
Conference on Concrete Road Building. These conferences exerted a 
wider influence and interest on the part of a great number of highway 
engineers in the use of concrete as a highway paving material than any 
other one organization or agency assembled prior to this time. 

In 1916, the membership established the precedent of assessing 
themselves Special dues in order to provide additional funds for more 
intensive promotion in various districts where the regular quota of General 
Dues would not permit taking full advantage of opportunities. 

In December, 1915, the first paid advertising of the Association in 
the form of a comprehensive national schedule appeared in leading weekly 
and monthly magazines, farm periodicals, and the technical press. This 
was a part of the 1916 advertising which had been planned in connection 
with the increased activities of the Association. It was continued through- 
out 1916 and attracted marked attention toward the Association's work. 

The annual election in 1916 resulted as follows: 
B. F. Affleck, President 

F. W. Kelley, First Vice President 
Richard Hard^', Second Vice President 

G. S. Brown, Treasurer 

BOARD OF DIRECTORS • 

B. F. Affleck, Chairman C. A. Irvin John R. Morron 

Adam L. Beck F. P. Jones Fred R. Muhs 

H. L. Block F. W. Kelley S. B. Newberry 

G. S. Brown J. W. Kittrell N. S. Potter, Jr. 

T. G. Dickinson John A. Miller H. Struckmann 

Richard Hardy Clark M. Moore E. M. Young 
R. H. Hughes 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

B. F. Affleck, Chairman John R. Morron 

H. L. Block E. M. Young 

G. S. Brown . 

Because of the European war and the fact that this country became 
involved in that struggle during 1917, the Association did not hold its 
usual Spring Meeting. 



232 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

In his opening address at the September meeting, President Affieck 
referred to the disturbed conditions general throughout the construction 
industry as follows: 

The Railroad War Board at Washington has made a positive and emphatic request 
of all railroads to do no work which does not directly and immediately increase their 
capacity for moving freight. From many directions and through many mediums comes 
advice to economize and to refrain from unnecessary building and in some cases to 
refrain from all building. There has been since the middle of May, generally sj)eaking, 
in most of the states throughout the country a steady and rapid falling off in demand for 
our product. 

And on the other hand, the high and almost prohibitive cost of certain forms of 
steel has opened many new fields for the use of cement. Among these are ships and 
barges, tanks, pipe, and various other forms of construction for which plate steel has 
heretofore been generally used, plate steel being relatively much scarcer, more difficult 
to obtain, and higher in price than the forms of steel used for concrete reinforcement. 

In certain sections of the country building is, and it would seem may be expected 
to continue, active where buildings are directly related to the manufacture or handling 
of various Government supplies. 

The Association through various means has been very active and has accomplished 
results in the direction of neutralizing to a considerable extent the influences which are 
operating to restrict building. It has been instrumental in obtaining publication of a 
great many articles and editorials in technical and other magazines and papers pointing 
out the desirability of continuing building. It has sought in every possible way to 
impress upon public authorities and the public in general that, the fact that money paid 
for building is not spent but invested, and that road building particularly, represents 
no consumption of either labor or materials, but rather a conversion of the labor and 
materials into a form in which thej^ are put to work serving a useful purpose for an 
indefinite period of time. 

At this period the Government was inquiring into the cost of manu- 
facture and selling price of cement, thus presaging control of prices. 
There was a feeling of pessimism tending to supplant the optimism of 
the previous year and there was no doubt but that cement manufac- 
turers were confronted with many difficult problems It became appar- 
ent that the Government would so control matters that cross-hauling of 
cement would be eliminated, with necessary supplies obtained by the 
consumer from the nearest available source, and many companies had 
received notice that their coal supply was likely to be cut off. 

Nevertheless, the activities of the Association had increased tre- 
mendously. It was working in new fields and its several departments 
designed to promote the use of cement had been increased in number and 
enlarged as to working resources. 

In 1917, additional offices of the Association were opened in Denver, 
Milwaukee,-Minneapolis, Salt Lake City, Seattle and Washington, D. C. 

The work on technical problems had advanced far beyond its pre- 
vious status because of the gratifying results that had followed the co- 
operative arrangement with the Lewis Institute in connection with its 
Structui'al Materials Research Laboratory, 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 233 

This is a proper place to record the untiring and ceaseless work of 
F. W. Kelley, Chairman of the Association's Committee on Technical 
Problems. Mr. Kelley had long centered his most active interest on the 
technical phases of the industry and labored for years to advance its 
technical side. 

While actual plans were being completed for the first session of the 
Fall Meeting in September, J. P. Beck, the General Manager, died sud- 
denly. H. E. Hilts, who had been long in Association employ, and who 
at the time was District Engineer in charge of the San Francisco Office 
of the Association, was appointed by the Board of Directors to succeed 
Mr. Beck as General Manager. 

The annual election resulted as follows : 

B. F. Affleck, President 

F. W. Kelley, First Vice President 
Richard Hardy, Second ^'ice President 

G. S. Brown, Treasurer 

BOARD OF DIRECTORS 

B. F. Affleck, Chairman R. B. Henderson John A. Miller 

H. L. Block R. H. Hughes John R. Morron 

J. W. Boardman, Jr. C. A. Irvin S. B. Newberry 

Charles Boettcher F. P. Jones A. W. Shulthis 

G. S. Brown F. W. Kelley C. E. Ulrickson 

T. G. Dickinson C. H. McNider E. M. Young 



Richard Hardy 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 



B. F. Affleck, Chairman John R. Morron 

G. S. Brown E. M. Young 

T. G. Dickinson 

In 1918, the Association found itself confronted with a varietj- of 
complications that had threatened it the year before. But, as President 
Affleck remarked in his address at the May Meeting, the Association 
had continued its forward stride in spite of disadvantages and was never 
better united nor so strong financially. 

Major activities had been directed toward war-winning lines, for 
transportation, production, conservation and economy all pointed to 
the use of concrete in some form. 

Both the General Office staff and field organization were handi- 
capped to a certain extent by enlistment of many staff members in various 
branches of the Government's military organization. The greater num- 
ber of these obtained commissions, quite a number reaching the rank of 
Captain and several that of Major. The Government made numerous 
requests of the Association for engineers and inspectors to engage in 
various work associated with war preparation and prosecution. Some 



234 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

of these employes were requisitioned to responsible executive positions 
in forwarding the Government's concrete ship building plans. 

Shortly before the Annual Meeting in December, the Armistice was 
declared. This brought the Association face to face rather suddenly with 
the problems of peace. The industry had suffered appreciable curtail- 
ment of business, both in volume and profit, due to necessary restrictions 
imposed by the Government, but the industr}- gladly made its contribu- 
tion to the end sought. 

Two additional District Offices were established in 1918, one at 
Detroit, and the other at Helena. 

The annual report of the General Manager showed that the member- 
ship of the Association consisted of 81 companies. 

Association advertising had grown considerably in a two-year period. 
During 1918, cop}^ appeared in 10 leading national weeklies and monthlies, 
23 trade and professional papers and 59 farm journals. This schedule 
involved an expenditure of $119,059.70. 

Circulation of Association literature — booklets and pamphlets pro- 
moting various uses of concrete — attained a high water mark during the 
year, total distribution being 2,432,520 copies. At this time the Asso- 
ciation was publishing three regular periodicals — Concrete Highway 
Magazine, a monthly; Concrete Builder, and Concrete in Architecture 
and Engineering, both bi-monthlies. These, with fifty or more booklets, 
constituted the Association's stock of standard promotion literature. 

Even though in the midst of war, records of the various headquarters 
departments, as well as District Office field organizations show that con- 
sistent planning was under way throughout the year in anticipation of 
the war's end. 

At the Annual Meeting of the Association, W. M. Kinney was clectetl 
by the Board of Directors to succeed H. E. Hilts as General Manager. 

Considerable increase in highway activities marked 1918, several 
states voting large appropriations or bond issues forextensive road programs. 

The annual election resulted as follows : 

B. r. Affleck, President 

F. W. Kelley, P^irst Vice President 
Richard Hardy, Second Vice President 

G. S. Brown, Treasurer 

BOARD OF DIRECTORS 

B. F. Affleck, Chairman R. B. Henderson John A. Miller 

H. L. Bleck R. H. Hughes John R. Morron 

J. W. Boardman, Jr. C. A. Irvin S. B. Newberry 

Charles Boettcher F. P. Jones F. E. Tyler 

G. S. Brown F. W. Kelley C. E. Ulrickson 

T. G. Dickinson C. H. McNider E. M. Young 
Richard Hardv 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 235 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

B. F. Affleck, Chairman 

G. S. Brown John R. Morron 

T. G. Dickinson E. M. Young 

The work of 1919 proved that retiii-ning to peace had difficulties as 
great as those which required adjustment for war. Stagnation in general 
prevailed throughout the building industry. The labor situation was bad, 
particularly so far as the cement industry was concerned, but in other 
fields also because of the wage levels that had been disturbed by war 
conditions. 

The promotion of concrete roads by the Association had surpassed 
the work of previous years, contracts running over 50,000,000 square 
yards. But labor and contracting organizations were scarce and this 
condition acted as a great handicap in actual road construction. 

In 1919, Association offices were opened in Des Moines, Los Angeles 
and St. Louis. The membership of the Association had increased to 
83 companies. 

During 1918, the personnel of the Association staff had been reduced 
to 201. With the return of many former Association employes from 
military and naval service and the necessity for more intensive promo- 
tional work, the staff had been increased by October 31 to 307. 

At the annual meeting, the Board of Directors announced having 
appropriated $10,000 to defray the expense of a National Conference on 
Concrete House Construction, to be held in February, 1920. 

Literature distribution in 1919 totalled 2,584,104 pieces. In adver- 
tising, the Association expended $122,101.53. This involved a schedule 
similar to that of the preceding year, employing 17 national weeklies 
and monthlies, 19 trade and professional journals, and 64 farm periodicals. 

Twenty-one new publications were added to the standard stock of 
Association promotional literature. 

The annual election resulted as follows: 

B. F. Affleck, President 
Richard Hardy, First Vice President 
S. B. Newberry, Second Vice President 
F. W. Kelley, Treasurer 

BOARD OF DIRECTORS 

B. F. Affleck, Chairman R. B. Henderson John R. Morron 

George F. Bayle F. W. Kelley S. B. Newberry 

J. W. Boardman, Jr. Morris Kind B. T. Scott 

Charles Boettcher D. M. Kirk F. E. Tyler 

R. B. Dickinson C. H. McNider C. E. Ulrickson 

W. E. Erdell D. A. Marks E. M. Young 
Richard Hardv 



236 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

B. F. Affleck, Chairman 

Richard Hardy John R. Morron 

F. W. Kelley E. M. Young 

Many of the difficulties which had prevailed the preceding year 
remained in 1920. This made it difficult to shape the work of the Asso- 
ciation very far in advance. Promotion plans had to be modified fre- 
quently in order that endeavors might be directed toward fields where 
prospective business could more easily be made a realit}'. 

Because of continued disturbed labor conditions, the reduced pur- 
chasing power of the dollar and the unfavorable condition of foreign 
exchange, the financing of many projects became difficult. There was a 
notable cessation of awards for highway work in many states, occasioned 
in a large measure by the inability of cement companies and other material- 
producing concerns to guarantee shipments required to execute contracts. 
This situation was primarily due to car shortage, the high price of coal 
and the general unrest of labor. 

The National Conference on Concrete House Construction was held 
in Chicago, February 17 to 19, inclusive. Registration showed that over 
600 individuals attended from 36 states and Canada, as well as representa- 
tives from four European countries. The attendance included architects, 
builders, building commissioners, representatives of housing projects 
and real estate operators, in addition to those directly connected with 
the manufacture and distribution of cement and concrete products. 
All of the leading manufacturers of various concrete products were present 
and took active part in the deliberations of the meeting. These items in 
connection with the attendance are mentioned because of the very acute 
housing shortage which prevailed throughout the country. Primarily, 
the National Conference on Concrete House Construction was held 
because conditions seemed to make this time the most opportune that 
had ever occurred to attract worth-while attention and interest to the 
concrete house. 

Before the Fall Meeting of the Association had taken place, conditions 
throughout the country had undergone further changes, making the 
usual work of the Association still more difficult. Nevertheless, the 
demand for cement continued beyond all precedent. 

During 1920 new District Offices of the Association were opened in 
Portland, Oregon, and Vancouver, British Columbia. 

EffectivT3 June, all Association national advertising was terminated 
because it seemed unlikely in view of prevailing conditions that the in- 
tended expenditure could be profitably consummated. A number of 
new booklets were prepared during the year. Among these was the pro- 
ceedings of the National Conference on Concrete House Construction, 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 237 

which was probably the most comprehensive collection of data on the 
application of concrete to houses that had ever been issued. 

An Association committee was appointed, with Robert W. Lesley as 
Chairman, to consider the preparation of a "History of the Cement In- 
dustry." This Committee reported both at the September and December 
Meetings with outlines for the work, which were tentatively approved. 
The present volume is largely the result of that Committee's work. 

In the report of the Board of Directors presented at the Annual 
Meeting, there was a tone quite the reverse of that prevailing in the year's 
two preceding reports of the Board. Conditions had so changed due to 
rapidly increasing demand and consequent growing shipments of cement 
that the outlook for the following year had become very encouraging. 
At this time more than $1,000,000,000 had been voted by various state, 
county and govf>rnmf^ntal bodies, and was awaiting expenditure for 
various classes of highway construction — roads, streets, and alleys. 
Special effort on the part of the Association staff was directed toward 
promoting the early award of contracts for the coming year. 

The annual election resulted as follows: 

L. T. Sunderland, President 

Richard Hardy, First Vice President 

S, B. Newberry, Second Vice President 

F. W. Kelley, Treasurer 

BOARD OF DIRECTORS 

L. T. Sunderland, Chairman R. B. Henderson E. M. Young 

Richard Hardy John R. Morron B. F. Affleck 

F. W. Kelley Charles Boettcher C. Baumberger 

S. B. Newberry Morris Kind Wm. N. Beach 

George F. Bayle C. H. McNider W. H. Harrison 

J. W. Boardman, Jr. B. T. Scott C. A. Irvin 

R. B. Dickinson 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

L. T. Sunderland, Chairman Richard Hardy E. M. Young 

B. F. Affleck John R. Morron 

Presidency of L. T. Sunderland 
1921, 1922 

L. T. Sunderland was born in 1867. He left public school at the age 
of fourteen to take a clerkship in a retail coal office at Ottumwa, Iowa. 
A year later he became manager of this concern. At sixteen he became 
Assistant to the Secretary and Treasurer of the Whitebreast Coal & 
Mining Company, Chicago. 

Two years later he resigned to enter an academy at Owatonna, 
Minnesota. Following this, he entered the employ of the Omaha Coal, 



238 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

Coke & Lime Company, which organized a branch known as L. T. Sunder- 
land & Company in South Omaha. In 1896 this firm was changed to 
Sunderland Brothers Company. 

In January, 1909, Mr. Sunderland accepted the position of Vice 
President and Manager of the Ash Grove Lime & Portland Cement Com- 
pany, of which organization he was later elected President and in which 
position he still continues. 

For many years prior to his election as President of the Association, 
Mr. Sunderland had been most active in furthering the Association's 
welfare. He was a regular attendant at meetings and always took an 
active part in discussions and other deliberations, in addition to serving 
on the Board of Directors 

In accepting office, Mr. Sunderland said: 

I believe the Portland Cement Association stands foremost in scope, activity and 
influence, and I am very proud of this unexpected honor, which has come to me wholly 
unsought and without my having been consulted.*** 

To my mind, no investment within the industry ever paid such large dividends as 
the money invested by members in this Association. Indeed^ it is difficult to conceive 
how any manufacturer can withhold his support, and none will do so if he takes the 
trouble to inform himself as to the standing and effectiveness of this major activity.*** 

Nor can we who are within the membership afford to abate our interest, slacken 
our efforts, or diminish our contributions to the work, for by so doing we would inevitably 
nullify in a measure the cumulative effect of educational work already done and thus 
deprive ourselves of a part of the benefits for which we have already paid. Besides, we 
would thereby endanger to a degree the effectiveness of our future activities. 

At the December Meeting, which marked the election of President 
Sunderland, consideration was given to the advisability of modifying the 
Association advertising schedule to the extent of giving preference to 
newspapers. This idea received approval of the Board of Directors and 
a schedule planned, involving the use of 172 leading newspapers, 41 farm 
papers, 53 trade and professional papers, and 4 general magazines. News- 
papers had been under consideration in connection with the 1920 adver- 
tising schedule, but because of the uncertain conditions prevailing in 
the construction industry, the use of such mediums was deferred until 
1921. This departure in the use of newspapers was quite unusual for an 
organization comparable to the Portland Cement Association. In fact, 
so far as is known, no similar organization had ever before carried on a 
national advertising campaign largely through newspapers. As might be 
expected, therefore, the departure attracted considerable attention and 
resulted in a number of articles being published in leading class periodi- 
cals, calling attention to the campaign and outlining at the same time the 
purposes and general work of the Association. These articles, of course, 
amplified the direct effect of the advertising campaign. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 239 

All records of attendance at Association meetings were broken by 
the registration at the May Meeting in 1921, held in Chicago, when 58 
companies were represented by 171 individuals. 

Probably because of the rapidly growing demand for concrete high- 
ways and the importance of cement in relation to such programs, the 
cement industry was kept more prominently in the public view than had 
previously been the case, and as mentioned by President Sunderland in 
his address at the May Meeting, the "industry was made the object of 
persistent and often vicious attacks, the charges generally resting on the 
assumption and allegation that cement cost little but sold for much." 
Consequently, it was becoming common for those identified with the 
cement industry to be included among those classed then as ''profiteers." 

Because of this trend, the Association undertook to educate the public 
through a series of advertisements prepared especially to set forth facts 
that would acquaint them with some of the problems of cement manu- 
facture, believing that through familiarity with such problems, the public 
would realize that cement manufacture was a complicated and costly 
process involving more than grinding rock to a powder. 

Notwithstanding the varied attempts to divert and undermine favor- 
able public opinion toward the industry, the Board of Directors in its 
report at the September Meeting called particular attention to the con- 
tinued success of Association endeavors. The times were generally 
marked by industrial stagnation. Nevertheless, the largest month's 
shipment in the history of the industry and the largest total shipments for 
an eight-months' period, excepting 1920, were recorded in the first eight 
months of 1921. 

In order better to organize the general advertising and publicity 
work of the Association, a standing committee was appointed to supple- 
ment the talent of the Association staff with the best experience within 
the industry on this phase of Association activity. 

A plan was approved to establish a Railway Bureau, thus relieving 
the Structural Bureau from promotion in that specialized field and pro- 
viding for more intensive and effective cultivation of the uses of concrete 
by rail transportation lines. 

To avoid tiresome repetition, the growth of work in several General 
Office or headquarters departments or bureaus has not been mentioned 
each year. The work of the Structural Materials Research Laboratory 
for a number of years had been growing apace and daily acquiring greater 
importance. In the matter of tests on cement, aggregate and concrete 
and mortar over a four-year period, the following table will give a fair 
idea of the large amount of work done along this line alone. This is 
entirely exclusive of many specialized studies, some of which require 
several years for conclusion. 



240 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

TABLE I 



KIND OF TESTS 



Cement — 

Fineness 

Fineness, Air Analyzer 

Soundness 

Normal Consistency 

Time of Set ' 

Temperature Gradient 

Unit Weight 

Specific Gravity 

Miscellaneous 

Aggregate- 
Sieve Analysis 

Unit Weight 

Specific Gravity 

Absorption 

Abrasion (Deval) 

Crushing 

Colorimetric 

Silt 

Concrete and Mortar — 

Briquets 

2 bj' 4-in. cylinders 

3 by 6-in. cylinders 

4 by 8-in. cylinders 

5 by 10-in. cylinders 

6 by 12-in. cylinders . . . 

Wear Blocks 

Indentation 

Cores 

Bond 

Slabs (Transverse) 

Modulus of Elasticity 

Absorption 

Slump and Flow Tests for Con- 
sistency 

Miscellaneous Physical Tests 

Chemical Determinations 



Number of Tests Made 



1918 



277 



198 

309 

149 

1041 



32 

301 
1820 

93 
120 
209 
597 

77 



961 
73S0 
1891 



304 

10345 

1970 



381 

41 

7139 

174 



1477 
1422 



1919 



1025 

320 

1657 

227 

1241 

145 

152 

48 

9 

290 
205 
74 
172 
266 



134 

34 

5677 

9027 

483 

2773 



13767 
740 



15 



12103 
1157 

11596 

59 

1904 



1920 



90 

4 

105 

66 
500 
168 

51 

42 



726 
911 
556 
577 
184 



387 
344 

1342 

3653 

410 

2459 



10253 
4553 



5636 
365 

5498 

50 

2026 



1921 



164 
23 
126 
161 
554 



50 



572 
192 
6 
6 
299 
186 
222 
119 

5196 
10501 



1567 



13057 
1938 



626 
1474 
1291 

11184 



4358 



1922 



208 
4 
156 
147 
339 



123 

78 



366 

270 

13 

25 

100 

44 

242 

367 

3277 

7883 

79 

337 

189 

11114 

24 



40 
335 
608 

4699 
2235 
9469 



1923 



381 

213 
101 
465 



175 
14 



440 

367 

15 

14 

37 

357 
505 

3653 

5694 

279 

1013 

10 

13939 

130 

1857 

224 



1421 
454 
893 

3697 

774 

9602 



TABLE II 



KIND OF TEST PIECES 



Briquets 

Compression Cylinders — 

2 by 4-in 

3 by 6-in. ^- 

4 by 8-in 

6 by 12-in 

10 bv 24-in. (for alkali tests). 
Wear Blocks (8 by 8 by 5 inch) 

Concrete Slabs 

Miscellaneous. . 



Number of Tests Made 



1918 



975 

6797 
2745 



12007 



2450 

66 

108 



1919 



6363 
8640 



2116 
17126 



1760 
101 



1920 



1496 
4735 



4966 
8019 



4122 



1921 



7004 
13618 



1746 

14517 

1550 

1360 

770 



1922 



2845 

6173 

62 

6936 

13716 



422 

128 

1857 



1923 

5194 

7935 

292 

722 

15259 



130 

36 

1583 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 241 

As a natural consequence of tests such as have been hsted in the 
preceding tables, the laboratory has issued a number of bulletins. Such 
bulletins have appeared under the titles in the following list. 

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS OF THE 
STRUCTURAL MATERIALS RESEARCH LABORATORY 

April, 1924 

Bulletin L Design of Concrete Mixtures, by Duff A. Abrams (1918). 

Discusses the effect of quantity of mixing water, and size and grading 
of aggregates on the compressive strength of concrete. Outlines a new 
method of design of concrete mixtures. 
Bulletin 2. Effect of Curing Condition on the Wear and Strength of Concrete, by 
Duff A. Abrams. 

Reprinted from Proc. Am. Railway Eng. Assn., v. 20, 1919. 
Tests show benefit to strength and resistance to wear from keeping con- 
crete moist, as compared with allowing it to dry out prematurely. 
Discusses relation between wear and strength and gives data on 
absorption and unit weight of concrete. Bibliography revised to 1922. 
Bulletin 3. Effect of Vibration, Jigging and Pressure on Fresh Concrete, by Duff A. 
Abrams. 

Reprinted from Proc. Am. Concrete Inst. v. 15, 1919. 
Tests show the effect of vibration, jigging and pressure on the compressive 
strength of concrete cylinders. 
Bulletin 4. Effect of Fineness of Cement, by Duff A. Abrams; Revised, 1922. 
Reprinted from Proc. Am. Soc. Testing Mat., v. 19, Part II, 1919. 
Concrete and mortar tests on 51 samples of cement from 7 different mills, 
ground to finenesses ranging from 2 to 4.3 per cent on the 200-mesh 
sieve. Also gives numerous data on strength of concrete of different 
mixes, consistencies, etc., at ages of 7 days to 1 year. 
Bulletin 5. Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete, by Stanton Walker; Revised, 1923. 
Reprinted from Proc. Am. Soc. Testing Mat., v. 19, Part II, 1919. 
Discussion of stress-deformation measurements on about 4,000 6 by 12-inch 
concrete cylinders and relation between modulus of elasticity and 
strength. Derives constants for concrete of a wide range of mixtures, 
consistencies, and ages up to 5 years. Numerous general data on the 
strength of concrete are given. Appendices on flexure of reinforced con- 
crete beams and bibliography. 
Bulletin 6. Effect of Storage of Cement, by Duff A. Abrams; Revised, 1924. 
Cement in cloth sacks stored in shed in yard and in laboratory for periods 
up to about 5 years; parallel tests made using paper sacks for certain 
conditions. Mortar and concrete tests made at ages of 7 days to 2 years 
after each storage period. 

Bulletin 7. Effect of Tannic Acid on the Strength of Concrete, by Duff A. Abrams. 

Reprinted from Proc. Am. Soc. Testing Mat., v. 20, Part II, 1920. 

Tannic acid in different proportions used as typical of organic impurities 
encountered in natural sands. Compression tests of 3 by 6-inch concrete 
cylinders of different mixtures, consistencies, and grading of aggregates 
at ages of 7 days to 2 years. 



242 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

Bulletin 8. Effect of Hydrated Lime and Other Powdered Admixtures in Concrete, 
by Duff A. Abrams. 

Reprinted from Proc. Am. Soc. Testing Mat. v. 20, Part II, 1920. 
An exhaustive study of the effect of hydrated hme and other inert pow- 
dered admixtures in concrete. Wear and strength tests cover a wide 
range of mixes, consistencies, sizes and gradings of aggregates, ages, 
curing conditions, etc. 

Bulletin 9. Quantities of Materials for Concrete, bj^ Duff A. Abrams and Stanton 
Walker (1921). 

A series of tables giving the proi)ortions and quantities of materials re- 
quired to produce concrete having a compressive strength of 1,500, 
2,000, 2,500, 3,000, 3,500 and 4,000 lb. per sq. in., using fine and coarse • 
aggregates of different sizes, and tested in accordance with standard 
methods at age of 28 days. 

Bulletin 10. Wear Test of Concrete, by Duff A. Abrams. 

Reprinted from Proc. Am. Soc. Testing Mat., v. 21, 1921. 

Gives the result of wear and compression tests of concrete made with a 
variety of coarse aggregates. The effect of amount of mixing water and 
cement, curing condition, and grading of aggregate on wear is discussed 
in detail. The intimate relation between wear and strength of concrete 
is pointed out. 

Bulletin 11. Flexural Strength of Plain Concrete, by Duff A. Abrams. 

Reprinted from Proc. Am. Concrete Inst., v. 18, 1922. 

Gives the results of tests showing the effect of quantity of cement, mix- 
ing water, age, curing condition, etc., on flexural strength of concrete. 
Shows the relation of flexural strength to compressive strength. Data 
are also given showing the effect of depth and position of beam and of 
small quantities of reinforcement. 

Circular 1. Colorimetric Test for Organic Impurities in Sands, by Duff A. Abrams 
and Oscar E. Harder (1917). 
Out of print. 

For a more recent discussion of this subject see "Abrams-Harder Field 
Test for Organic Impurities in Sands." Proc. Am. Soc. Testing Mat., 
1919, Part I; also "Tentative Method of Test for Organic Impurities in 
Sands for Concrete," Proc. Am. Soc. Testing Mat., 1921. 

The report of the Committee on Advertising and Publicity, presented 
at the Annual Meeting, recommended a more expanded advertising 
campaign in 1922 than had previously been carried on. It presented a 
plan in which the use of newspapers dominated. The initial experiment 
of newspaper advertising the preceding year had promised such possi- 
bilities from the standpoint of correcting erroneous public opinion con- 
cerning thej.ndustry that it seemed advisable to expand on this effort. 

In summing up the work of the year, the Board of Directors in its 
report said "records of shipments, production, yardage of concrete pave- 
ments awarded and constructed, and even attendance at meetings have 
been broken this year." 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 243 

• The annual election resulted as follows : 

L. T. Sunderland, President 
Richard Hardy, First Vice President 
S. B. Newberry, Second Vice President 
F. W. Kelley, Treasurer 

BOARD OF DIRECTORS 

L. T. Sunderland, Chairman B. T. Scott C. A. Irvin 

Richard Hardy E. M. Young H. L. Block 

F. W. Kelley B. F. Affleck Geo. T. Cameron 

S. B. Newberry C. Baumberger Chas. F. Conn 

Charles Boettcher W. N. Beach Wm. M. Hatch 

Morris Kind David M. Kirk H. Struckmann 
C. H. McNider 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

L. T. Sunderland, Chairman 

B. F. Affleck B. T. Scott 

Richard Hardy E. M. Young 

The initial effort made in 1921 to disseminate facts about the port- 
land cement industry and the relation of the Association to the industry 
promised such desirable results that 1922 saw this campaign enlarged 
upon. A new bureau at the General Office of the Association was organ- 
ized to carry on a work of general education of the public. This bureau 
was later designated as the General Educational Bureau. 

Compilation of facts and figures showing the importance of the in- 
dustry from the standpoint of its interrelation with other industries was 
made by the General Educational Bureau and such data were used as 
the basis of advertising copy, and in a series of bulletins issued under 
the heading "Information about Cement." During the year something 
hke 1,500,000 copies of these bulletins were distributed. 

The advertising schedule of the Association was expanded, perfer- 
ence, as during the year previous, being given to newspapers. Special 
effort was directed toward placing in the hands of publishers of all classes 
of periodicals, facts concerning the industry in order that news and edi- 
torial matter might better reflect an intelhgent understanding of the 
industry when it, or related interests, was under discussion. 

During the year a total of slightly more than 3,000,000 pieces of 
printed matter — promotional booklets and "Information about Cement" 
bulletins — were distributed. 

The banner year in cement shipments proved to be 1922, the total 
being 117,701,216 barrels, which was more than 22,000,000 barrels in 
excess of the best previous year. This unprecedented demand for cement 
might be taken as an indication that people had become tu'ed of the 
unsettled conditions in the Iniilding industry that had prevailed for several 



244 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

years previous and had decided to go ahead, regardless of so-called "con- 
ditions." The results were contributed to in no small measure by the signs 
of recovery from Government control that were being displayed by rail- 
roads in the increasing volume of traffic moved. 

During the year various General Office bureaus and District Offices 
directed greater promotion effort to fields involving the use of concrete 
where the extension of such use had not previously been aggressively 
carried on. Promotion aid in these new fields was given in part by be- 
tween thirty and forty new publications, revision of a number of standard 
ones and a considerable list of reprints from other publications. 

Encouraging advance was recorded in the effort to promote concrete 
for house construction. 

District Offices were established in Boston and Philadelphia. 

The total number of employes in 1921 was 310; in 1922 the total 
was 336. 

While the Association strictly adheres to the policy of having nothing 
to do with the commercial side of the industry, it took an advance step 
in 1922 which immeasurably enhanced its standing and prestige with the 
public. This step constituted an amendment to the By-Laws, providing 
that membership in the Association should be contingent upon members' 
product meeting accepted engineering standards. 

Thus, although the Portland Cement Association could not at any 
time guarantee the product of its members, it could point with pride to 
a group of manufacturers, every one of whom would jealously safeguard 
its membership by producing only a quality product. 

No doubt this amendment to the By-Laws resulted from the fact 
that on March 31, 1922, the various bodies which had been working to 
bring about a standard specification for cement completed their labors 
in seeing the first American standard specification adopted bj' the Ameri- 
can Engineering Standards Committee. The United States Government 
specification had exactly the same requirements, thus resulting in com- 
mon accord on a subject which had long been a confusing and disturbing 
one to manufacturers and users of cement alike. Thus ended a work, 
which, as mentioned in the History of the Portland Cement Industry, had 
its inception in a Committee of the American Society' of Civil Engineers 
in 1884. 

In the fall of 1922, President Sunderland announced he would not be 
a candidate for re-election. In his closing address to the Association 
at the Annu'al Meeting, he urged a continuance of the general educational 
activities as organized under the new department previously mentioned 
and increase of expenditures for the purpose, if necessary, to attain the 
objective, saying: "Our industry's need of correct public interpretation 
has been fully demonstrated. However difficult and costly to manu- 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



245 



facture, unless the public knows the facts, it will assume that cement is 
only pulverized rock; * * * * Unless the pubhc is kept correctly informed, 
the industry will be constantly subject to attack, thereby damaging our 
business and destroying our prestige and influence. ***** There can 
be no doubt, however, that our campaign of education has already turned 
the tide of public interest in our favor for the people are vitally interested 
in the facts concerning the conduct of any industry to which they con- 
tribute, and whose economic importance assumes such vast importance as 
that of this industr3^" 

The annual election resulted in the following: 

F. W. Kelley, President 
Blaine S. Smith, First Vice President 
L. R. Burch, Second Vice President 
E. M. Young, Treasurer 



BOARD OF DIRECTORS 



F. W. Kelley, Chairman 

L. R. Burch 

Blaine S. Smith 

E. M. Young 

B. F. Affleck 

W. N. Beach 

Loring A. Cover 



David M. Kirk 
C. A. Irvin 
H. L. Block 
George T. Cameron 
Chas. F. Conn 
Wm. M. Hatch 



H. Struckmann 
C. B. Condon 
Carl Leonardt 
W. D. Lober 
Frank H. Smith 
L. T. Sunderland 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 



F. W. Kelley, Chairman 
B. F. Affleck 
L. R. Burch 



L. T. Sunderland 
E. M. Young 



Presidency of F. W. Kelley 
1923, 1924 

Frederick W. Kelley was born in Albany, New York, December 15, 
1870. 

His early education was received at the Albany, New York, Academy 
and Toledo, Ohio, public schools. In 1893 he was graduated from Cor- 
nell University with the degree of mechanical engineer. 

From 1893 to 1900 inclusive Mr. Kelley was employed successively 
as experimental engineer, shop manager, general manager and treasurer, 
of the Consolidated Car Heating Company, Albany, New York. 

In 1900, he became Vice President and General Manager of Helder- 
berg Cement Company, Albany, New York, being elected president as 
well as general manager of that company in 1914. 

Few people who have been actively identified with the cement in- 
dustry for the past twenty or more years have taken a more active part 
in advancing the scientific and technical side of the industry than Mr. 
Kelley. 



246 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

Before 1923 had advanced very far, it was recorded that production 
and shipments of portland cement for the first four months of the year 
as reported by the U. S. Geological Survey exceeded those of any similar 
period in the past. When the complete figures for the year had been 
issued by the Government, they showed total shipments of 135,887,000 
barrels. 

For several years the Association had l^een exerting an effort toward 
having highway contracts awarded early, thus paving the way for the 
early placing of orders for cement requirements. This, and continued 
campaigns to encourage all the year building, no doubt resulted in sus- 
taining the demand for cement, as was evidenced by uninterrupted build- 
ing activity in many fields. 

The general educational work was continued. 

The high watermark in expenditure for paid advertising occurred in 
1923, the total being approximately $450,000. In addition to a newspaper 
campaign, advertising appeared in the Saturday Evening Post, the Liter- 
ary Digest, the Quality Group, and a large number of trade and profes- 
sional papers. 

During Better Homes Week, June 4 to 10, there was dedicated and 
opened to public inspection a replica of the John Howard Payne "Home 
Sweet Home" house, built on a plot adjacent to the White House at 
Washington. Ground was broken by Secretary Hoover, April 23, and 
through the efforts of an Association representative, acting as Director of 
Construction, walls, rough floor, and roof were completed one week later. 
The cornerstone was laid by the President of the National Federation of 
Women's Clubs and President Harding officially opened the house June 4. 
This house was built of concrete block with portland cement stucco finish. 
This project, because of the nation-wide interest in home building, received 
a great deal of valuable publicity, was made the subject of a motion pic- 
ture film, and in various other ways was kept continually before the public 
through advertising, etc. Later, the house was moved to a permanent 
site and is now the national headquarters of the Girl Scouts of America. 

Additional District Offices of the Association were opened during 
1923 in Birmingham, Jacksonville, Memphis and New Orleans. The 
total number of emploj^es on the Association payroll at the end of July, 
1923, was 367. 

As the result of intensified concrete house promotion, great strides 
in the use of concrete products for home building were noted, particularly 
in the states covered by the New York and Philadelphia offices of the 
Association. Through Association cooperation and encouragement, 
many new plants were estabhshed for the manufacture of high grade 
concrete structural units and the standards and capacity of established 
plants proportionately increased. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 247 

Everywhere it became evident that concrete was being favored 
more than ever for such large structures as hotels, apartment houses, 
theaters, schools, and similar public or semi-public buildings. This evi- 
denced an increasing familiarity on the part of architects and engineers 
with the peculiar merits and distinctive adaptability of concrete. 

One outstanding feature of all Association field work in 1923 was 
the endeavor to make it a quality year. With the ever-increasing demand 
for cement, it became evident that greater attention should be directed 
toward assisting others to secure the utmost from their investment in 
the material in order that the product through misuse or abuse would not 
discredit itself. A great deal of time was therefore directed toward 
cooperating with officials in inspecting work to make sure of the highest 
standards of construction. 

Educational bulletins setting forth various information and facts 
about cement and the industry were prepared and distributed, the total 
circulation of such literature being in excess of 3,000,000 copies. Among 
other educational aids were exhibits prepared to illustrate the manu- 
facture of cement. These were shown at various national conventions 
and were on exhibition in the display windows of banks, newspaper offices, 
and elsewhere. 

The annual election resulted as follows : 

F. W. Kelley, President 

Blaine S. Smith, First Vice President 

L. R. Burch, Second Vice President 

J. W. Boardman, Treasurer 

BOARD OF DIRECTORS 

F. W. Kelley, Chairman Wm. M. Hatch L. T. Sunderland 

J. W. Boardman H. Struckmann Adam L. Beck 

L. R. Burch C. B. Condon F. R. Kanengeiser 

Blaine S. Smith Carl Leonardt F. G. McKelvy 

H. L. Block W. D. Lober F. L. Williamson 

George T. Cameron Frank H. Smith E. M. Young 
Chas. F. Conn 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

F. W. Kelley, Chairman 

L. R. Burch L. T. Sunderland 

Blaine S. Smith E. M. Young 



248 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



Ofl&cers and Directors of Portland Cement Association 
By Years 



1902— Robert W. Lesley, President 
John B. Lobar, Vice President 
A. F. Gerstell, Secretary 
E. M. Young, Treasurer 

Executive Committee 
E. R. Ackerman 
G. E. Bartol 
T. H. Dumary 
W. H. Harding 
W. W. Maclay 
H. W. Maxwell 
W. R. Warren 

1903— John B. Lober, President 

A. F. Gerstell, Vice President 
E. M. Young, Secretary 
E. R. Ackerman, Treasurer 
ExeciiHTT- ^ 



Executive Committee 
T. J. Brady 
T. H. Dumary 
A. F. Gerstell 
Edward M. Hagar 
W. H. Harding 
Robert W. Lesley 
Duane Millen 
Conrad Miller 
S. B. Newberry 
W. J. Prentice 
W. R. Warren 
E. M. Young 

1906— John B. Lober, President 

C. F. Wade, Vice President 
E. R. Ackei-'""" "" 




W. H. Harding 
Robert W. Lesley 
W. W. Maclay 

D. McCool 

S. B. Newberry 
C. P. Wade 
W. R»- Warren 

E. M. Young 

1905 — John B. Lober, President 
C. F. Wade, Vice President 
E. R. Ackerman, Treasurer 



-^.vv,iiiian. Treasurer 
Executive Committee 
T. H. Dumary 
N. D. Eraser 
A. F. Gerstell 
W. H. Harding 
J. W. Kittrell 
Robert W. Lesley 
W. S. Mallory 
Conrad Miller 
G. E. Nicholson 
W. R. Warren 
L. M. Wing 
E. M. Young 



248 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



Officers and Directors of Portland Cement Association 
By Years 



1902— Robert W. Lesley, President 

John B. Lober, Vice President 
A. F. Gerstell, Secretary 
E. M. Young, Treasurer 

Executive Committee 
E. R. Ackerman 
G. E. Bartol 
T. H. Dumary 
W. H. Harding 
W. W. Maclay 
H. W. Maxwell 
W. R. Warren 

1903— John B. Lober, President 

A. F. Gerstell, Vice President 
E. M. Young, Secretary 
E. R. Ackerman, Treasurer 

Executive Committee 
G. E. Bartol 
Edward M. Hagar 
W. H. Harding 
Robert W. Lesley 
H. W. Maxwell 
S. B. Newberry 
W. R. Warren 

1904 — John B. Lober, President 

A. F. Gerstell, Vice President 
E. R. Ackerman, Treasurer 

Executive Committee 
S. H. Bassett 
T. J. Brady 
T. H. Dumary 
Edward M. Hagar 
W. H. Harding 
Robert W. Lesley 
W. W. Maclay 

D. McCool 

S. B. Newberry 
C. P. Wade 
W. R„- Warren 

E. M. Young 

1905 — John B. Lober, President 
C. F. Wade, Vice President 
E. R. Ackerman, Treasurer 



Executive Committee 
T. J. Brady 
T. H. Dumary 
A. F. Gerstell 
Edward M. Hagar 
W. H. Harding 
Robert W. Lesley 
Duane Millen 
Conrad Miller 
S. B. Newberry 
W. J. Prentice 
W. R. Warren 
E. M. Young 

1906— John B. Lober, President 

C. F. Wade, Vice President 
E. R. Ackerman, Treasun- 

Executive Committee 
T. H. Dumary 
N. D. Eraser 
A. F. Gerstell 
Edward M. Hagar 
W. H. Harding 
Robert W. Lesley 
Duane Millen 
Conrad Miller 
S. B. Newberry 
G. E. Nicholson 
W. R. Warren 
E. M. Young 

1907— John B. Lober, President 

Edward M. Hagar, Vice Pres 
E. R. Ackerman, Treasurer 

Executive Committee 
T. H. Dumary 
N. D. Eraser 
A. F. Gerstell 
W. H. Harding 
J. W. Kittrell 
Robert W. Lesley 
W. S. Mallory 
Conrad Miller 
G. E. Nicholson 
W. R. Warren 
L. M. Wing 
E. M. Young 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



249 



1908— John B. Lober, President 

Edward M. Hagar, Vice President 
E. R. Ackerman, Treasurer 

Executive Committee 
E. R. Ackerman 
George S. Bartlett 
T. H. Dumary 
N. D. Eraser 
A. F. Gerstell 
Edward M. Hagar 
W. H. Harding 
J. W. Kittrell 
Robert W. Lesley 
John B. Lober 
W. S. Mallory 
Conrad Miller 
G. E. Nicholson 
L. M. Wing 
E. M. Young 

1909— W. S. Mallory, President 

Edward M. Hagar, Vice President 
E. R. Ackerman, Treasurer 

Executive Committee 
George S. Bartlett 
Bethune Duffield 
T. H. Dumary 
A. F. Gerstell 
W. H. Harding 
Robert W. Kelley 
Robert W. Lesley 
Conrad Miller 
G. E. Nicholson 
E. M. Young 
C. H. Zehnder 

1910— Edward M. Hagar, President 
W. S. Mallory, Vice President 
John B. Lober, Treasurer 
Executive Committee 
E. R. Ackerman 
George S. Bartlett 
A. H. Cranev, Jr. 
Bethune Duffield 
T. H. Dumary 
Robert W. Kelley 
Robert W. Lesley 
Conrad Miller 
John R. Morron 
S. B. Newberry 
G. E. Nicholson 
C. H. Zehnder 



1911 — Edward M. Hagar, President 
W. S. Mallory, Vice President 
John B. Lober, Treasurer 

Executive Committee 
A. H. Craney, Jr. 
Bethune Duffield 
T. H. Dumary 
Edward M. Hagar 
W. H. Harding 
Robert W. Kelley 
Robert W. Lesley 
John B. Lober 
W. S. Mallory 
Conrad Miller 
John R. Morron 
S. B. Newberry 
Whitney Newton 
G. E. Nicholson 

C. H. Zehnder 

1912 — John B. Lober, President 

R. S. Sinclair, Vice President 
W. H. Harding, Treasurer 

Executive Committee 
A. H. Craney, Jr. 
T. H. Dumary 
Edward M. Hagar 
Richard Hardy 
Robert W. Kelley 
Robert W. Lesley 

D. McCool 
W. S. Mallory 
John A. Miller 
John R. Morron 
L. T. Sunderland 
F. E. Tyler 

1913 — John B. Lober, President 

R. S. Sinclair, Vice President 
Chas. F. Conn, Treasurer 

Executive Committee 
A. H. Craney, Jr. 
T. H. Dumary 
A. F. Gerstell 
Edward M. Hagar 
W. H. Harding 
Richard Hardy 
Robert W. Kelley 
W S. Mallory 
D. McCool 
John A. Miller 



250 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



John R. Morron 
L. T. Sunderland 
F. E. Tyler 

E. M. Young 

1914 — John B. Lober, President 

R. S. Sinclair, Vice President 
Chas. F. Conn, Treasurer 

Executive Committee 

F. R. Bissell 

G. S. Brown 

A. H. Craney, Jr. 
Edward M. Hagar 
Richard Hardy 
R. H. Hughes 
F. P. Jones 
F. W. Kelley 
Robert W. Kelley 

D. McCool 
W. S. Mallory 
John R. Morron 
L. T. Sunderland 

E. M. Young 

1915— B. F. Affleck, President 

F. W. Kelley, First Vice President 
Richard Hard}^, Second Vice 

President 

G. S. Brown, Treasurer 

Executive Committee 
F. R. Bissell 
H. L. Block 
T. G. Dickinson 
John C. Eden 
R. L. Hughes 
F. P. Jones 
John B. Lober 

D. McCool 
John A. Miller 
Clark M. Moore 
John R. Morron 
Fred L. Muhs 
S. B. Newberry 
L. T. Sunderland 

E. M. Young 

1916— B. F. Affleck, President 

F. W. Kelley, First Vice President 
Richard Hardy, Second Vice 

President 

G. S. Brown, Treasurer 



1917- 



Board of Directors 

B. F. Affleck, Chairman 

A. L. Beck 
H. L. Block 
G. S. Brown 

T. G. Dickinson 
Richard Hardy 
R. H. Hughes 

C. A. Irvin 
F. P. Jones 

F. W. Kelley 
J. W. Kittrell 
John A. Miller 
Clark M. Moore 
John R. Morron 
Fred R. Muhs 
S. B. Newberry 
N. S. Potter, Jr. 
H. Struckmann 
E. M. Young 

Executive Committee 

B, F. Affleck, Chairman 
H. L. Block 

G. S. Brown 
John R. Morron 

E. M. Young 

-B. F. Affleck, President 

F. W. Kelley, First Vice President 
Richard Hardy, Second Vice 

President 

G. S. Brown, Treasurer 

Board of Directors 

B. F. Affleck, Chairman 
H. L. Block 

J. W. Boardman, Jr. 
Charles Boettcher 
G. S. Brown 
T. G. Dickinson 
Richard Hard}' 
R. B. Henderson 
R. H. Hughes 

C. A. Irvin 
F. P. Jones 
F. W. Kelley 
C. H. McNider 
John A. Miller 
John R. Morron 
S. B. Newberry 
A. W. Shulthis 
C. E. Ulrickson 
E. M. Young 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



251 



Executive Committee 
B. F. Affleck, Chairman 
G. S. Brown 
T. G. Dickinson 
John R. Morron 

E. M. Young 

1918— B. F. Affleck, President 

F. W. Kelley, First Vice President 
Richard Hardy, Second Vice 

President 

G. S. Brown, Treasurer 

Board of Directors 

B. F. Affleck, Chairman 
H. L. Block 

J. W. Boardman, Jr. 
Charles Boettcher 
G. S. Brown 
T. G. Dickinson 
Richard Hardy 
R. B. Henderson 
R. H. Hughes 

C. A. Irvin 
F. P. Jones 
F. W. Kelley 
C. H. McNider 
John A. Miller 
John R. Morron 
S. B. Newberry 

F. E. Tyler 

C. E. Ulrickson 
E. M. Young 

Executive Committee 
B. F. Affleck, Chairman 

G. S. Brown 

T. G. Dickinson 
John R. Morron 

E. M. Young 

1919— B. F. Affleck, President 

Richard Hardy, First Vice 

President 
S. B. Newberry, Second Vice 
President 

F. W. Kelley, Treasurer 

Board of Directors 
B. F. Affleck, Chairman 
George F. Bayle 
J. W. Boardman, Jr. 
Charles Boettcher 
R. B. Dickinson 



W. E. Erdell 
Richard Hardy 
R. B. Henderson 
F. W. Kelley 
Morris Kind 
David M. Kirk 

C. H. McNider 

D. A. Marks 
John R. Morron 

■ S. B. Newberry 

B. T. Scott 
F. E. Tyler 

C. E. Ulrickson 

E. M. Young 

Executive Committee 
B. F. Affleck, Chairman 
Richard Hardy 

F. W. Kelley 
John R. Morron 

E. M. Young 

1920 — L. T. Sunderland, President 
Richard Hardy, First Vice 

President 
S. B. Newberry, Second Vice 
President 

F. W. Kelle}', Treasurer 

Board of Directors 
L. T. Sunderland, Chairman 

B. F. Affleck 

C. Baumberger 
George F. Bayle 
Wm. N. Beach 

J. W. Boardman, Jr. 
Charles Boettcher 
R. B. Dickinson 
Richard Hardy 
W. H. Harrison 
R. B. Henderson 
C. A. Irvin 
F. W. Kelley 
Morris Kind 
C. H. McNider 
John R. Morron 
S. B. Newberry 
B. T. Scott 
E. M. Young 

Executive Committee 
L. T. Sunderland, Chairman 
B. F. Affleck 



252 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



Richard Hardj' 
John R. Morron 

E. M. Young 

1921— L. T. Sunderland, President 
Richard Hardj^, First Vice 

President 
S. B. Newberry, Second Vice 
President 

F. W. Kelley, Treasurer 

Board of Directors 

L. T. Sunderland, Chairman 

B. F. Affleck 

C. Baumberger 
W. N. Beach 
H. L. Block 
Charles Boettcher 
Geo. T. Cameron 
Chas. F. Conn 
Richard Hardy 
Wm. M. Hatch 
C. A. Irvin 

F. W. Kelley 
Morris Kind 
David M. Kirk 
C. H. McNider 
S. B. Newberry 
B. T. Scott 
H. Struckmann 
E. M. Young 

Executive Committee 
L. T. Sunderland, Chairman 
B. F. Affleck 
Richard Hardy 
B. T. Scott 
E. M. Young 

1922— F. W. Kelley, President 

Blaine S. Smith, First Vice 

President 
L. R, Burch, Second Vice 

President 

E. M. Young, Treasurer 

Board of Directors 

F. W. Kelley, Chairman 

B. F. A-ffleck 
W. N. Beach 
H. L. Block 
L. R. Burch 
Geo. T. Cameron 

C. B. Condon 



Chas. F. Conn 
Loring A. Cover 
Wm. M. Hatch 
C. A. Irvin 
David M. Kirk 
Carl Leonardt 
W. D. Lober 
Blaine S. Smith 
Frank H. Smith 
H. Struckmann 
L. T. Sunderland 

E. M. Young 

Executive Committee 

F. W. Kelley, Chairman 
F. B. Affleck 

L. R. Burch 

L. T. Sunderland 

E. M. Young 

1923— F. W. Kelley, President 

Blaine S. Smith, First Vice 

President 
L. R. Burch, Second Vice 

President 
J. W. Boardman, Treasurer 

Board of Directors 

F. W. Kelley, Chairman 
Adam L. Beck 

H. L. Block 
J. W. Boardman 
L. R. Burch 
Geo. T. Cameron 
C. B. Condon 
Chas. F. Conn 
Wm. M. Hatch 
F. R. Kanengeiser 
Carl Leonardt 
W. D. Lober 
F. G. McKelvy 
Blaine S. Smith 
Frank H. Smith 
H. Struckmann 
L. T. Sunderland 
F. L. Williamson 

E. M. Young 

Executive Committee 

F. W. Kelley, Chairman 
L. R. Burch 

Blaine S. Smith 
L. T. Sunderland 
E. M. Young 



APPENDIX B 



HISTORY OF THE PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY BY YEARS 



This appendix assembles the more important developments in the 
Portland cement industry as found in the annual reports of the United 
States Geological Survey and "The Mineral Industry" of the United 
States. The period covered is from 1870 to 1923, inclusive, thus covering 
the American industry from the beginning. 

YEARS 1870-1879 



Years 


Barrels 


Value 


Average Factory 
Price per Bbl. 


1870-1879 


82,000 


$246,000 


S3.00 



In dealing with the production and value of portland cement, the 
Government has grouped the years from 1870 to 1879, fixing output and 
value as given above. 

During this period, pioneer portland cement plants had been estab- 
lished by David O. Saylor, Allentown, Pennsylvania; Thomas Millen, 
South Bend, Indiana; John K. Shinn, Wampum, Pennsylvania. 

YEAR 1880 



Year 


Barrels 


Value 


Average Factory 
Price per Bbl. 


1880 


42,000 


$126,000 


$3.00 



The official estimate of production and value for 1880 is given as 
above. That little interest attached to portland cement during the first 
decade of its manufacture is revealed by these early Government reports. 
One published in 1883 summarizes the cement industry of the United 
States as follows: 

The total cement production of the country in 1882 is estimated by the best au- 
thorities at from 3,000,000 to 3,500,000 barrels. Of this, 85,000 barrels, of 400 pounds 
each, are estimated to be the production of artificial or portland cement. The average 
price of this is about $2.25 at the works. 

Further along the report discusses the Rosendale and Louisville 
natural cement districts, but on the subject of the Lehigh district, the 

253 



254 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



cradle of the portland cement industry, says that "both natural and 
artificial cements are manufactured to a considerable extent at Allen- 
town, Pennsylvania." 

Companies organized in 1880: 

Alamo Portland & Roman Cement Company, San Antonio, Texas. 





YEARS 


1881-1884 




Years 


Barrels 


Value 


Average Factory 
Price per Bbl. 


1881 

1882 
1883 
1884 


60,000 

85,000 

90,000 

100,000 


$150,000 
191,250 
193,500 
210,000 


$2.50 
2.01 
2.15 
2.10 



The text accompanying the figui-es given above refers to "Egypt, 
Pennsylvania, and Coplay (near Allentown), Pennsylvania," as the "lead- 
ing localities" engaged in the manufacture of "artificial cement," the 
name given portland cement at the time. Reference is made to the sig- 
nificance of growing importations of portland cement, which is described 
as superior to the domestic product in both setting and lasting qualities 
when kept up to standard, but competition had resulted in the importation 
of cement of a quality much inferior to even the poorest of the home prod- 
ucts. In this statement is revealed the beginning of a short-sighted policy 
on the part of foreign manufacturers. The average price of imported 
cement per barrel of 400 pounds, laid down on the pier at New York, in 
1882-3-4, was 12.60, $2.70 and $2.50 respectively. In 1884 imports at 
New York amounted to 356,562 barrels of cement in 1877, 58,500 barrels, 
beginning in 1864 with about 13,000 barrels. It is stated that with only 
one exception, a continental brand, the imported cements were "artificial." 

Companies organized in 1883 : 

American Improved Cements Company, Philadelphia (subsequently 
the American Cement Company, predecessor of the Giant Portland 
Cement Company.) 

In 1884 a plant was established at Oregon Cit}', Oregon. 

YEAR 1885 



Year 


Barrels 


Value 


Average Factory 
Price per Bbl. 


1884 
1885 _- 


100,000 
150,000 


$210,000 
292,500 


$2.10 
1.95 



Increased production with lower prices marked the situation in 1885. 
While the great bulk of portland cement was produced in the vicinity of 
Allentown, "a fair quantity," as the Government statisticians put it, was 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 255 

manufactured in South Bend, Indiana. It was stated that the makers of 
this cement were not seeking an open market but using it for local con- 
sumption in the manufacture of sewer pipe, etc. The foregoing refers, of 
course, to the Millen plant, although the name is not mentioned. 

In attempting to prepare accurate data on the subject of cement in 
general the Government representatives complained that "a great deal of 
reticence developed at every attempt to reach an exact figure." 

Further increase in importations took place in 1885. Concerning 
developments of the year, the following significant statement was made : 

Portland cements are receiving some very critical scientific attention and their 
properties are becoming better understood than any other similar products, a suggestion 
that might be taken into account by the manufacturers of domestic cements. 

Then follow the conclusions of an English scientist concerning proper 
tests to determine the requisites of a first-class cement. Soundness re- 
quired that a pat made and submitted to moist heat and warm water 
should show no signs of "blowing" in twenty-four hours. In fineness all 
of the cement was to pass through a sieve having 625 holes (25 by 25) to 
the square inch and have only 10 per cent residue when sifted through a 
sieve having 2, 500 holes (50 by 50) to the square inch. Tensile tests without 
fracture were to meet 175 pounds in three days, 50 per cent increase in 
seven days over strength shown at three days, and the briquettes when 
broken at the seven days' test had to carry average tensile strain without 
fracture of at least 350 pounds per square inch. 

Companies incorporated in 1885: 

Eagle Portland Cement Company, Kalamazoo, Michigan. 

YEAR 1886 



Year 


Barrels 


Value 


Average Factory 
Price per Bbl. 


1885 
1886 


1.50,000 
1,50,000 


$292,-500 
292,500 


$1.95 
1.95 



The estimated production and value of portland cement in 1886 was 
merely a repetition of 1885 figures, but expansion of the industry was noted, 
accompanied by the statement that improved machinery and methods of 
manufacture were in evidence so that successful competition with foreign 
producers was becoming more and more favorable to American manufac- 
turers. Reference was made to the higher cost of labor in the United States, 
but American inventive genius was relied upon to offset this through 
improved machinery. It was predicted that the industry would increase 
with rapid strides during the next few years. 

An interesting statement was to the effect that demand for better 
mortar was becoming very pronounced, "as lime mortar, requiring ex- 
ternal influences in the setting process, does not contract uniformly on 



256 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



both sides of a wall, one side being exposed and the other protected," 
whereas "cement containing within itself all the elements necessary to the 
setting process, is not open to this objection." 

Demand for cement had led to increased facilities at the Millen plant, 
and in recognition of the growing importance of the industry, the United 
States Geological Survey report of that year included extracts from a 
paper on the manufacture of portland cement read before the Engineers' 
Club of Philadelphia, by Robert W. Lesley, and also extracts from an 
article on the Ransome improvements in manufacture, written by R. J. 
Friswell, and published in the London Engineer. 

It was in this year that Jose F. de Navarro and his two sons erected at 
the plant of the Union Cement Company, Rondout, New York, the first 
rotary cylinder or kiln used for cement burning in this country. 

YEAR 1887 



Year 


Barrels 


Value 


Average taetory 
Price per Bbl. 


1886 
1887 


150,000 
250,000 


$292,500 
487,500 


$1.95 
1.95 



The most interesting historic fact announced in 1887 was as follows: 
The first attempt in the United States to use the Ransome process of burning and 
grinding cement has just been made by the Portland Cement Company of Portland, 
Oregon. These works have just commenced operations and are located at Oregon City, 
Clackamas County. The material used is a natural portland cement rock found in 
Douglas County, Oregon, and is said to be unlimited in quantity. The Ransome revolv- 
ing cylinder is used, and the natural material is burned in a powdered state, using an 
ordinary gas producer to furnish gas as fuel, which is burned in the cyhnder simultan- 
eously supplied with air, the heat being thus under perfect control. The abundant 
water power of the Willamette River is utilized. The works now have a capacity for 
producing 30,000 barrels of cement per annum, but this capacity can be tripled bj' the 
addition of only the necessary grinding mills. 

The manufacture in England of three kinds of blast-furnace slag 
cement attracted attention in 1887, one variety being described as stronger 
than portland cement and showing improvement with age. 

YEAR 1888 



Year 


Barrels 


Value 


Average Factory 
Price per Bbl. 


1887 
1888 


250,000 
250,000 


$487,500 
487,500 


$1.95 
1.95 



Estimated production and value for 1888 showed no change from the 
figures of the preceding year. Attention was called to large quantities of 
raw material suitable for manufacture in the vicinity of Charleston. In 
the way of scientific comment on cement in general, extracts are quoted 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



257 



from a paper on testing by A. Marichal read before the Engineers' Club of 
Philadelphia, in which he is quoted as saying that tests of pure cement 
alone are entirely useless, and that relative values are determined with 
different proportions of sand. The author deplored the fact that "com- 
pressive strength could not be ascertained with any degree of accuracy, 
as the cement was injured before it was crushed." 

YEARS 1889-1890 



Year 


Barrels 


Value 


Average Factory 
Price per Bbl. 


1889 
1890 


300,000 
335,500 


$500,000 
704,050 


$1.67 
2.09 



The cement reports of the United States Geological Survey for the 
3'ears 1889-1890 refer to the adaptability to portland cement manufacture 
of a remarkable deposit of cement rock discovered in 1890 near South 
Riverside, California, the area of which was 330 acres and its depth 90 
feet, the whole capped by from 3 to 5 feet of limestone. 

In July, 1889, an exact duplicate of the Ransome kiln then in use 
in England was erected by the de Navarros at the Keystone Portland 
Cement Company plant, Coplay, Pennsylvania. 

YEAR 1891 



Year 


Barrels 


Value 


Average Factory 
Price per Bbl. 


1890 
1891 


335,500 
454,813 


$704,050 
967,679 


$2.09 
2.13 



In 1891, the portland cement industry was discussed more in detail 
in the publications of the United States Geological Survey, for the report 
of that year was prepared by S. B. Newberry, who continued to edit the 
cement chapter for some years thereafter. The report in 1891 consisted 
almost entirely of what must have been considered at the time a very 
comprehensive survey of the cement industry as a whole. More than 
half of this contribution was devoted to portland cement, its history, 
nature of materials, methods of manufacture, testing and general status 
of the industry at that period. 

The states then engaged in manufacture were California, Colorado, 
one of the Dakotas and Indiana, with one works each; New York, with 
five; Ohio, with two; and Pennsylvania, with six; a total of seventeen 
plants. 

Companies incorporated in 1891: 

Missouri Portland Cement Company, St. Louis. (Originally organ- 
ized as the Union Sand Company. Began manufacture in 1907. The 
name was changed to the Missouri Portland Cement Company in 1917.) 



258 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 





YEAR 


1892 




Year 


Barrels 


Value 


Average Factory 
Price per Bbl. 


1891 
1892 


454,813 
547,440 


$ 967,679 
1,152,600 


$2.13 
2.11 



In 1892, S. B. Newberry gave further emphasis to the growing im- 
portance of the Portland cement industry, and predicted that within a 
very few years all of the "artificial" cement used in the country would be 
produced at home. However, the industry could not be described as 
unduly prosperous at this time, owing chiefly to high labor costs, but 
improved machinery was expected to replace much of the costly hand 
work. Mr. Newberry recommended the rotary kiln as efficient and 
economical, describing its more important advantages. 

For the first time in the history of the industry value of product 
exceeded a million dollars. 

Companies incorporated in 1892: 

Sandusky Portland Cement Company, Cleveland, Ohio. (Reorgan- 
ized in 1916 as the Sandusky Cement Company.) 

Diamond Portland Cement Company, Cleveland, Ohio. (Reorgan- 
ized in 1897.) 





YEAR 


1893 




Year 


Barrels 


Value 


Average Factory 
Price per Bbl. 


1892 
1893 


547,440 
590,652 


$1,152,600 
1,158,138 


$2.11 
1.91 



In spite of unfavorable conditions for growth, the output of portland 
cement in 1893 showed an increase over the previous j^ear of about 43,000 
barrels. With total production hardly exceeding 500,000 barrels, this 
expansion looked very large to the manufacturers. It was estimated that 
about 18 per cent of the portland cement used in 1893 was of domestic 
make and much larger gains were predicted. It was felt that the industry 
was permanently established. The product had improved in qualit}' as 
well as quantity. Portland cement and the products made therefrom 
attracted attention at the Columbian Exliibition, in Chicago, during 1893, 
and foreign exhibitors were greatly interested in American methods and 
progress. The trend of comment, however, especially in Germany, would 
lead to the conviction that the American product was far below foreign 
standards..^- Tests made by S. B. Newberry showed that not only was 
this not true but that the best of American cements were quite as good as 
the average of imported cements. 

Companies incorporated in 1893: 

Glens Falls Portland Cement Company, Glens Falls, New York. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



259 



Whitaker Cement Company, Alpha, New Jersey. (Was successor 
of Thomas D. Whitaker and taken over by Alpha Portland Cement Com- 
pany in 1895.) 

YEAR 1894 



Year 


Barrels 


Value 


Average Factory 
Price per Bbl. 


1893 
1894 


590,652 

798,757 


$1,158,138 
1,383,473 


$1.91 
1.73 



Production increased materially in 1894, showing a gain of more than 
200,000 barrels over 1893. This increase of 35 per cent was not confined 
to any particular section. It was partly due to the output of five new 
mills, the total of works increasing from 19 plants in 1883 to 24 in 1894. 
Several additional mills were under way. It wss observed this year that 
imports had remained stationary for three years, while domestic produc- 
tion and consumption had rapidly increased. In 1894 nearly one-fourth 
of the Portland cement used was of American make. Other important 
factors favoring home producers were suspension of the low freight rate 
from Europe to Chicago and a considerable advance in the price of foreign 
cement at the expiration of the year. A decided scarcity of portland 
cement everywhere was reported, and big demands were anticipated. 
Good American portland cement could be had at from 50 cents to $1 
less than the best German cements, and it was used extensively by the 
Government. 

At this time most of the portland cement produced in the United 
States was burned in the old-fashioned kilns, but the rotary kiln was 
growing in favor. In 1893 the product of rotary kilns was 149,000 barrels, 
which had increased to 242,176 barrels in 1894. The vertical kilns, con- 
tinuous and intermittent, turned out 441,653 barrels in 1893 and 556,581 
barrels in 1894, the figures showing that rotary kiln output was growing 
much faster than that of the vertical kiln. The use of the Griffin steel 
mill at the larger plants also occasioned comment, some of the older works 
still retaining the buhr stones. 

Up to 1894 Government reports on the total value of cements included 
the value of barrels, which was not included thereafter. 

Companies incorporated in 1894: 

The Vulcanite Portland Cement Company, Philadelphia. 





YEAR 1895 




Year 


Barrels 


Value 


Average Factory 
Price per Bbl. 


1894 
1895 


798,757 
990,324 


$1,383,473 
1,586,830 


$1.73 
1.60 



260 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



Another increase in production took place in 1895, this time amounting 
to 24 per cent. The increase was confined almost wholly to the larger 
factories in New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Ohio, several of 
which doubled the production reported for 1894. It was noted as a matter 
of importance that two factories near Coplay, Pennsylvania, had again 
doubled their capacity and were producing over a thousand barrels of 
cement per day each. Imports had increased over 1894 figures, which 
was interpreted to mean that American plants had failed to keep pace 
with the growing demand for portland cement. 

Among these early cement records are many prophecies of which the 
following is typical: "When the industry in this country reaches suffi- 
cient magnitude to allow portland cement to be sold at $1.50 per barrel, 
there can be Httle doubt that practically all the natural rock cement now 
used will be replaced with portland. From present indications, however, 
it will be many years before this result is even approached." 

It was stated at this time that the prejudice once existing against 
domestic portland cement had almost entirely disappeared and that care- 
ful study of tests would show that no cement of foreign make was superior 
to the best American brands. 

Companies incorporated in 1895: 

Alpha Portland Cement Company, Easton, Pennsylvania. (Was suc- 
cessor of the Whitaker Cement Company, which incorporated in 1893, 
taking over the Thomas D. Whitaker plant.) 

YEAR 1896 



Year 


Barrels 


Value 


Average Factory 
Price per Bbl. 


1895 
1896 


990,324 
1,543,023 


$1,586,830 
2,424,011 


$1.60 
1.57 



Production of portland cement in 1896 increased nearly 56 per cent 
over 1895 figures, and for the first time output, as officially recorded, 
reached the 1,000,000 mark, the total being a little over 1,500,000 barrels, 
which was regarded as extraordinary. There was reason to believe, how- 
ever, that complete records for the previous year would have placed 
output a little in excess of 1,000,000 barrels. The increase during 1896 
took place in all important producing districts, but was most marked in 
the Lehigh district and Phillipsburg, New Jersey. The capacity of plants 
in these localities had been increased materially with quality of cement 
practically .as good as that produced in Germany and England. In 1896, 
26 works were in operation in Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, Ohio, 
California, South Dakota, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Texas and Utah. 
These states had one plant each with the exception of New York, New 
Jersey, Ohio and Pennsylvania, which had seven, two, four and seven, 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



261 



respectivelJ^ The mills in Pennsylvania and New Jersey were producing 
much more than half of the country's total output, and increase in the 
development of the industry was more rapid there than elsewhere, this 
being due to abundant and suitable materials and good shipping facilities. 
Of the 26 mills, 18 were using limestone and the rest marl. 

Import figures for 1895-96 showed comparatively small, but increas- 
ing, shipments from Canadian mills at Owen Sound and Napanee, On- 
tario, the cement coming into Detroit. 





YEAR 1897 




Year 


Barrels 


Value 


Average Factory 
Price per Bbl. 


1896 
1897 


1,543,023 

2,677,775 


$2,424,011 
4,315,891 


$1.57 
1.61 



Another increase, considered as most remarkable, was recorded in 
1897, production running considerably beyond an excess of the previous 
year's output, a gain of nearly 74 per cent. In the main producing cen- 
ters production was almost doubled, which was also the case with the 
total value of the entire output for the j^ear. The total imports for 1897 
amounted to 2,090,024 barrels, which was less than production of portland 
cement in the United States, a more than complete reversal of the situa- 
tion in 1896. Production in the Lehigh district in 1897 was ten times 
greater than in 1890. 

Decrease in imports was attributed to increasing foreign demand and 
less activity on the part of the exporting companies who had sought to 
control the American markets. 

That American manufacturers were doing their best to merit the 
confidence of consumers is shown by the following extract from S. B. New- 
berry's report for 1897: 

Considerably more than half the portland cement consumed in 1897 was of Amer- 
ican manufacture. This important step toward the replacement of imported by domestic 
Portland ha§ been largely brought about by the successful efforts of American manu- 
facturers to produce a high-grade product. Engineers in all parts of the country are 
finding, to their surprise, that the product of the leading American factories shows de- 
cidedly higher tests than the imported brands which have long been regarded as standard. 
This is strikingly shown in the reports of Richard L. Humphrey, Inspector of Cements 
for the City of Philadelphia. The average of all American portlands tested in 1896 and 
1897 is decidedly higher, both neat and with sand, than that of all the English or Ger- 
man Portlands tested. In fineness of grinding also the American cements were found 
superior to the imported. It is gratifying to find that an industry so new in this country, 
and one requiring so high a degree of technical knowledge, has already been developed 
to a point beyond that which it has reached in England and German.y. 

An important factor in the situation in 1897, as it concerned con- 
sumption of cement, was its use in fortifications and other Government 
works growing out of impending war with Spain. The Government for a 



262 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



time purchased thousands of barrels per day, and building enterprises 
were active generally. The two largest factories, in Pennsj'lvania and 
New Jersey, had increased their capacity by 50 per cent, while provisions 
for increased capacity were in progress at other works. 

Companies incorporated in 1897: 

Lehigh Portland Cement Company, AUentown, Pennsylvania. 

Castalia Portland Cement Company, Castalia, Ohio. 

YEAR 1898 



Year 


Barrels 


Value 


Average Factory- 
Price per Bbl. 


1897 
1898 


2,677,775 
3,692,284 


$4,315,891 
5,970,773 


$1.61 
1.62 



Predictions as to increased output for 1898 were fully verified, and 
another advance of more than a million barrels took place, amounting to 
37.9 per cent over 1897 production. The total for 1898 was 3,692,284 
barrels. The number of works had increased from 16 in 1890 to 31 in 
1898. The Lehigh district was more than holding its own, producing 
nearly three-fourths of the total product of the country. Production in 
New York and Ohio showed an increase, but in other sections of the 
country development of the industry was slow. 

Interesting announcements for the year included a statement that the 
Illinois Steel Company, Chicago, one of the largest manufacturers of 
slag cement, had practically abandoned this industry and proposed to 
make a true portland cement by grinding blast-furnace slag with the 
necessary proportion of limestone, and burning the mixture in rotary 
kilns. The plants using limestone had increased from 18 in 1897 to 20 
in 1898, with no change in the number using marl, the latter numbering 
11 plants. This was the daj^ of prophecy, and it was predicted that 1899 
would show a large increase in the production of portland cement and 
that 1900 would also be a record-breaker. 

Companies incorporated in 1898 : 

Peerless Portland Cement Company, LTnion City, IVIichigan. 

Chicago Portland Cement Company, Chicago. (Acquired bj^ Lehigh 
Portland Cement Company, December 16, 1916.) 

Helderberg Cement Company, Howes Cave, New York. 

Lawrence Portland Cement Company', Siegfried, Pennsylvania. 

YEAR 1899 



Year 


Barrels 


Value 


Average Factory 
Price per Bbl. 


1898 
1899 


3,692,284 
5,6.52,266 


$5,970,773 
8,074,371 


$1.62 
1.43 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 263 

An increase of nearly 2,000,000 barrels occurred in 1899, a gain of 
about 53 per cent over 1898. Knowing that new mills were projected and 
that the capacity of others had been increased, manufacturers were look- 
ing for a marked expansion in production. In 1899 there were 36 works, 
as against 31 the previous year. In the matter of output in 1899, Penn- 
sjdvania led with 3,217,965 barrels. New Jersey came second with 892,167 
barrels, Ohio third with 480,982 barrels, and New' York fourth with 472,386 
barrels, other states falling far below these figures. Changes had taken 
place in production by states within a single year. In 1898 New York's 
seven mills produced 554,358 barrels, which dropped to 472,386 in 1899, 
with no change in the number of works. In 1898 Ohio produced 265,872 
barrels, which increased to nearly a half million barrels the following year, 
her works numbering six plants both years. The drop in New York 
production was attributed to continued use of vertical kilns. Michigan 
attracted attention in 1899 with an output of 342,566 barrels from four 
plants. She had produced only 77,000 barrels, from two mills, the pre- 
ceding j^ear. 

Importations showed a surprising increase for the year, which was 
attributed to great activity in building circles, thus increasing the demand 
for foreign makes on the part of masons of foreign birth and a few engineers 
who still cherished the delusion that foreign cement, costing a dollar a 
barrel more than American brands, was a good investment. 

For the first time in the history of the industry, concern was mani- 
fested lest the country was exceeding safe limits in building so many ce- 
ment works. It was feared that over-production and disaster to smaller 
and unfavorably situated concerns might result from further expansion, 
and very keen competition was believed to be almost at hand. Atten- 
tion was called to the fact that the average rate of increase from year to 
year had been about 40 per cent and that if continued four years more 
production would exceed 20,000,000 barrels, more than Germany's out- 
put at that time. But in spite of this many new projects were under 
way, with the capacity of existing mills constantly increasing. Enthu- 
siasm was tempered, however, by the growing conviction that only the 
owners of large and favorably situated deposits and mills with large daily 
capacity could hope for profitable results. 

Among the 1899 announcements calculated to create a sensation was 
one to the effect that the Edison Company of New Jersey, "proposes to 
burn cement in a gigantic rotary kiln 110 feet in length and 10 feet in 
diameter." 

Companies incorporated in 1899: 

Atlas Portland Cement Company, New York City. 

Peninsular Portland Cement Company, Cement City, Michigan. 

Phoenix Portland Cement Company, Philadelphia. 



264 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



Omega Portland Cement Company, Jonesville, Michigan. (Manu- 
facture suspended in 1914.) 

Wabash Portland Cement Company, Detroit, Michigan. 
Newaygo Portland Cement Company, Newaygo, Michigan. 
The Edison Portland Cement Company, West Orange, New Jersey. 
Dexter Portland Cement Company, Nazareth, Pennsylvania. 

YEAR 1900 



Year 


Barrels 


Value 


Average Factory 
Price per Bbl. 


1899 
1900 


5,652,266 
8,482,020 


S8,074,.371 
9,280,-525 


$1.43 
1.09 



Nearly 3,000,000 barrels, a fraction over 50 per cent, was the increase 
of 1900 compared with 1899. Pennsylvania and New Jersey maintained 
their prestige as the great producing centers. Illinois jumped from 53,000 
barrels to nearly 500,000 barrels, with only one new mill added to the 
two in operation the previous year. Michigan almost doubled her out- 
put, her resources increasing from four to six plants. A total of 50 works 
was reported in 1900, as against 36 in 1899. Output had increased in 
Colorado, Indiana and Texas; and Kansas and Virginia made their first 
appearance on the cement map. Ohio was falling behind, not as to in- 
crease, but percentage of total, which was attributed to a lack of large 
sources of suitable raw material. Michigan was regarded as a cement 
state of great promise. Of her progress it was said: "There are at present 
nine factories in operation in the state and five more under construction 
while an almost countless number are projected. Marl is abundant every- 
where and nearly every lake and marsh in the state is underlain by it." 

Such marked expansion took place in Indiana, Illinois, Kansas, Vir- 
ginia, Texas and the West that it was announced they would no longer 
appear in Government tables under the grouping of "Other Sections," but 
would require subdivisions. 

Foreign manufacturers gave their American competitors another sur- 
prise by increasing exports nearly 280,000 barrels, the figures from 1897 
showing totals of over 2,000,000 Ivarn^ls each year. Extraordinary de- 
mand for cement was given as the reason for increased imports in 1900. 
Incidentally, the total production of European portland cement at the 
time was estimated at about 44,000,000 barrels, as against America's 
8,500,000 barrels. 

Companies incorporated in 1900: 

Pennsylvania Cement Company, New York City. 

Detroit Portland Cement Company, Detroit, Michigan. (Now Aetna 
Portland Cement Company.) 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



265 



Alsen's American Portland Cement Works, New York City. (Suc- 
ceeded in 1919 by the Alsen Cement Company of America, Inc., 
New York City. 

YEAR 1901 



Year 


Barrels 


Value 


Average Factory 
Price per Bbl. 


1900 
1901 


8,482,020 
12,711,225 


$ 9,280,525 
12,532,360 


$1.09 
.99 



Production in 1901 showed another 50 per cent increase, total produc- 
tion reaching nearly 13,000,000 barrels, thus verifying the predictions of the 
preceding year. Works had increased from 50 to 56. The states in 
which plants had been established were as follows: 



State 


No. 
Plants 


State 


No. 
Plants 


Arkansas 


1 
1 
1 
4 
2 
1 
10 
3 
7 


North Dakota 


1 


California 

Colorado 


Ohio 

Pennsylvania 


7 
13 


Illinois 

Indiana 

Kansas. . . 


South Dakota 

Texas 

Utah. . 

Virginia 


1 

2 
1 


Michigan 


1 






New York 


Total 


56 









How production was apportioned among the various districts as 
established at that time is shown in the following table: 

PORTLAND CEMENT PRODUCED BY DISTRICTS IN 1901 



District 


No. 

of 

Works 


Barrels 


Per- 
centage 
of Total 

Pro- 
duction 


New York 


7 

16 

7 

10 

16 


617,228 

8,595,340 

689,852 

1,02.5,718 

1,783,087 


4.8 


Lehigh and Northampton Counties, Pa., and Warren 

County, N.J 

Ohio 


67.7 
5.4 


Michigan. . . ..... 


8.0 


All Other Sections 


14.1 






Totals 


56 


12,711,225 


100.0 



"All other Sections" included California, Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, 
Kansas, South Dakota, Texas and Utah, Virginia being tabulated with 
Ohio. 

At this time the efficiency and economy of the rotary kiln had become 
fully recognized and while vertical kilns were still in use they were fast 



266 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



becoming an obsolete proposition insofar as the manufacture of portland 
cement was concerned. Announcement of the building of new works 
showed that the capacity of the country would be largely increased the 
following year. The total consumption of portland cement in the United 
States in 1901 was estimated at 13,216,026 barrels, imports having dropped 
from about 2,225,000 barrels in 1900 to a little under 1,000,000 barrels 
in 1901. 

Companies incorporated in 1901 : 

Alabama Portland Cement Company, Demopolis, Alabama. (Taken 
over by Gulf States Portland Cement Company.) 

Ironton Portland Cement Company, Ironton, Ohio. 

Colorado Portland Cement Companj^, Portland, Colorado. 

Pacific Portland Cement Company, San Francisco, California. (Re- 
organized as the Pacific Portland Cement Company, ConsoHdated,in 1905.) 

YEAR 1902 



Year 


Barrels 


Value 


Average Factory 
Price per Bbl. 


1901 
1902 


12,711,225 
17,230,644 


S12,532,360 

20,864,078 


$0.99 
1.21 



FuUy 4,500,000 barrels was the increase in portland cement produc- 
tion for 1902, as compared with 1901, the total running over 17,000,000 
barrels. The status of portland and competing cements in 1902 was as 
follows : 

Cement Barrels 

Portland 17,230,644 

Natural 8,044,305 

Puzzolan 478,555 

Imported 1,963,023 

Enthusiasm over increased production of portland cement was tem- 
pered somewhat by a marked decline in prices throughout the eastern 
states, but depression was temporary. That optimism still prevailed was 
shown by the building of new works, enlargement of existing plants and 
increasing demand for cement. The number of works had increased to 
65 in 1902, as against 56 in 1901, the increase in plants taking place in 
Alabama, California, Colorado, Indiana, New York and Pennsylvania; 
New York showing an increase of three works, Pennsylvania two, and 
the other s^tes one each. Three new states entered the field that 3-ear: 
Alabama, Georgia and Missouri. The one plant credited to New Mexico 
in previous years suspended operation and the state was dropped from 
the records. Pennsylvania and New Jersey still occupied the first and 
second places, respectively, in percentage of total output. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



267 



Increased production through the adoption of rotary kihis was 
attracting more than ordinary attention, and in 1902 the status of vertical 
and rotarv kilns was as follows: 





PORTLAND CEMENT KILNS IN 1902 






Kind 


Active 


Idle 


Building 


Vertical 


611 
456 


76 
9 


6 


Rotarv 


46 








Total . . . 


1067 


85 


52 







It was estimated that portland cement burned in vertical kilns in 
1902 would not exceed 1,500,000 barrels, out of the total production of 
over 17,000,000 barrels. 

Companies incorporated in 1902: 

Penn-Allen Portland Cement Company, Allentown, Pennsylvania. 
(Reorganized as Penn-Allon Cement Compan}^ in 1910.) 

Wolverine Portland Cement Company, Coldwater, Michigan. 

Southern States Portland Cement Company, Rockmart, Georgia. 

YEAR 1903 



Year 


Barrels 


Value 


Average Factory 
Price per Bbl. 


1902 
1903 


17,230,644 
22,342,973 


$20,864,078 
27,713,319 


$1.21 
1.24 



The mere increase in production in 1903 as compared with output in 
1902, exceeded by more than one-half the total production of only three 
years back, as production in 1900 amounted to about 8,500,000 barrels. 
The increase in 1903 was 5,112,329 barrels. The result was an over- 
stocked market, and prices of portland cement went so low as to bring it 
into serious competition with natural cement. Owing to this situation 
some of the natural cement plants were closed during the year. The 
natural cement output for 1903 was a little over 7,000,000 barrels, portland 
cement production exceeding it three to one. Pennsylvania continued 
in the lead with 17 plants and an output of nearly 10,000,000 barrels. 
New Jersey ranked second and Michigan third, the former having three 
works producing nearly 3,000,000 ])arrels, and the latter 13 plants pro- 
ducing close to 2,000,000 barrels. New York had fourth place with 12 
works producing over 1,500,000 barrels. Nineteen states contributed to 
the total output in 1903, some plants producing both natural and portland 
cements. A detailed description of production by states refers to a plant 
at Spocari, near Demopolis, Alabama. The development of the Kansas 
field was attracting attention at the time, especially the opportunity to 
use natural gas for fuel. 



268 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



Companies incorporated in 1903 : 

Huron & Wyandotte Portland Cement Companies, Detroit, Michigan. 

YEAR 1904 



Year 


Barrels 


Value 


Average Factory 
Price per Bbl. 


1903 
1904 


22,342,973 
26,505,881 


$27,713,319 
23,355,119 


$1.24 

.88 



That matters were not in desirable shape in 1904 is disclosed by the 
figures on production and value. While production exceeded that of the 
previous year by a little over 4,000,000 barrels, the total value was less 
than for the preceding year, there being a difference of about $4,350,000 
in favor of 1903. Price cutting had exceeded anything witnessed there- 
tofore, some of the Lehigh mills selling cement below cost of production. 
There was further reduction in the output of natural cement. 

The drift of affairs in the latter industry was disclosed by the fact 
that in 1904 Pennsj'lvania, one of the big centers of the industry, had no 
mills making natural cement exclusively. All of the Pennsylvania natural 
cement came from five works having an output of both portland and 
natural rock cements. The state had at that time 17 portland cement 
plants. 

Concerning the different raw materials used at this period, factories 
and output were divided as follows: 



Material Used 


^o. of 
Companies 


Production, 
Bbls. 


Limestone and cement rock 


21 

18 

17 

17 

3 

2 


13,902,939 


Limestone and shale 


5,631,686 


Marl and clav 


3,332,873 


Limestone and clay 


3,141,010 


Limestone and slag 


497,373 


Chalk and clav 


Idle 








78 


26,505,881 



Five mills, either new or inoperative, were not included in this number. 
Companies incorporated in 1904: 

Bath Portland Cement Company, Bath, Pennsylvania. 
Kosmos Portland Cement Company, Inc., Kosmosdale, Kentucky. 
Burt Portland Cement Company, Bellevuc, Michigan. (Acquired by 
Alpha Portland Cement Company, 1920.) 

YEAR 1905 



Year 


Barrels 


Value 


Average Factory 
Price per Bbl. 


1904 
1905 


26,505,881 
35,246,813 


$23,355,119 
33,245,867 


$0.88 
.94 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 269 

Both production and value of portland cement leaped ahead in 1905, 
which proved to be a record-breaking year in increased output, the latter 
amounting to nearly 9,000,000 barrels. Better still, production hardly 
kept pace with demand, and it was announced that American cements had 
finally been successful in displacing imported cements. There developed 
at this time a demand for white portland cement for interior finishing and 
decorative purposes, and it was predicted that ere long some of the lime- 
stone deposits free from iron would be utilized for this purpose. The 
production of all cements in 1905 was as follows: 

Portland cement 35,246,812 barrels 

Natural " 4,473,049 " 

Puzzolan " 382,447 " 

A change took place in the order of states, Indiana displacing Michi- 
gan as third in volume of production, the latter dropping to fourth place. 

Companies incorporated in 1905: 

Hecla Portland Cement Company, Bay City, Michigan. (Dissolved in 
1915, and plant subsequently dismantled.) 

Pacific Portland Cement Company, Consolidated, San Francisco, 
California. (Formerly the Pacific Portland Cement Company.) 

Santa Cruz Portland Cement Company, San Francisco, CaHfornia. 

YEAR 1906 



Year 


Barrels 


Value 


Average Factory 
Price per Bbl. 


1905 
1906 


35,246,812 
46,463,424 


$33,245,867 
52,466,186 


$0.94 
1.13 



With 1906 production showing another big increase and prices higher 
but not inflated, portland cement manufacturers had nothing to complain 
of except shortage of car service. The increase in production exceeded 
11,000,000 barrels, but the industry was on a healthy and normal basis. 

In 1906, there were 793 rotary kilns in operation, 2 idle and 104 under 
construction. The length of about half of the kilns in operation was 60 
feet or less. There were 80 kilns of 105 to 110 feet and 57 kilns 125 feet 
long or longer. 

It was noted by Eckel that "at present (1906) the cement industry is 
the most individualistic of the larger branches of manufacture," and that 
"no trust nor even any approach to a monopoly is now in existence, news- 
paper statements to the contrary notwithstanding." 

The foregoing reveals the fact that the industry had reached such 
magnitude as to attract attention as an industrial factor of national im- 
portance. 

The total authorized capitalization of all the American portland 
cement plants operating in 1906 was placed between $110,000,000 and 



270 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



$125,000,000. There had been little attempt at over-capitalization in 
the industry, and promotions of questionable character were confined 
chiefly to Michigan, Kansas and Iowa. 

Companies incorporated in 1906: 

Dewey Portland Cement Company, Dewey, Oklahoma. 

Union Portland Cement Company, Ogden, Utah. 

The United States Portland Cement Company, Denver, Colorado. 

Universal Portland Cement Company, Chicago. (Operated as 
Cement Department of the Ilhnois Steel Company until October 1, 1906, 
when the present company was organized as a subsidiary of the United 
States Steel Corporation.) 

Dixie Portland Cement Company, Chattanooga, Tennessee. 

Golden State Portland Cement Company, Los Angeles, California. 

Oklahoma Portland Cement Company, Ada, Oklahoma. 

Superior Portland Cement Company, Seattle, Washington. 

YEAR 1907 



Year 


Barrels 


Value 


Average Factory 
Price per Bbl. 


1906 
1907 


46,463,424 
48,785,390 


$52,466,186 
.53,992,.551 


$1.13 
1.11 



Output in 1907 increased 2,321,966 barrels compared with 1906. 
The leading states that year were Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Indiana, 
Michigan and Kansas, which ranked in the order given. All of the re- 
maining states producedless than 13,000,000 barrels, the five states named 
producing almost three-quarters of the total output of the countr3^ 

Like the iron industry, which had centered around Pittsburgh, the 
Portland cement industry first concentrated in the Lehigh district and 
in New Jersey. The geographical distribution of the industry in 1907 is 
shown in the following table : 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

IN 1907 





Barrels 


Percentage 
of Output 


East 


27,134,816 

13,479,703 

4,463,397 

1,893,004 

1,814,470 


55.6 


Central 


27.6 


West 


9.2 


Pacific Coast 


3.9 


South ^. 


3.7 






Total 


48,785,390 


100.0 







The 1907 United States Geological Survey report discusses concentra- 
tion of interests in the cement industry, giving throe factoi-s calculated to 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



271 



make for control, these being the normal growth of profitable plants, con- 
solidation by stock control, and the growth of the patent holding company. 

The well-located and well-managed plants had opportunity for ex- 
pansion which was denied to plants of less technical or financial soundness. 

Stock control as distinguished from direct ownership was illustrated 
in the case of the lola or Nicholson group, with seven plants, mostly in 
the Kansas district; the W. J. Dingee group in California, Washington 
and Pennsylvania, and the Cowham plants in Michigan, Iowa, Kansas 
and Texas. There were also smaller or ''community of interests" ex- 
amples. 

In 1906, a great patent-holding corporation, The North American 
Portland Cement Company, was organized with a capital of $10,000,000, 
its purpose and operation being described in detail elsewhere. 

Companies incorporated during 1907: 

Allentown Portland Cement Company, Allentown, Pennsylvania. 

Ash Grove Lime and Portland Cement Company, Kansas City, 
Missouri. 

Cape Girardeau Portland Cement Company, Cape Girardeau, Missouri. 

Riverside Portland Cement Company, Los Angeles, California. 

Southwestern Portland Cement Company, El Paso, Texas. 

Trinity Portland Cement Company, Dallas, Texas. (Organized as 
Southwestern States Portland Cement Company in 1907.) 

Continental Portland Cement Company, St. Louis, Missouri. 

The manufacture of portland cement by the Louisville Cement Com- 
pany began this year. The company was incorporated in 1866 to manu- 
facture natural cement. 

Three Forks Portland Cement Company, Denver, Colorado. 

Missouri Portland Cement Company began manufacture this year. 
(This company was originally the Union Sand Company, organized in 
1891. Name was changed to Missouri Portland Cement Company, with 
headquarters at St. Louis, Missouri, in 1917.) 

Maryland Portland Cement Company, Baltimore, Maryland. (This 
company was consohdated with the Berkeley Limestone Company, Berke- 
ley, West Virginia, and in 1909 became the Security Cement and Lime 
Company, Baltimore, Maryland.) 

YEAR 1908 



Year 


Barrels 


Value 


Average Factory- 
Price per Bbl. 


1907 
1908 


48,785,390 
51,072,612 


$53,992,551 
43,547,679 


$1.11 

.85 



A small increase, 4.6 per cent, in production and a decline of 19.3 per 
cent in value was the record of 1908 as compared with 1907. Production 



272 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



increased 2,287,222 barrels. Trade conditions had been such that a de- 
crease in production, rather than an increase, would have been the logical 
thing to expect. The only thing that saved the day was increased output 
by the United States Steel Corporation, which amounted to 2,405,600 
barrels, which was more than the increase in total production. All of 
the older producing states, especially in the East, showed a heavy de- 
crease in output. 

The fact that New York had dropped to eighth place among pro- 
ducing states occasioned considerable comment. An analysis of the situa- 
tion resulted in the conclusion on the part of Government experts that the 
manufacture of a large quantity of cement rather than the earning of 
dividends had governed the selection of plant sites up to date, and that 
with plants established at strategic points from the shipping and selling 
point of view the state could find a market for large output. There were 
about four such favored locations. 

Companies incorporated in 1908: 

Knickerbocker Portland Cement Company, New York City. (Re- 
organized in 1918.) 

San Antonio Portland Cement Company, San Antonio, Texas. 
Iowa Portland Cement Company, Des Moines, Iowa. (Succeeded by 
Hawkeye Portland Cement Company in 1916.) 

YEAR 1909 



Year 


Barrels 


Value 


Average Factory 
Price per Bbl. 


1908 
1909 


51,072,612 
64,991,431 


$43,547,679 
52,858,354 


$0.85 
.813 



Nearly 14,000,000 barrels increase was recorded for 1909. This 
was 27.2 per cent increase in quantity, which was accompanied by 21.3 
per cent increase in value. Concerning the status of the industry, it was 
said that annual output might be expected to increase as population in- 
creased and new uses were found for cement, but that future increase 
could hardly be expected to maintain the steady advance shown in the 
past. Competition had become very keen but a broad cooperative policy 
had been adopted by the officials of some 22 large portland cement com- 
panies and other interested parties who realized that whatever benefited 
the industry at large must benefit the individual producer. Cooperative 
advertising,Jnstruction and exhibitions of cement products were producing 
good results. 

Companies incorporated in 1909: 

Bonner Portland Cement Compan}^, Bonner Springs, Kansas. 

Tidewater Portland Cement Company, Baltimore, Maryland. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



273 



Security Cement and Lime Company, Hagerstown, Maryland. (Orig- 
inally the Maryland Portland Cement Company, organized in 1907.) 
Canada Cement Company, Ltd., Montreal, Canada. 

YEAR 1910 



Year 


Barrels 


Value 


Average Factory 
Price per Bbl. 


1909 
1910 


64,991,431 
76,549,951 


$52,858,354 
68,205,800 


$0,813 
.891 



In 1910, the industry made a new high record, production surprising 
even manufacturers by running a little more than 1,500,000 barrels in 
excess of the highest estimates, which had been placed at about 75,000,000 
barrels. At the time, 25 states were producing portland cement from a 
total of 111 plants. The average factory price per barrel in 1910 was 89.1 
cents. The fluctuation in number of plants throughout the few preceding 
years had been as follows : 



District 


Plants in Operation 






1907 


1908 


1909 


1910 


East 

Central 

West 


34 

37 

10 

5 

8 


28 
40 
13 
6 
11 


35 
36 
17 
8 
12 


36 
33 

18 


Pacific Coast 


9 


South 


15 


Total 


94 


98 


108 


111 



The year 1910 was an important one. While prices were far from 
satisfactory, especially in the East, it was in 1910 that the real importance 
of the Portland cement industry received proper emphasis. In an address 
delivered before the cement manufacturers in December of that year, 
Edwin C. Eckel, the well-known geologist and Government expert, called 
attention to the fact that the amount of capital employed in the cement 
industry, which was then almost $150,000,000, far exceeded the capital 
invested in the plants producing gold, and surpassed even copper, ranking 
next to iron and coal among American industries. On the basis of capital 
actually employed, pig iron represented somewhat over $300,000,000, while 
the value of all copper mining and smelting plants was about $110,000,000. 
In brief, the cement industry had reached a point that made it a matter 
of importance not only to cement manufacturers but to commercial and 
financial interests generally. From a banking point of view, the cement 
industry had become, to quote Mr. Eckel, "one of the world's three great 
extractive industries." 

Companies incorporated in 1910: 

The Olympic Portland Cement Company, Ltd., Seattle, Washington. 



274 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



Clinchfield Portland Cement Corporation, Kingsport, Tennessee. 
The Ogden Portland Cement Compan}^, Ogden, Utah. 
International Portland Cement Company, Ltd., Spokane, Washington. 

YEAR 1911 



Year 


Barrels 


Value 


Average Factory 
Price per Bbl. 


1910 
1911 


76,549,951 
78,528,637 


$68,205,800 
66,248,817 


$0,891 
.844 



The year 1911 closed with the portland cement manufacturers in any- 
thing but a cheerful frame of mind. While production showed an increase 
of 2.58 per cent, the value of cement decreased 2.87 per cent. This was 
ascribed in part to the building of new plants in 1908 and 1909 and the 
substitution in many plants of long kilns for the shorter lengths, all of 
which increased output. The average factory price per barrel was 84.4 
cents. During the yvixv nine new plants reported their first commercial 
output, these being in California, Georgia, Iowa, Kansas, Maryland, 
Michigan, New York, Tennessee and Washington. It was in 1911 that 
attention was directed to another change in the general situation. In 
earlier years shipments had been made into far distant fields, the con- 
sumer having to pay freight. With the estabUshment of mills throughout 
territory formerly dependent on more distant plants, the latter found 
freight charges a serious obstacle. Where freight charges did not differ 
materially as between cement shipped from old and new mills, competition 
resulting in cross shipments began. This latter practice became, through- 
out succeeding years, decidedly disadvantageous to a great many com- 
panies as a large number adopted the plan of unloading surplus cement in 
territory logically the domain of competing companies, the result being 
ruinous prices. In the latter part of 1911 many large Eastern contracts 
made at 75 to 85 cents a barrel expired, and new ones were made as low 
as 60 to 65 cents. 

Companies incorporated in 1911: 

Michigan Portland Cement Company, Chelsea, Michigan. (A plant 
with 12 vertical kilns was constructed about 1903 by Homer C. Millen, 
son of Thomas Millen, at the site of the Michigan Portland Cement Com- 
pany's works, but the enterprise was not successful, and the plant was 
taken down to make room for the plant of the Michigan Company.) 

YEAR 1912 



Year 


Barrels 


Value 


Average Factory 
Price per Bbl. 


1911 
1912 


78,528,637 
82,438,096 


$66,248,817 
67,016,928 


$0,844 
.813 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



275 



In spite of the conditions prevailing in 1911, reports for 1912 showed 
another increase of approximately 4,000,000 barrels, with virtually no 
change in the number of active plants. The average price per barrel was 
81.3 cents compared with 84.4 cents in 1911. The lowest prices were re- 
ported from the Lehigh district. At this time six plants were producing 
white Portland cement amounting to over a half million barrels, which 
was valued at S2.29 a barrel, these mills being located in California, Col- 
orado, Indiana and Pennsylvania. In 1912 at least 45 of the active plants 
were idle during three months or more, the majority having shut down on 
account of full stock houses and lack of demand for cement. In Ala- 
bama, Kansas, Pennsylvania, Texas and Virginia some mills went into 
the hands of receivers. 

Comparatively new uses for cement attracting special interest at the 
time included construction of concrete roads and a growing demand for 
cement in architectural and art work. 

Extension of the portland cement industry at the time was confined 
chiefly to the Pacific coast. 

YEAR 1913 



Year 


Barrels 


Value 


Average Factory 
Price per Bbl. 


1912 
1913 


82,438,096 
92,097,131 


$67,016,928 
92,557,617 


$0,813 
1.005 



The year 1913 was marked by another surprising increase in produc- 
tion, which amounted to 11.7 per cent as compared with 1912. The out- 
put jumped from about 82,400,000 barrels in 1912 to a little over 92,- 
000,000 barrels, making 1913 the year in which the third largest annual 
output in the history of the industry took place. The exact figures for 
1913 were 92,097,131 barrels, the second largest output being 1917, with 
92,814,202 barrels, and the third in 1920 with 100,023,245 barrels. The 
average factory price per barrel in 1913 was $1,005. Increased consump- 
tion of cement took place, due in a large measure to increased demand for 
farm purposes and the construction of concrete roads. The concrete roads 
in Wayne County, Michigan, were attracting national attention and other 
states were preparing to construct extended mileage. The use of cement 
for this purpose was recognized by manufacturers as a matter of vital 
importance. An increase of nearly 20 cents a barrel over 1912 was an 
encouraging circumstance, particularly after the situation prevailing dur- 
ing the three or four preceding years, when many companies became 
insolvent or bankrupt. 

A careful analysis of previous conditions showed that matters could 
be improved by more careful cost accounting, particularly with reference 
to depreciation and obsolescence, two important factors receiving httle 



276 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



attention up to that period. Altogether, 1913 was considered a good year 
in the industry. From the standpoint of production by districts, marked 
changes were taking place, output from the Lehigh chstrict, which had 
long been the great manufacturing center, dropping to 30 per cent of the 
total output of 1913, while increases took place in New York, Illinois, 
Northwestern and Indiana district, the Iowa and Missouri district and 
the Pacific Coast district. 

Companies incorporated in 1913: 

Giant Portland Cement Company, Philadelphia. (Originally the 
American Cement Company, the latter successor of the American Im- 
proved Cements Company.) 

Monarch Cement Company, Humboldt, Kansas. (Reorganized 
above year.) 

The Great Western Portland Cement Company of Kansas, Kansas 
City, Missouri. 

YEAR 1914 



Year 


Barrels 


Value 


Average Factory 
Price per Bbl. 


1913 
1914 


92,097,131 
88,230,170 


$92,557,617 
81,789,368 


$1,005 

.927 



Before the close of 1914, portland cement manufacturers found that 
their industry, in common with other American industries, had become 
subject to influences originating far beyond the boundaries of the United 
States. The European war resulted in a decrease in production, the first 
decline since the manufacture of portland cement began in America. 
From a fraction over a dollar a barrel at the mills in 1913, the average 
price declined to 92.7 cents. About 65 per cent of the mills were affected 
adversely as to prices, 23 per cent receiving practically the 1913 prices, 
and 12 per cent being fortunate enough to receive higher prices than 1913. 
In the East, markets approached a state of demorahzation with symptoms 
of a price war. Uncertainty as to the duration and outcome of the World 
War caused cessation of many construction projects. 

Companies organized in 1914: 

Texas Portland Cement Company, Dallas, Texas. 

YEAR 1915 



Year 


Barrels 


Value 


Average Factory 
Price per Bbl. 


1914 
1915 


88,230,170 
85,914,907 


$81,789,368 
73,886,820 


$0,927 
.860 



The trade war presaged by conditions in 1914 began in 1915, when 
prices declined, dropping to an average factory price of 86 cents per barrel 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



277 



as against 92.7 cents the previous year. There was httle change in pro- 
duction as compared with 1914, the increase being only 0.5 per cent. 
Building operations were still restricted and the year opened with limited 
demand for cement. Several months later the situation improved some- 
what, but price cutting became abnormal, even in the face of advancing 
prices for coal and labor at the mills. Toward the close of the year, how- 
ever, conditions became more stable and prices began to advance in 
accordance with increased demands for cement. 

Companies incorporated in 1915: 

Oregon Portland Cement Company, Portland, Oregon . 

YEAR 1916 



Year 


Barrels 


Value 


Average Factory 
Price per Bbl. 


1915 
1916 


85,914,907 
91,521,198 


$ 77,886,820 
100,947,881 


$0,860 
1.103 



Increased shipments and gradual advance in the price of cement were 
the outstanding features of 1916. Dollar cement returned and continued 
to advance, the average price at the mills being $1,103 per barrel. Ship- 
ments decreased the stocks on hand 27.1 per cent. Building materials of 
all descriptions advanced in price, most of them increasing more rapidly 
than cement. The year also witnessed a reversal of consumption sta- 
tistics as applied to some districts. In 1916 the eastern states took 39.69 
per cent of the total output and the mid-western states 37.61 per cent. 
In 1913 exactly the opposite was true. The Lehigh district, which had 
reached a maxmum of 74.8 per cent of the total output of the country in 
previous years, dropped to a fraction over 24 per cent in 1916. Another 
trend in the industry noted in 1916 was the purchase of plants by large 
companies as distinguished from the building of new mills. This in- 
creased the distribution geographically of a single brand, thus making the 
operations of some of these companies national in scope, by which the 
consumer profited through reduced freight charges and lower cost of pro- 
duction. 

Companies incorporated in 1916: 

Hercules Cement Corporation, Hercules, Pennsylvania. (Construc- 
tion of this plant was undertaken originally by the Atlantic Portland 
Cement Compan\^, of which Irving Bachman and W. Dingee were the 
principals. It was intended to be one of their chain of plants operating or 
under construction prior to 1910.) 

The Wellston Iron Furnace Company, Jackson, Ohio. 

Hawkeye Portland Cement Company, Des Moines, Iowa. (Suc- 
ceeded the Iowa Portland Cement Company.) 



278 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



YEAR 1917 



Year 


Barrels 


Value 


Average Factory 
Price per Bbl. 


1916 
1917 


91,521,198 
92,814,202 


$100,947,881 
125,670,430 


$1,103 
1.354 



In 1917, production of portland cement exceeded all previous records, 
output rcachino; approximately 93,000,000 barrels. There occurred, how- 
ever, a slight decrease in shipments as compared with 1916. The average 
price at the factories increased to $1,354 per barrel as against $1,103 in 
1916, the advance being due to war conditions. Three new plants re- 
ported production, these being in Pennsylvania, Iowa and Oregon, 

A matter of moment brought up in 1917 was a change in the specifi- 
cation for fineness of portland cement from 75 per cent to 78 per cent on a 
200-mesh sieve, which involved installation of the machinerj^ required to 
meet the change. It had been the purpose of the Government to demand 
80 per cent fineness by July 1, 1918, but this was waived until after the war. 

During the year, manufacturers became especially interested in a new 
phase of concrete construction, the building of concrete ships to meet war 
emergencies, which, it was hoped, would become a standardized industry. 
The destruction of important highways under war traffic also promised 
increased demand for cement for road purposes, many of the fighter types 
of roads having failed under the test of heavy truck traffic. The year also 
marked the installation of potash-recovery plants at a number of mills. 

Incidentally, there was conspicuous decline in the production of 
puzzolan and natural cements. The natural cement output decreased 
some 200,000 barrels, while puzzolan production was restricted to a point 
virtually amounting to cessation of the industry. As a matter of history, 
it may be said that the first recorded output of puzzolan occurred in 
1895, when 12,000 barrels were produced. In 1907 output reached some- 
thing over 500,000 barrels, dechning to about 43,000 bai-rels in 1915. 

Companies incorporated in 1917: 

Indiana Portland Cement Company, Greencastle, Indiana. 

Nebraska Cement Company, Superior, Nebraska. 

YEAR 1918 



Year 


Barrels 


Value 


Average Factory 
Price per Bbl. 


1917 
1918 


92,814,202 
71,081,663 


$125,670,430 
113,730,661 


$1,354 
1.598 



In 1918, war conditions resulted in marked decline in production, 
which fell below the annual output of all preceding years back to and 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



279 



including 1910. The greatest decline in production took place in the far 
western and Pacific coast districts. The Government took control of 
the industry insofar as it concerned distribution of cement, and indirectly 
exercised partial control of the manufacturing side of the industry through 
its power to restrict the use of fuel and railway shipments. About 54 per 
cent of the country's total mill capacity was utilized. The largest con- 
sumption took place in localities requiring important Government work. 
Interest in concrete ships increased, contracts for 42 vessels having been 
let by the Emergency Fleet Corporation. The average factory prices of 
cement per barrel advanced from $1,354 in 1917 to $1,596 in 1918, the 
highest prices prevailing in the east. Advanced price, however, was 
largely offset by increase in the cost of labor and materials. The Govern- 
ment and cement manufacturers cooperated in seeking to introduce 
economies in manufacturing, especially with relation to fuel. 

During the year two new plants, one in California and the other in 
Montana, commenced manufacturing. Six of the 114 plants throughout 
the country were idle. 

Importations of cement were practically wiped out, only 305 barrels 
coming in during 1918. 

YEAR 1919 



Year 


Barrels 


Value 


Average Factory 
Price per Bbl. 


1918 
1919 


71,081,663 
80,777,935 


$113,730,661 
138,130,269 


$1,598 
1.71 



With coal and car requirements still subject to war restraints, the 
winter conditions of 1919 were extremely dull, but in the spring building 
activities revived, creating a demand for cement which resulted, during 
the last six months of the year, in the largest shipments in six months ever 
known in the history of the industry. Taking the entire year, there was 
an increase of 13 per cent in production and 21 per cent in shipments over 
1918. Production in 1919 amounted to 80,287,000 barrels, as against 
71,081,663 in 1918. 

Comparison of the market prices of portland cement with those of 
other industries, especially in the building trades, indicate that cement did 
not advance proportionately with other commodities, and that in the face 
of car shortages, higher prices for fuel and increased labor costs the total 
advance was slight as compared with the previous year. The records of 
1919 show that consumption had gone back to its pre-war per capita con- 
sumption of 0.78 barrel. 

There were 111 plants producing cement in 1919, with shipments 
from 113 plants. The estimated total capacity of the country was 130,- 



280 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



000,000 barrels per year, while the highest annual production ever recorded 
was a httle under 93,000,000 barrels. 

With the close of the war the various Governmental restrictions on the 
industry, which affected prices, fuel and car supply, were gradually re- 
moved. 

Companies incorporated in 1919: 

The British Columbia Cement Compan}^ Ltd., Victoria, B. C. 

The Alsen Cement Company of America, Inc., New York City. 
(Successor of Alsen's American Portland Cement Works, incorporated 
in 1900.) 

International Cement Corporation, New York City. 

LaSalle Cement Company, Chicago, Illinois. (Successor of German- 
American Portland Cement Works.) 

St. Mary's Cement Company, Ltd., Toronto, Canada. 

YEAR 1920 



Year 


Barrels 


Value 


Average Factory 
Price per Bbl. 


1919 
1920 


80,777,935 
100,023,245 


$138,130,269 
202,046,955 


$1.71 
2.02 



The year 1920 marked the highest point in production ever credited 
to the industry, the figures running over 100,000,000 barrels valued at more 
than $200,000,000, with average factory price $2.02 per barrel. 

Stocks at the beginning of 1920 were lower than at the beginning of 
any other year since records have been kept by the United States Geo- 
logical Survey. At the end of the year, however, a normal quantity of 
cement had been made for use in 1921. In the opinion of the Government 
statisticians, the greatest need of the industry was steadier demand, and 
it was stated that efforts to bring this about were being made, but that 
it presented "an exceedingly complicated problem." 

Trade and manufacturing conditions were better generally than in 
1919, though most plants felt the cessation of demand and lowered prices 
at the end of the year. 

There were 117 plants manufacturing in 1920 as compared with 111 
in 1919. The total capacity of all mills in 1920 was estimated at 146,- 
400,000 barrels, production for the year being about 68 per cent of this 
estimated capacity. 

Foreign shipments of hydraulic cements, most of it portland, showed 
an increase "of 21 per cent. The exports for the year amounted to about 
3 per cent of total production. 

Companies incorporated in 1920: 

Gulf States Portland Cement Company, Spocari, Alabama. (Origi- 
nally the Alabama Portland Cement Company, organized in 1901.) 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



281 



YEAR 1921 



Year 


Barrels 


Value 


Average Factory 
Price per Bbl. 


1920 
1921 


100,023,245 

98,842,049 


$202,046,955 
186,811,473 


$2.02 
1.89 



From the foregoing figures it will be seen that 1921 recorded a decline 
of approximately 1 per cent in production by comparison with 1920. The 
price also declined, averaging at the factory $1.89. 

At the end of 1921 stocks on hand at the mills were 12,187,364 barrels, 
showng an increase of 38 per cent by comparison with the same time the 
preceidlng y:ar. 

During 1921 portland cement was manufactured at 115 plants, as 
compared with 117 plants in 1920. Six plants that were formerly active 
manufactured no cement during 1921 — one each in Indiana, Michigan, 
New Jersey, New York, Oklahoma and Virginia. However, some of the 
idle plants shipped cement from stock. 

Two new plants produced portland cement in 1921, the Petoskey at 
Petoskey, Michigan, and the Bessemer at Bessemer, Pennsylvania. 

The plant of the Petoskey Portland Cement Company operated on 
the wet process, using limestone and shale as raw materials and coal as 
fuel. Two 10 by 150-foot kilns were operated, having a daily clinker 
capacity of 2,000 barrels. 

The Bessemer Limestone and Cement Company operated under the 
wet process, using limestone and shale as raw materials and coal as fuel. 
This plant used three 10 by 235-foot kilns, with daily clinker capacity of 
3,000 barrels. 

In 1921, the hydraulic cement exported to foreign countries, including 
the Philippines and the Canal Zone, most of it portland cement, decreased 
60 per cent in quantity and 57 per cent in value. The quantity exported 
in 1921 was slightly over 1 per cent of the total production of hydraulic 
cement in that year. 

YEAR 1922 



Year 


Barrels 


Value 


Average Factory 
Price per Bbl. 


1921 
1922 


98,842,049 
114,789,984 


$186,811,473 
202,030,372 


$1.89 
1.76 



New records marked the year 1922. Production was nearly 1 15,000,000 
barrels and total shipments nearly 118,000,000 barrels. There was a still 
further decline in average factory price from $1.89 to $1.76. 

The total production for the year was therefore 16 per cent over that 
of 1921, while shipments showed an increase of 23 per cent in quantity and 



282 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



nearly 15 per cent in gross value. The average selling price at the mills 
showed a net decrease of nearly 7 per cent. 

Of the 27 states in which portland cement was manufactured in 1922, 
all but five showed an increase in production and all but three showed an 
increase in shipments. In 1922 shipments exceeded production by 
2,911,232 barrels, but this was amply taken care of by the much larger 
stocks carried over at the end of 1921. 

Portland cement was manufactured at 118 plants in 1922 as com- 
pared with 115 in 1921. 

New plants were under construction in Alabama, Iowa, Michigan, 
Ohio and Tennessee. Several of these plants were sufficiently near com- 
pletion to enable the forecast that they would become producers in 1923. 

YEAR 1923 



Year 


Barrels 


Value 


Average Factory 
Price per Bbl. 


1922 
1923 


114,789,984 
137,460,238 


$202,030,372 
261,174,452 


$1.76 
1.90 



At the time this was written the United States Geological Survey, De- 
partment of Interior, had not issued its usual annual bulletin covering 
cement production, shipments and other statistics of the cement industry 
with the usual analysis of figures made in that bulletin. 

However, in its preliminary report for 1923, attention is called to 
the fact that the quantity of portland cement produced, namely, 137,- 
460,238 barrels, again constituted a record. This production was about 
20 per cent greater than the production in 1922. Not only did production 
figures constitute a new record but shipments of portland cement from 
mills likewise made a high record, showing an increase of 15 per cent over 
those of 1922. 

The average factory price per barrel in bulk in 1923 was S1.90, an 
increase of 14 cents or 8 per cent as compared with 1922. 

Manufacturing capacity showed a considerable increase over 1922 
due to the fact that eight new mills were completed in 1923. The capacity 
of existing mills at the end of 1923 was estimated by the United States 
Geological Survey as 161,858,300 barrels annually. 



APPENDIX C 

HISTORICAL NOTES ON PORTLAND CEMENT MANUFACTURERS 

The following gives a brief historical outline of each of the cement 
companies listed: 

ACME CExMENT CORPORATION, CATSKILL, NEW YORK 

Organized originally in 1912 under the name Sterling Cement Companj^, and 
changed name to Acme Cement Corporation (of New York). First cement was 
shipped in 1916; capacity per day 2,000 barrels. Principal officers when organized: 
Ormsby McHarg, President; P. T. Watt, Vice President; Walter L. Barnum, 
Secretary; George H. Hedge, Treasurer. In 1918 the Acme Cement Corporation 
(of New York) was dissolved. A new organization was formed in October, 1919, 
under the laws of the State of Delaware. Principal officers at present are William 
H. Baker, President; Charles G. Watt, Vice President; Luther G. McConnell, 
Secretary-Treasurer. One mill located at Alsen, N. Y. Present capacity per day 
3,000 barrels. The raw materials used are limestone and clay. The wet process of 
manufacture is employed. Have four kilns 8 by 180 feet. Coal is used as fuel. 

AETNA PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, DETROIT, MICHIGAN 

Organized originally in 1902 under the name Detroit Portland Cement Company. 
First cement shipped in 1902; capacity in barrels per day 1,100. Reorganized in 
1908. The principal officers are: Frankhn R. Johnson, President; R. E. Paine, 
Secretary-Treasurer; O. J. Lingemann, General Manager. One mill located at 
Fenton, Michigan, and another at Bay City, Michigan. Present capacity per day 
3,000 barrels. The raw materials used are marl, limestone, and clay, the wet and 
dry processes being used in manufacture. Have three kilns 10 by 175 feet and 
powdered coal is used as fuel. 
ALLENTOWN PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, ALLENTOWN, PENN- 
SYLVANIA 
Organized in 1909 under the present name. The principal officers when first organ- 
ized were: Theo. G. Wolf, President; C. A. Matchman, Vice President; C. A. 
Wolle, Secretary-Treasurer. First cement shipped in 1910; capacitj' in barrels per 
day 2,600. Principal officers at present are: J. W. Fuller, President; J. T. Phelan, 
Vice President and General Manager; R. S. Weaver, Secretary-Treasurer. One 
mill located at Evansville, Berks County, Pennsylvania. Present capacity per day 
2,600 barrels. The raw materials used are cement rock and limestone. The dry 
process of manufacture is employed. Have four kilns, size 8 by 120 feet and 
pulverized coal is used as fuel. 
ALPHA PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, EASTON, PENNSYLVANIA 

Organized originally in 1895 under the present name. The principal officers when 
first organized were: George E. Bartol, President; Richard L. Austin, Treasurer; 
G. Walter Holloway, Secretary. First cement shipped in 1895; capacity in barrels 

283 



284 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

per day 369M. Reorganized in 1910. Principal officers at present are: G. S. 
Brown, President; F. G. McKelvy, Vice President; F. M. Coogan, Vice President; 

C. A. Irvin, Vice President; John J. Matthes, Treasurer; R. S. Gerstell, Secretarj-. 
There are 10 mills located as follows: 1 at Alpha, N. J.; 2 at Martins Creek, Pa.; 
1 at Cementon, N. Y.; 1 at Jamesville, N. Y.; 1 at Manheim, W. Va.; 1 at Ironton 
Ohio; 1 at Bellevue, Mich; 1 at LaSalle, 111.; 1 at St. Louis, Mo. Present capacit 
per day 32,000 barrels. The raw materials used are cement rock, clay, and shale^ 
The dry process of manufacture is employed. Have 71 kilns ranging in size from- 
5 feet 6 inches to 10 feet in diameter and from 60 feet to 164 feet in length. Pul- 
verized coal is used as fuel. 

ASH GROVE LIME & PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, KANSAS CITY, 
MISSOURI 
Organized originally in 1880 under the name Ash Grove White Lime Association. 
Principal officers when first organized: W. B. Hill, President; O. J. Hill, Vice 
President; J. H. Barton, Secretary; J. F. Pollock, Treasurer. First cement shipped 
in 1908; capacity per day 2,000 barrels. Reorganized in 1907 under the name 
Ash Grove Lime & Portland Cement Company. Principal officers at present are: 
L. T. Sunderland, President; J. A. Sunderland, First Vice President; J. F. Pollock, 
Vice President and Treasurer in charge of Sales, Traffic; W. P. Sabin, Secretary and 
Assistant to President. One mill located at Chanute, Ivans. Present capacity per 
day 4,167 barrels. Raw materials used are rock and shale. The wet process of 
manufacture is employed. Have six kilns, five of which are 8 by 125 feet and one 9 
by 8 by 200 feet. Coal, fuel oil, and gas are used as fuel. 

THE ATLAS PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, NEW YORK CITY. 

Organized in 1899 under the present name. First cement shipped in 1895. Prin- 
cipal officers at present are: John R. Morron, President; A. de Navarro, Vice 
President; Howard W. Maxwell, Vice President; L. R. Burch, Vice President; 

D. H. MacFarland, Assistant to President; W. E. Miner, Secretary-Treasurer. 
There are nine mills located as follows: 3 at Northampton, Pennsylvania; 1 at 
Coplay, Penns\'lvania; 2 at Hannibal, Missouri; 1 at Leeds, Alabama; 1 at Hud- 
son, New York (operated by subsidiary company — New York and New England 
Cement & Lime Company); 1 at Independence, Kansas (operated by subsidiary 
company — The Atlas Portland Cement Company of Kansas). Present capacity 
per day 52,800 barrels. The raw materials used are limestone, clay, cement rock, 
shale, and sand rock. The dry process of manufacture is employed. Coal, oil, 
and natural gas is used for fuel. 

BATH PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, PHILADELPHIA. 

Organized in 1904 under the present name. Principal officers when first organized 
were: G. W. Roydhouse, George Miller, and Fred B. Franks. First cement was 
shipped in 1905; capacity per day 2,500 barrels. Principal officers at present time 
are: John Barnes, President; Fred B. Franks, Vice President; R. O. Althouse, 
Secretary. One mill located at Bath, Pa. Present capacity per day 3,100 barrels. 
The raw material used is cement rock. The dry process of manufacture is employed. 
Have seven kilns, 7 feet 6 inches by 100 feet. Coal is used for fuel. 

BEAVER PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, PORTLAND, OREGON. 

Organized originally in 1913 under the present name. Principal officers when 
organized were: J. C. Burch, President; Wm. Schrump, Vice President; C. S. 
Woody, Secretary-Treasurer. First cement was shii)ped in 1920. Reorganized in 
1919 and the principal officers at present are; D. L. Carpenter, President; W. H. 
Muirhead, Vice President; L. II. Adams, Secretary. One mill located at Gold 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 285 

Hill, Oregon. Present capacity per day 1,000 barrels. The raw materials used are 
limestone and shale. The wet process of manufacture is employed. Have one kiln 
and crude oil is used as fuel. 
BESSEMER LIMESTONE & CEMENT COMPANY, YOUNGSTOWN, OHIO. 
Organized originally in 1887 under the name Bessemer Limestone Company. The 
principal officers when originally organized were: J. G. Butler, Jr., President; 
W. B. Schiller, Secretary-Treasurer. Reorganized in 1888. In 1919 the name 
Bessemer Limestone and Cement Company was adopted. First cement was 
shipped in 1921; capacity per day 3,000 barrels. The principal officers at present 
are: J. G. Butler, Jr., Chairman, Board of Directors; John Tod, President; R. C. 
Steese, Vice President; F. R. Kanengeiser, Vice President and General Manager; 
G. G. Treat, Secretary-Treasurer. One mill located at Bessemer (Post Office), 
Lawrence County, Walford (shipping point), Pennsylvania. Present capacity per 
day 3,700 barrels. The raw materials used are limestone and shale. The wet 
process of manufacture is employed. Have three 10 by 175-foot kilns with an 
8 by 60-foot extension. Pulverized coal used as fuel. 

CALIFORNIA PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, LOS ANGELES, CALI- 
FORNIA. 

Principal officers are: Dan Murphy, President; Marco H. Hellman, Vice President; 
T. J. Fleming, Secretary-Treasurer, General Manager, and Purchasing Sales Agent. 
Capacity per day 4,500 barrels. Mill located at Colton. Dry process of manufac- 
ture is employed. Have five 8 bj^ 7 by 120-foot kilns and three SJ^ by 150-foot 
kilns. Oil is used for fuel. 

CASTALIA PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, PITTSBURGH, PENNSYL- 
VANIA. 
•Principal officers are: J. D. Rhodes, President; J. Twin Brooks, Vice-President and 
General Manager; Andrew Muirhead, Secretary; C. Salmond, Treasurer. Ca- 
pacity per day 2,200 barrels. Mill located at Castalia, Ohio. Wet process of manu- 
facture is employed. Have seven kilns, two 8 by 120 feet and five 6 by 125 feet. 
Coal is used as fuel. 

CLINCHFIELD PORTLAND CEMENT CORPORATION, KINGSPORT, TEN- 
NESSEE. 
Organized in 1910 under the present name. Principal officers when organized were: 
John A. Miller, President; H. R. Dennis, Vice President; W. M. Bennett, Secre- 
tary-Treasurer; E. G. Woodling, Assistant Secretar3^ First cement was shipped in 
1911; capacity per day 1,333 barrels. Principal officers at present are: John A. 
Miller, President; James A. Blair, Jr., First Vice President; H. R. Dennis, Vice 
President; Warren P. Eaton, Secretary; W. M. Bennett, Jr., Treasurer and Assistant 
Secretary; F. Guenther, Jr., General Manager. One mill located at Kingsport, 
- Tenn. Present capacity per day 4,000 barrels. The raw materials used are limestone 
and shalestone. The dry process of manufacture is employed. Have six kilns, 8 b}' 
125 feet. Coal is used for fuel. 

THE COLORADO PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, DENVER, COLORADO. 
Organized originally in 1901 under the name Portland Cement Company. Prin- 
cipal officers when organized were: John A. Thatcher, President; C. Leonardt, 
Vice President; M. B. Loy, Secretary-Treasurer. First cement was shipped in 
1902. Reorganized in 1908 under the name The Colorado Portland Cement Com- 
pany. The principal officers at present are: Charles Boettcher, President; C. K. 
Boettcher, Vice President and Treasurer; R. J. Morse, Secretary. One mill 
located at Portland, Colorado. Present capacity per day 3,000 barrels. The 



286 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

raw materials used are lime and shale. The dry process of manufacture is employed. 
Have five kilns, one 9 by 120 feet, two 8 by 120 feet, and two 7H by 120 feet. Coal 
is used for fuel. 

COPLAY CEMENT MANUFACTURING COMPANY, COPLAY, PENNSYL- 
VANIA. 
Organized originally under the name Coplay Cement Company, AUentown, Pa. 
Principal officers when organized were: David O. Saylor, President; Adam Wool- 
ever. Secretary; Esias Rehrig, Treasurer. First cement was shipped in 187-1; ca- 
pacity per day 200 to 300 barrels. Reorganized in 1901 and adopted the present 
name. Principal officers at pre.sent are: Herbert E. Steiner, President; Eugene 
Blum, Chairman; Sol Kohn, Vice President; Abraham Israel, Vice President; 
George A. Christ, Secretary-Treasurer. Two mills located at Coplay and Saylor, 
Pennsylvania. Present capacity per day 5,000 barrels. The raw materials used are 
limestone and cement rock. The dry process of manufacture is employed. Have 
seven kilns, four 7 by 120, one 9 by 120, and two 9 by 125 feet. Gas and coal are 
used as fuel. 

COWELL PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA. 
Organzied in 1907 under the present name. Principal officers when organized were: 

E. V. Cowell, President; S. H. Cowell, Vice President; Miss H. E. Cowell, Treas- 
urer; W. H. George, Secretary and General Manager. First cement shipped in 
1909; capacity per day 4,500 barrels. Principal officers at present are: S. H. 
Cowell, Vice President; Miss H. E. Cowell, Treasurer; W. H. George, Secretary 
and General Manager. One mill located at Cowell, Contra Costa County, Califor- 
nia. Present capacity per day 4,500 barrels. The raw materials used are lime, clay, 
and silica sand. The dry process of manufacture is employed. Have eight kilns, 
7H b}' 110. Oil is u.sed as fuel for burning clinker. 

CRESCENT PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, WAMPUM, PENNSYLVANIA. 
Organized originally in 1875 under the name Wampum Mining & Manufacturing 
Company. Principal officers when organized were: W. P. Shinn, President; John 
K. Shinn, Secretary-Treasurer. Capacity per day 300 barrels. Reorganized, chang- 
ing the name to National Cement Company. The present organization is known as 
the Crescent Portland Cement Company. The principal officers are: David M. 
Kirk, President and General Manager. One mill located at Crescentdale Station 
(Wampum, P. O.), Pennsylvania. Present capacity per day 3,500 barrels. The 
raw materials used are limestone and shale. 

DEWEY PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, KANSAS CITY, MISSOURI. 
Organized in 1906 under the present name. Principal officers when organized were: 

F. E. Tyler, President and General Manager; T. S. Williamson, Vice President; 
J. H. Keith, Secretary; J. R. Mulsane, Treasurer. First cement was shipped in 
1908; capacity per day 2,000 barrels. Principal officers at present are: F. E. 
Tyler, President and General Manager; H. F. Tyler, Vice President; A. L. Frank, 
Vice President; R. W. Moore, Secretary; W. E. Tyler, Treasurer. One mill located 
at Dewey, Oklahoma. Present capacity per day 4,000 barrels. The raw materials 
used are limestone and shale. The dry process of manufacture is employed. Have 
SIX kiln^ 9}4 by 100. Coal is used for fuel. 

DEXTER PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, NAZARETH, PENNSYLVANIA. 
Organized in 1899 under the present name. Principal officers when organized were: 
Geo. E. Bartol, President; Wm. B. Newberry, Secretary-Treasurer. First cement 
was shipped in 1901. Capacity per day 500 barrels. Principal officers at present 
are: John A. Miller, President; Joseph Brobston, First Vice President and General 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 287 

Manager; M. T. Swartz, Second Vice President; Clarence F. Fehnel, Secretary; 
Harry L. Worman, Treasurer. One mill located at Nazareth, Pennsylvania. 
Present capacity per day 3,900 barrels. The raw material used is cement rock. 
The dry process of manufacture is employed. Have six 7 foot 6 inch by 100 foot 
kilns and two 8 foot by 100 foot kilns. Pulverized coal is used as fuel. 
THE DIAMOND PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, CLEVELAND, OHIO. 
Organized originally in 1892 under the present name. Principal officers when 
organized were: Z. W. Davis, President; W. G. Alcott, Vice President and Secre- 
tarj'-Treasurer. First cement was shipped in 1893; capacity per day 80 barrels. 
Reorganized in 1897. The principal officers at present are: Z. W. Davis, President; 
F. L. Alcott, Vice President; L. A. Reed, Secretary-Treasurer. One mill is located 
at Middle Branch, Stark County, Ohio. Present capacity per day 2,500 barrels. 
The raw materials used are lime rock, shale and clay. The dry process of manu- 
facture is employed. Have two kilns 10 by 150 feet. Coal is used as fuel. 

DIXIE PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, CHATTANOOGA, TENNESSEE. 
Organized in 1906 under the present name. Principal officers when organized were: 
George E. Nicholson, President; A. B. Cockerill, Vice President; L. L. Northrup, 
Treasurer; Richard Hardy, Secretary. First cement was shipped in 1907. Capacity 
per day 2,000 barrels. Principal officers at present are: Richard Hardy, President; 
George W. Millen, Vice President; George Kilian, Secretary-Treasurer. One mill 
located at Richard City, Tennessee. Present capacity per day 5,000 barrels. The 
raw materials used are limestone and shale. The wet process of manufacture is em- 
ployed. Have nine kilns 8 by 110 feet. Coal is used as fuel. 

EDISON PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, ORANGE, NEW JERSEY. 

Organized in 1899 under the present name. Principal officers when organized were: 
Wilham H. Shelmerdine, President; Walter S. Mallory, Vice President; William S. 
Pilling, Secretary-Treasurer. First cement was shipped in 1905; capacity per day 
3,000 barrels. Principal officers at present are: Thomas A. Edison, Chairman, 
Board; Charles Edison, President; W. D. Cloos, Vice President and General Man- 
ager; Harr}^ F. Miller, Treasurer; R. A. Wetzler, Vice President and District 
Manager at New York; A. C. Bruff, Vice President and District Manager at Bos- 
ton; J. W. Robinson, Secretary. One mill located at New Village, New Jerse}'. 
Present capacity per day 7,500 barrels. The raw materials used are cement rock, 
limestone. The dry process of manufacture is employed. Have ten kilns 150 feet 
long (6 feet 11 inches by 105 feet upper end, 7 feet 8 inches bj^ 45 feet lower end). 
Coal is used as fuel. 

FREDONIA PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, FREDONIA, KANSAS. 

Organized in 1906. Principal officers when organized were: E. S. Rea, President; 
F. H. Patterson, Vice President and Treasurer; A. P. Erwin, Secretary. First 
cement was shipped in 1907; capacity per day 500 barrels. Principal officers at 
present are F. H. Patterson, President; Mrs. F. H. Patterson, Vice President; F. C. 
Doggett, Secretary-Treasurer. One mill located at Fredonia, Kansas. Present 
capacity per day 1,500 barrels. The raw materials used are lime rock and shale. 
The wet process of manufacture is employed. Have three kilns 7 feet bj^ 160 feet. 
Gas, oil, and coal are used as fuel. 

GEORGIA CEMENT & STONE COMPANY, BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA. 

Principal officers are: George E. Nicholson, President; Ralph E. Nicholson, Vice 
President; George A. Nicholson, Secretary-Treasurer. Mills located at Portland, 
Georgia. Capacity per day 1,500 barrels. The dry process of manufacture is 
employed. Have two kilns 8 by 125 feet. Coal is used as fuel. 



288 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

GIANT PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYL- 
V^ANIA. 
Organized originally in 1883 under the name American Improved Cements Com- 
pany. Principal officers when organized were : Robert W. Lesley, President; Geo. W. 
Norris, Vice President; F. J. Jiggens, Treasurer; J. F. Lennig, Secretary. Capacity 
in barrels per day 8,000. Reorganized in 1912 under the name American Cement 
Company. In 1913 the name Giant Portland Cement Company was adopted. 
Principal officers at present are : Chas. F. Conn, President; W. L. Haehnlen, Vice 
President; F. J. Jiggens, Treasurer; J. F. Lennig, Secretary. Two mills located at 
Egypt, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania. Present capacity per day 6,000 barrels. The 
raw materials used are cement rock and limestone. The dry process of manufacture 
is employed. Have eight kilns 6 feet by 60 feet and six kilns 7 feet by 125 feet. Gas 
and coal used as fuel. 

GILMORE PORTLAND CEMENT CORPORATION, GILMORE CITY, IOWA 
Organized in 1911 under the name Fort Dodge Portland Cement Corporation. 
Principal officers when organized were: M. J. Nicholson, President; L. H. Van 
Alstine, Vice President; H. S. Van Alstine, Secretary-Treasurer. First cement was 
shipped in 1914; capacity in barrels per day 1,200. Principal officers at present are: 
A. C. Brown, President; L. H. Van Alstine, Vice President; H. S. Van Alstine, 
Secretary-Treasurer. One mill located at Gilmore City, Iowa. Present capacity 
per dsiY 1,200 barrels. The raw materials used are limestone and shale. The dry 
process of manufacture is employed. Have two kilns 9 by 124 feet. Coal is used 
as fuel. 

GLENS FALLS PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, GLENS FALLS, NEW YORK. 
Organized in 1893 under the present name. Principal officers when organized were 
Wm. W. McClay, President; S. L. Goodman, Vice President; A. W. Sherman, 
Treasurer; J. E. Parry, Secretary. First cement was shipped in 1894; capacity per 
day 200 barrels. Principal officers at present are: Geo. F. Baj-le, President; 
Byron Lapham, Vice President; Geo. F. Bayle, Jr., Second Vice President; J. E. 
Parry, Secretary; A. W. Sherman, Treasurer. One mill located at Glens Falls, 
New York. Present capacity per day 3,600 barrels. The raw materials used are 
cement rock, limestone, and clay. The wet process of manufacture is emploj'ed. 
Have two kilns 10 feet by 250 feet and four kilns 7H feet by 7 feet by 120 feet. 
Bituminous coal is used as fuel. 

GOLDEN STATE PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, LOS ANGELES, CALI- 
FORNIA. 
Organized in 1907 under the present name. Principal officers when organized were: 
F. O. Wyman, President; V. H. Graham, Vice President; E. M. Potts, Secretary. 
First cement was shipped in 1911; capacity per day 600 barrels. Principal officers 
at present are Griffith Henshaw, Vice President; John Treanor, Vice President and 
General Manager; Wm. H. Metcalf, Secretar3\ One mill located at Oro Grande, 
California. Present capacity per day 5,000 barrels. The raw materials used are 
limestone and shale. The dry process of manufacture is emploj'ed. Have seven 
kilns, 8 feet by 125 feet. Fuel oil is used as fuel. 

THE GREAT WESTERN PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, I^NSAS CITY, 

ivnssouRi. 

Organized originally in 1906 under the name The Great Western Portland Cement 
Company of Kansas. Principal officer when organized was J. W. \\'agner. Pres- 
ident. First cement was shipped in 1909; capacity per day 1,000 barrels. Reor- 
ganized in 1912, and in 1922 adopted the name The Great Western Portland Cement 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 289 

Company. Principal officers at present are: L. L. Seibel, President; Page Golsan, 
Vice President; William Volker, Secretary-Treasurer. One mill located at Mildred, 
Kansas. Present capacity per day 3,000 barrels. The raw materials used are lime- 
stone and clay. The wet process of manufacture is employed. Have three kilns 
and use gas, oil, and coal as fuel. 

GULF STATES PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, DEMOPOLIS, ALABAMA. 
Organized originally in 1901 under the name Alabama Portland Cement Company. 
Principal officers when organized were: R. C. Lebiens, President; Ralph Law, 
Secretary-Treasurer; Geo. P. Dieckman, Vice President. Capacity in barrels per 
day 300. Reorganized in 1919 under the name Gulf States Portland Cement Com- 
pany. Principal officers at present are: A. Tonnar, President; Henry McDaniel, 
Secretary-Treasurer; A. B. Wilder, Vice President; J. F. Jones, Vice President. One 
mill located at Spocari, Alabama. Present capacity per day 1,000 barrels. The raw 
materials used are chalky limestone and clay. The dry process of manufacture is 
employed. Have five 6 foot by 60 foot kilns. Coal is used as fuel. 

HAWKEYE PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, DES MOINES, IOWA 

Organized originally in 1908 under the name Iowa Portland Cement Company. 
Principal officers when organized were: Geo. E. Nicholson, President; J. C. Burch, 
Secretary-Treasurer. First cement was shipped in 1910; capacity per day 2,000 
barrels. Reorganized in 1916 under the name Hawkeye Portland Cement Com- 
pany. Principal officers at present are: L. C. Colman, President; L. F. Crofoot, 
Vice President; C. W. Hull, Treasurer; C. B. Condon, Secretary and General 
Manager. One mill located at Des Moines, Iowa. Present capacity per day 4,500 
barrels. The raw materials used are limestone and shale. The wet process of manu- 
facture is employed. Have six 9 by 125 foot kilns. Coal is used as fuel. 

THE HELDERBERG CEMENT COMPANY, ALBANY, NEW YORK. 

Organized in 1898. Principal officers were: T. H. Dumary, President; Chas. E. 
Lee, Vice President; C. H. Ramsey, Secretary-Treasurer. Capacity in barrels per 
day 100. Principal officers at present are: F. W. Kelley, President; Frederic 
Pruyn, Vice President; W. L. L. Peltz, Secretary; Chas. R. Parks, Treasurer. One 
mill located at Howes Cave, New York. Present capacity per day 2,000 barrels. 
The raw materials used are limestone and clay. The wet process of manufacture is 
employed. Have two kilns 10 feet by 9 feet by 170 feet. Coal is used as fuel. 

HERCULES CEMENT CORPORATION, PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA. 
Organized in 1916 under the present name. The principal officers when organized 
were: Morris Kind, President; Thomas M. Pierce, Secretary-Treasurer. First 
cement was shipped in 1917. Principal officers at present are: Morris Kind, Pres- 
ident; Lorin C. Powers, Secretary-Treasurer. One mill located at Stockertown, Pa. 
Capacity per day 3,000 barrels. The raw material used is cement rock. The dry 
process of manufacture is employed. Have six 7 foot 6 inch by 7 foot by 125 foot 
kilns. Coal is used as fuel. 

HERMITAGE PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, NASHVILLE, TENNESSEE. 
Organized in 1921 under the present name. Principal officers when organized were: 
John C. Vance, President; T. L. Herbert, Jr., Vice President; R. T. Miller, Secre- 
tary-Treasurer. First cement was shipped in 1924; capacity per day 2,000 barrels. 
Principal officers at present are: John C. Vance, President; T. L. Herbert, Jr., 
Vice President; R. D. Herbert, Secretary-Treasurer; R. T. Miller, General Man- 
ager. One mill located in Nashville, Tennessee. Present capacity per day 2,000 
barrels. The raw materials used are limestone and clay. The wet process of manu- 
facture is employed. Have two 10 foot by 150 foot kilns. Coal is used as fuel. 



290 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

HUROX PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, DETROIT, MICHIGAN. 

Organized in 1907 under the present name. Principal officers when organized were: 
J. B. Ford, President; E. L. Ford, Vice President; S. T. Crapo, Secretary-Treasurer. 
First cement shipped in 1908; capacity per day 3,000 barrels. Principal officers at 
present are: J. B. Ford, President; E. L. Ford, Vice President; John W. Boardman, 
Vice President; S. T. Crapo, Secretary-Treasurer. One mill located at Alpena, 
Michigan. Present capacity per day 10,000 barrels. The raw materials used are 
Alpena limestone and shale. The dry process of manufacture is employed. Have 
eight 8 by 110 foot kilns and three 10 by 150 foot kilns. Coal is u.sed as fuel. 

INDIANA PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, INDIANAPOLIS, INDIANA. 

Organized in 1917 under the present name. Principal officers when organized were: 
Adam L. Beck, President; Peter Martin, Vice President; W. H. Hart, Secretary; 
Marshall Beck, Treasurer and Purchasing Agent. First cement shipped in 1919; 
capacit}^ per day 1,200 barrels. Principal officers at present are: Adam L. Beck, 
President; Bert B. Williams, Vice President and Purchasing Agent; W. H. Hart, 
Secretary; Marshall Beck, Treasurer. One mill located at Limedale, Indiana (Post 
Office Greencastle, Indiana). Present capacity per daj' 4,000 barrels. The raw 
materials used are limestone and shale. The wet process of manufacture is em- 
ployed. Have three 10 foot by 240 foot kilns. Coal is u.sed in kilns for fuel and 
power is purchased. 

INTERNATIONAL CEMENT CORPORATION, NEW YORK, NEW YORK. 

Organized in 1919 under the present name. Principal officers when organized were: 
F, R. Bissell, Chairman, Board; H. Struckmann, President; R. F. Hoyt, Vice 
President; J. R. Dillon, Treasurer; A. J. Ronaghan, Secretary. Capacity per day 
14,700 barrels. Principal officers at present are: F. R. Bissell, Chairman, Board; 
H. Struckmann, President; R. F. Hojt, Mce President; Ejnar Posselt, Vice Pres- 
ident; Baxter D. McClain, Secretary; J. R. Dillon, Treasurer. Five mills located 
as follows: Dallas, Texas; Houston, Texas; Hudson, New York; Bonner Springs, 
Kansas; Norfolk, Virginia. Present capacity per day 27,000 barrels. The raw 
materials used at the different mills are Dallas — rock and shale; Houston — shells 
and clay; Hudson — rock and clay; Bonner Springs — rock and shale; Norfolk, 
— marl and clay. Wet process of manufacture employed in all plants. 

INTERNATIONAL PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, LTD., SPOKANE, 
WASHINGTON. 
Organized in 1910. Principal officers when organized were: J. S. Irvin, President; 
F. W. Dewart, Vice President and Treasurer; H. W. Wood, Secretary. First 
cement shipped in 1913; capacity per da\^ 1,500 barrels. Principal officers at present 
are: Wm. F. Powell, President; R. K. Neill, Vice President; John P. Hartman, 
Secretary; C. A. Irvin, Treasurer. One mill located at Irvin, Wash. Present ca- 
pacity per day 1,500 barrels. The raw materials used are cement rock, limestone 
and shale. The dry process of manufacture is employed. Have two S foot 6 inch by 
160 foot kilns. Powdered coal is used as fuel. 

THE KANSAS PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, KANSAS CITY, MISSOURI. 

Organized originally in 1919 under the name Bonner Portland Cement Company. 
Principal officers when organized were: W. H. Caffery, President; Chas. Knabb, 
Vice President; A. L. Cooper, Secretary; J. D. Waters, Treasurer. Capacity per 
day 600 barrels. Reorganized in 1923 under the name The Kansas Portland 
Cement Company. Principal officers at present are: F. R. Bissell, Chairman, Board; 
H. Struckmann, President and General Manager; J. A. Lehaney, Vice President 
and Sales Manager; Baxter D. McClain, Secretary; C. N. Peters, Treasurer and 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 291 

Assistant Secretary. One mill located at Sunflower Station, one mile east of Bonner 
Springs, Kansas. Present capacitj' per day 3,300 barrels. The raw materials used 
are rock and shale. The wet process of manufacture is employed. Have three 8 by 9 
by 225 foot kilns. Coal is used as fuel. 
KNICKERBOCKER PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, INC., ALBANY, 
NEW YORK. 
Organized originally in 1908 under the name Knickerbocker Portland Cement 
Company. Principal officers when organized were: Sheldon H. Bassett, President; 
Benjamin Briscoe, Vice President; J. D. Dalton, Secretary; Thomas F. Stevenson, 
Treasurer. First cement was shipped in 1911; capacity per day 3,000 barrels. 
Reorganized in 1918 under the name Knockerbocker Portland Cement Company, 
Inc. Principal officers at present are: F. R. Bissell, Chairman, Board; H. Struck- 
mann, President; Charles L. Hogan, Vice President; Baxter D. McClain, Secretary; 
H. H. Muehlke, Treasurer and Assistant Secretary. One mill located at Hudson, 
New York. Present capacity per day 5,000 barrels. The raw materials used are 
limestone and clay. The wet process of manufacture is employed. Have four 10 
foot by 175 foot kilns with waste heat boilers. Coal is used as fuel. 

KOSMOS PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, KOSMOSDALE, KENTUCKY. 
Organized in 1904 under the present name. Principal officers when organized were: 
Samuel Horner, Jr., President; Robert Horner, Vice President and Treasurer; 
A. McCracken, Secretary. First cement was shipped in 1905; capacity per day 1,200 
barrels. Principal officers at present are: Charles Horner, President; O. M. Clark, 
Vice President; Albert W. Horner, Vice President; Francis H. K. Hogue, Secretary- 
Treasurer. One mill located at Kosmosdale, Jefferson County, Kentucky. Present 
capacity per day 2,500 barrels. The raw materials used are limestone and clay. The 
dry process of manufacture is employed. Have four 7 by 6 by 80 foot kilns and two 
8/^ by 125 foot kilns. Coal is used as fuel. 

LAWRENCE PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, SIEGFRIED, PENNSYL- 
VANIA. 
Organized originally in 1889 under the name The Lawrence Cement Company. 
Principal officers when organized were: Warren Ackerman, President; Geo. S. 
Coutant, Vice President; Thomas A. Smith, Secretary-Treasurer. First cement 
shipped in 1889; capacity per day 10 barrels. Reorganized in 1898 under the name 
The Lawrence Cement Company of Pennsylvania. In 1909 adopted the name 
Lawrence Portland Cement Company. Principal officers at present are: Frank H. 
Smith, President; Marion S. Ackerman, Vice President; Charles A. Porter, Third 
Vice President; J. S. VanMiddlesworth, Secretary; H. R. Munger, Treasurer. One 
mill located at Siegfried, Pennsylvania The raw materials used are cement rock 
and limestone. The dry process of manufacture is employed. Have four 6 foot by 
110 foot kilns, one 73^ foot by 6 foot by 110 foot kiln, three 7 foot by 110 foot kilns 
and two 8 foot by 110 foot kilns. Gas and coal used as fuel. 

LEHIGH PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, ALLENTOWN, PENNSYLVANIA. 
Organized in 1897 under the present name. Principal officers when organized were: 
Harry C. Trexler, President; George Ormrod, Vice President; E. M. Young, 
Secretary-Treasurer. First cement shipped in 1898; capacity per day 800 barrels. 
Principal officers at present are: Harry C. Trexler, President; E. M.Young, First 
Vice President; D. E. Ritter, Second Vice President; Alonzo F. Walter, Secretary- 
Treasurer. Sixteen mills located as follows: Three at Ormrod and three at New 
Castle, Pennsylvania; two at Mitchell, Indiana; and one each at West Copla.v, Penn- 
sylvania, Fogelsville, Pennsylvania, Fordwick, Virginia, Mason City, Iowa, Oglesby, 



292 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

Illinois, lola, Kansas, Metaline Falls, Washington, and Birmingham, .AJabama. 
Present capacity per day 48,000 barrels. The raw materials used are limestone, 
cement rock, shale, and clay. The wet process of manufacture is employed at two 
mills and the dry process at 14 mills. Coal, gas and oil are used as fuel. 

LOUISVILLE CEMENT COMPANY, LOUISVILLE, KENTUCKY. 

Organized originally in 1866 under the name Louisville Cement & Water Power 
Company. Principal officers when organized were: Milton M. Rhorer, President; 
Joshua F. Speed, Secretary; Louisville Savings Institute, Treasurer. First natural 
cement shipped in 1826 and first portland cement shipped in 1906; capacity per 
day 300 barrels. Reorganized in 1869 under the name Louisville Cement Company. 
Principal officers at present are: W. S. Speed, President; F. M. Sackett, Vice 
President; Henry S. Gray, Secretary-Treasurer. One mill located at Speed, Clark 
County, Indiana. Present capacity per day 7,500 barrels. The raw materials used 
are limestone and shale. The dry process of manufacture is employed. Have two 10 
by 150 foot kilns, two 10 to 8 by 160 foot kilns and two 7 by 100 foot kilns. Coal 
is used as fuel. 

MANITOWOC PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, MANITOWOC, WISCONSIN. 
Organized in 1923 under the present name. Principal officers when organized were: 
Charles C. West, President; L. E. Geer, Secretary-Treasurer; J. B. John, Vice 
President and General Manager. First cement shipped in 1924. Principal officers 
at present are: Charles C. West, President; L. E. Geer, Secretary-Treasurer; J. B. 
John, Vice President and General Manager. One mill located at Manitowoc, Wis- 
consin. Present capacity per day 3,000 barrels. The raw materials used are lime- 
stone and clay. The wet process of manufacture is employed. Have three 10 foot 
by 160 foot kilns. Coal is used as fuel. 

MARQUETTE CEMENT MANUFACTURING COMPANY, CHICAGO, ILLI- 
NOIS. 
Organized originally in 1898 under the name Marquette Cement Company. First 
cement was shipped in 1899; capacity per day 250 barrels. Reorganized in 1903 
under the name Marquette Cement Manufacturing Company. Principal officers at 
present are: Theodore G. Dickinson, President; William Dickinson, Vice President; 
Robert B. Dickinson, Vice President and General Manager; Sellar BuUard, Vice 
President; Walter A. Wecker, Secretary-Treasurer. Two mills located at LaSalle, 
Illinois, and Cape Girardeau, Missouri. Present capacity per day 11,500 barrels. The 
raw materials used are rock, shale, and clay. The dry process of mamifacture is em- 
ployed. Have seven 9 by 100 foot kilns and three 9 by 130 foot kilns. Pulverized 
coal is used as fuel. 

MICHIGAN PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, CHELSEA, MICHIGAN. 

Plant has been leased and will be operated by Michigan State Industries. Principal 
officers are: N. S. Potter, Jr., President and General Manager; C. Z. Potter, Vice 
President and Secretary; K. L. Potter, Treasurer. Capacity per day 2,100 barrels. 
Wet process of manufacture is employed. Have three kilns 8 by 125 feet. Coal is 
used as fuel. 

MISSOURI PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI. 

Organized originally in 1891 under the name Union Sand Company. Principal 
officers when organized were: H. L. Block, President; A. H. Craney, Jr., Vice 
President; H. P. Johnson, Vice President; C. A. Cunningham, Secretary; C. G. 
Besch, Treasurer. First cement was shipped in 1902; capacity per day 2,000 bar- 
rels. Reorganized in 1917 under the name Missouri Portland Cement Company. 
Principal officers at present are: H. L. Block, President; C. A. Homer, Vice 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 293 

President; C. G. Besch, Vice President and Treasurer; Geo. M. Block, Vice Pres- 
ident; R. S. Colnon, Vice President; John H. Soell, Secretary and Purchasing 
Agent. Two mills located at Prospect Hill, Missouri, and Sugar Creek, Missouri. 
Present capacity per day at Prospect Hill 5,000 barrels and at Sugar Creek 3,000 
barrels. The raw materials used are limestone and shale. Wet process of manufac- 
ture is employed at Prospect Hill and the dry process at Sugar Creek. At Prospect 
Hill have two 11 foot 3 inch by 240 foot kilns and six 8 foot by 120 foot kilns, and at 
Sugar Creek four 8 foot by 125 foot kilns. Powdered coal is used as fuel. 

THE MONARCH CEMENT COMPANY, HUMBOLDT, KANSAS. 

Organized originally in 1907 under the name The Monarch Portland Cement Com- 
panJ^ Principal officers when organized were: O. M. Connett, President; William 
Keith, Secretary-Treasurer. Capacity per daj^ 2,000 barrels. Reorganized in 1913 
under the name The Monarch Cement Company. Principal officers at present are: 
H. F. G. Wulf, President; Fred H. Rhodes, Secretary-Treasurer. One mill located 
at Humboldt, Allen County, Kansas. Present capacity per day 4,000 barrels. The 
raw materials used are rock and shale. The dry process of manufacture is employed. 
Have eight 8 foot by 125 foot kilns. Gas, oil and coal used as fuel. 

MONOLITH PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA. 
Organized originally in 1920 under the name LTnited States Potash Company. 
Principal officers when organized were: Fred A. BalUn, President; Aman Moore, 
Vice President; Coy Burnett, Secretary-Treasurer. First cement was shipped in 
1920; capacity per day 1,000 barrels. Reorganized in 1921 under the name Mono- 
lith Portland Cement Company. Principal officers at present are: Coj^ Burnett, 
President; Wilmar Evans, Vice-President; J. J. Calkins, Secretarj^-Treasurer. One 
mill located at Monolith, Kern Covnity, California. Present capacity per day 2,500 
barrels. The raw materials used are limestone and clay. The wet process of manu- 
facture is emploj'ed. Have two 9 bj^ 125 foot kilns, one 9 by 200 foot kiln and one 
113^ by 200 foot kiln. Oil is used as fuel. 

NATIONAL CEMENT COMPANY, BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA. 

Principal officers are: Geo. E. Nicholson, President; Ralph E. Nicholson, Vice 
President; Frank G. Conkling, Assistant to the President in Charge of Sales; 
Geo. A. Nicholson, Secretary-Treasm-er. One mill located at Ragland, Alabama. 
Dry process of manufacture is employed. Have two 8 by 125 foot kilns and two 
9 by 125 foot kilns. Present capacity per day 2,500 barrels. Coal is used as fuel for 
burning. 

NAZARETH CEMENT COMPANY, NAZARETH, PENNSYLVANIA. 

Organized originally in 1906. Principal officers when organized were: A. M. 
Young, President; M. J. Warner, Vice President; P. H. Hampson, Treasurer; 
Geo. F. Coffin, Secretary. First cement shipped in 1906; capacity per day 1,200 
barrels. Reorganized in 1918. Principal officers at present are: M. J. Warner, 
President; J. W. Louder, Assistant to President; Geo. F. Coffin, Secretary-Treas- 
urer; Alfred L. Ferguson, Vice President and Assistant Treasurer. One mill located 
at Nazareth, Pennsylvania. Present capacity per day 4,800 barrels. The raw ma- 
terial used is cement rock. The dry process of manufacture is employed. Have four 
7 by 120 foot kilns, three 7 foot 6 inch by 120 foot kilns and one 9 by 120 foot kiln. 
Bituminous coal is used as fuel. 

NEBRASKA CEMENT COMPANY, DENVER, COLORADO. 

Organized in 1917 under the present name. Principal officers when organized were: 
C. Boettcher, President; E. E. Bruce, Vice President; R, J. Morse, Secretary; 
C. Boettcher, Treasurer. First cement was shipped in 1918; capacity per day 2,500 



294 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

barrels. Principal officers at present are: Charles Boettcher, President and Treas- 
urer; E. E. Bruce, Vice President; R. J. Morse, Secretary. One mill located at 
Superior, Nebraska. Present capacity per day 2,500 barrels. The raw materials 
used are lime and shale. The wet process of manufacture is employed. Have three 
9M by 8 by 200 foot kilns. Coal is used as fuel. 

NEWAYGO PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, NEWAYGO, MICHIGAN. 

Organized originallj^ in 1899 under the present name. Principal officers when 
organized were: D. McCool, President; Wm. Wright, Vice President; B. T. Becker, 
Secretary -Treasurer. First cement was shipped in 1901 ; capacity per day 500 bar- 
rels. Reorganized in 1911. Principal officers at present are: Clay H. Hollister, 
President; J. B. John, Vice President and General Manager; L. E. Geer, Vice 
President; W. A. Ansorge, Treasurer and Assistant General Manager; C. E. Wyman, 
Secretary. One mill located at Newaygo, Michigan. Present capacity per day 
3,000 barrels. The raw materials used are limestone and shale. The wet process of 
manufacture is employed. Have three 9 by 160 foot kilns. Coal is used as fuel. 

NEW EGYPTIAN PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, DETROIT, MICHIGAN. 
Organized in 1901 under the name Egyptian Portland Cement Company. Principal 
officers when organized were: Harry J. Paxton, President; Walter B. Cary, Vice 
President; Charles H. Paxton, Secretary-Treasurer. Principal officers at present are: 
Maynard D. Smith, President; E. R. Sullivan, Vice President; C. A. Bray, Secre- 
tary-Treasurer. Two mills located at Port Huron, Michigan, and Fenton, Michi- 
gan. Present capacity per day 3,200 barrels. The raw materials used at Port 
Huron are rock and clay and at Fenton, marl and clay. Have nine 6 by 60 foot 
kilns at Fenton and one 11 foot 3 inch by 200 foot kiln at Port Huron. Coal is 
used as fuel. 

NORTHWESTERN STATES PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, MASON CITY, 
IOWA. 
Principal officers are: C. H. McNider, President; A. F. Frudden, Vice President; 
F. E. Keeler, Treasurer; F. G. Ray, Secretary. One mill located at Mason City, 
Iowa. Capacity per day 8,350 barrels. The dry process of manufacture is employed. 
Have twelve kilns, two 8 by 110 foot and ten 7 by 110 foot. Coal is used as fuel. 

THE OGDEN PORTLAND CEMENT COxMPANY, OGDEN, UTAH. 

Organized in 1909 under the present name. Principal officers when organized were: 
W. J. Bell, President and General Manager; R. E. Bristol, Secretary-Treasurer; 
H. C. Day, Vice President; H. C. Baker, Vice-President. First cement was shipped 
in 1910; capacity per day 700 barrels. Principal officers at present are: C. A. Day, 
President; H. C. Day, Vice President and General Manager; C. R. Holling.sworth, 
Secretary; F. N. Bletcher, Treasurer. One mill located at Bakers, Box Elder 
County, Utah (Mail Address, Brigham City). Present capacity per day 1,200 
barrels. The raw materials used are marl and clay. The wet process of manufacture 
is employed. Have two 73^ by 100 foot and one 73^ by 125 foot kilns. Use pulver- 
ized coal as fuel. 

OKLAHOMA PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, DENVER, COLORADO. 

Organized originally in 1906 under the present name. Principal officers when or- 
ganized were: Adam L. Beck, President; C. C. Bishop, Vice President; J. I. Win- 
tersmith, Secretary-Treasurer. First cement was shij^ped in 1907; capacity per day 
2,000 barrels. Reorganized in 1918. Principal officers at present are: Charles 
Boettcher, President and Treasurer; C. K. Boettcher, Vice President; R. J. Morse, 
Secretary. Two mills located at Ada, Oklahoma. Present capacity per day 6,000 
barrels. The raw materials used are lime and shale. The wet and dry processes 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 295 

of manufacture are employed. Have seven kilns, two 7\i, by 125 feet, two 9 by 
125 feet and three 10 by 240 feet. Natural gas is used as fuel. 

OLD MISSION PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, SAN FRANCISCO, CALI- 
FORNIA. 
Principal officers are: William F. Humplirej', President; J. A. McCarthy, Vice 
President, Manager and Sales Manager; G. D. Perry, Secretary. Mills located at 
San Juan, San Benito County, California. Capacity per day 2,000 barrels. Wet 
process of manufacture is employed. Have four l]/2 by 150 foot kilns. Oil is used 
as fuel for burning. 

THE OLYMPIC PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, LTD., SEATTLE, WASH- 
INGTON. 
Organized in 1910 under the present name. Principal officers when organized were: 
Alexander B. Williamson, Chairman, Board of Directors; Thomas Rose, Secretary; 
Balfour, Guthrie & Company, Purchasing and Sales Agents and Managers. First 
cement was shipped in 1913; capacity per day 2,000 barrels. Principal officers at 
present are same as when organized. One mill located at Bellingham, Wash. 
Present capacity per day 2,000 barrels. The raw materials used are limestone and 
clay. The wet process of manufacture is employed. Have two 10 by 9 by 170 foot 
kilns. Oil is used as fuel. 

OREGON PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, PORTLAND, OREGON. 

Organized originalh' in 1915 under the name Portland Cement Company. Principal 
officers were: Andrew Smith, President; Aman Moore, Vice President and General 
Manager. First cement was shipped in 1916; capacity per day 1,150 barrels. Later 
on the name was changed to Oregon Portland Cement Company. Principal officers 
at present are: R. P. Butchart, President; L. C. Newlands, Vice President and 
General Manager; Carl W. Gath, Secretary-Treasurer. One mill located at Oswego, 
Oreg. Present capacity per day 1,150 barrels. The raw materials u.sed are cement 
rock and lime rock. The wet process of manufacture is employed. Have one 10 bj' 
9 by 210 foot kiln. Oil is used as fuel. 

PACIFIC PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, CONSOLIDATED, SAN FRAN- 
CISCO, CALIFORNIA. 

Organized originally in 1901 under the name Pacific Portland Cement Company. 
Principal officers were: George Stone, President; Nathan L. Bell, Secretary. First 
cement was shipped in 1902; capacity per da}' 450 barrels. Reorganized in 1905 
under the name Pacific Portland Cement Company, Cons. Principal officers at 
present are: Robert B. Henderson, President; J. D. McKee, Vice President; H. T. 
Battelle, Secretary. One mill located at Cement, Calif. Present capacity per day 
•1,200 barrels. The raw materials used are rock and clay. The dry process of manu- 
facture is employed. Have ten 80 foot kilns and one 100 foot kiln. Fuel oil is used. 

PEERLESS PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, DETROIT, MICHIGAN. 

Organized originally in 1897 under the name The Peerless Portland Cement Com- 
pany. Principal officers were: A. W. Wright, President; S. O. Bush, Vice President; 
Wm. M. Hatch, Secretary-Treasurer. First cement was shipped in 1897; capacity 
per day 250 barrels. Reorganized in 1907 under the name Peerless Portland Ce- 
ment Company. Principal officers at present are: Wm. M. Hatch, President and 
Manager; Chas. S. Bush, Vice President; John Gillespie, Secretary-Treasurer. One 
mill located at Union City, Michigan. Present capacity per da}' 2,000 barrels. 
The raw material used is marl. The wet process of manufacture is employed. 
Have nine 6H by 80 foot kilns. Coal is used as fuel. 



296 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

PENINSULAR PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, CEMENT CITY, MICHIGAN. 
Organized in 1899 under the present name. Principal officers were: Riley R. Rej'- 
nolds, Sr., President; Cyrenius A. Newcomb, Vice President; W. F. Cowham, 
Secretary; N. S. Potter, Treasurer. First cement was shipped in 1901; capacity per 
day 750 barrels. Principal officers at present are: John L. Senior, President; P. L. 
Carter, Vice President; F. W. Boley, Secretary; H. J. Weeks, Treasurer. One mill 
located at Cement City, Michigan. Present capacity per day 3,000 barrels. The 
raw materials used are marl and clay, and limestone. The semi-wet process of 
manufacture is employed. Have three kilns. Coal is used as fuel. 

PENN-ALLEN CEMENT COMPANY, ALLENTOWN, PENNSYLVANIA. 

Organized originally in 1902 under the name Penn- Allen Portland Cement Com- 
pany. Principal officers when organized were: Avon Barnes, President; W. R. 
Yeager, Treasurer; James K. Bowen, Secretary. First cement was shipped in 1903. 
Capacity per day 1,000 barrels. Reorganized in 1910 under the name Penn-.\llen 
Cement Company. Principal officers at present are: W. E. Erdell, President; 
E. A. Wolfe, Vice President; H. E. Hess, Treasurer; T. O. Bretherton, Secretary. 
One mill located at Penn-Allen, Nazareth District. Present capac-ity per day 3,000 
barrels. The raw materials used are cement rock and limestone. The dry proc- 
ess of manufacture is emploj'ed. Have six 7 by 80 foot kilns, one 8 by 80 foot kiln 
and one 8 by 125 foot kiln. Gas and coal used as fuel. 

PENNSYLVANIA CEMENT COMPANY, NEW YORK CITY. 

Organized in 1900 under the present name. Principal officers when organized were: 
W. N. Beach, President; A. H. Alker, Vice President; R. E. Bonner, Secretary- 
Treasurer. First cement was shipped in 1903; capacity per day 1,000 barrels. 
Principal officers at present are: W. N. Beach, President; J. W. Alker, Vice 
President; E. P. Alker, Treasurer; W. J. Canary, Secretary. Two mills located at 
Bath, Pennsylvania, and Portland Point, New York. Present capacity per day at 
Bath 5,000 barrels and at Portland Point 3,000 barrels. The raw material used is 
cement rock. The dry process of manufacture is employed. Have eleven 9 by 125 
foot kilns. Coal is used as fuel. 

PETOSKEY PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, PETOSKEY, MICHIGAN. 
Organized in 1917 under the present name. Principal officers were: A. B. Klise, 
President; Homer Sly, Vice President; John L. A. Galster, Secretarj^-Treasurer. 
First cement was shipped in 1921; capacity per day 2,000 barrels. Principal officers 
at present are: J. B. John, President; Homer Sly, Vice President; Jos. A. Magnus, 
Vice President; John L. A. Galster, Secretary-Treasurer. One mill located at 
Petoskey, Michigan. Present capacity per day 2,000 barrels. The raw materials 
used are limestone and shale. The wet process of manufacture is employed. Have 
two 10 by 150 foot kilns. Coal is used as fuel. 

PHOENIX PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, PHILADELPHIA. 

Organized originally in 1899 under the name Phoenix Cement Company. Principal 
officers were: Francis D. H. Banks, President; Wm. B. Shaffer, Secretary; Frank 
C. H. Schweyer, Treasurer. First cement was shipped in 1900; capacity per day 
1,000 barrels. In 1909 reorganized under the name Phoenix Portland Cement 
Compauy. Principal officers at present are: Lindley C. Morton, President; J. W. 
Walker, Vice President; E. P. Haubert, Secretary; A. W. Nash, Jr., Treasurer. 
Have two mills located at Nazareth, Pennsylvania and Birmingham, Alabama. 
Present capacity per day 7,500 barrels. The raw materials used at Birmingham are 
shale and limestone and at Nazareth cement rock. The dry process of manufacture 
is employed. There are four kilns at Nazareth, 9 by 100 feet, and three kilns at 
Birmingham, 10 by 150 feet. Pulverized coal is used as fuel. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 297 

PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY, ZANESVILLE, OHIO. 

First cement shipped in 1924. Principal officers are: C. W. Brown, President; 
W. L. Clause, Chairman, Board; H. A. Gait, Vice President; H. S. Wherett, Vice 
President; C. L. Brown, Secretary; Edward Pitcairn, Treasurer; F. A. Jones, 
Manager. One mill located at Fultonham, Ohio. Present capacity per day 2,500 
barrels. The raw materials used are limestone and shale. The wet process of man- 
ufacture is employed. Have two 10 by 165 foot kilns. Powdered coal is used as 
fuel. 

PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY OF UTAH, SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH. 

Principal officers are: P. J. Moran, President; Ashby Snow, Vice President and 
Manager; Herbert A. Snow, Secretarj^-Treasurer and Sales Manager. Mill located 
at Salt Lake City. Present capacity per day 1,200 barrels. Dry process of manu- 
facture is employed. Have two 8 by 125 foot kilns. Coal is used as fuel. 

PYRAMID PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, DES MOINES, IOWA. 

Organized in 1919 under the present name. Principal officers when organized 
were: John L. Blakely, President; E. Struckmann, Vice President and General 
Manager; W. A. Harper, Secretary; A. O. Hauge, Treasurer. First cement was 
shipped in 1923; capacity per day 3,000 barrels. Principal officers at present are: 
F. H. Mackaman, Chairman, Board; R. J. Hild, Secretary; A. O. Hauge, Treas- 
urer. One mill located at Valley Junction, Iowa. Present capacity per day 3,000 
barrels. The raw materials used are limestone and shale. The wet process of 
manufacture is employed. Have one 10 by 240 foot kiln. Bituminous coal is used 
as fuel. 

RIVERSIDE PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA. 
Organized originally in 1906 under the name Southern California Cement Com- 
pany. Principal officers when organized were: Wm. G. Henshaw, President; Tyler 
Henshaw, Vice President; W. W. Poole, Works Manager; John Treanor, Sales 
Manager. Capacity per day 600 barrels. In 1909 reorganized under the name 
Riverside Portland Cement Company. Principal officers at present are: Griffith 
Henshaw, Vice President; John Treanor, Vice President and General Manager; 
Wm. H. Metcalf, Secretarj-. One mill located at Oro Grande. Present capacity 
per day 5,000 barrels. The raw materials used are limestone and shale. The dry 
process of manufacture is employed. Have seven 8 by 125 foot kilns. Fuel oil 
is used. 

SAN ANTONIO PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS. 
Organized originally in 1908 under the name Alamo Portland and Roman Cement 
Company. Principal officers when organized were: Geo. H. Kalteyer, President; 
B. J. Mauermann, Secretary-Treasurer. First cement was shipped in 1910; capacity 
per day 10 barrels. In the same year reorganized under the name San Antonio 
Portland Cement Company. Principal officers at present are: C. Baumberger, 
President; C. Baumberger, Jr., Vice President; Alb. Kronkosky, Secretary; Chas. 
Baldus, Treasurer. One mill located at Cementville, Texas. Present capacity per 
day 1,500 barrels. The raw materials used are argillaceous limestone and clay. 
The process used in manufacture is dry, changing to wet. Have two 8 by 125 foot 
kilns. 

THE SANDUSKY CEMENT COMPANY, CLEVELAND, OHIO. 

Organized originally in 1892 under the name The Sandusky Portland Cement 
Company'. Principal officers when organized were: D. P. Eells, President; A. St. J. 
Newberry, Secretarj'-Treasurer; S. B. Newberry, Vice President and General 
Manager. First cement was shipped in 1893; capacity per day 100 barrels. In 1900 



298 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

reorganized under the name The Sandusky Portland Cement Company of Ohio. 
In 1916 adopted the name The Sandusky Cement Company. Principal officers at 
present are: J. B. John, President and General Manager; C. F. Brush. Vice Pres- 
ident; E. J. Maguire, Secretar>--Treasurer. Have four mills located at Bay Bridge, 
Ohio, Toledo, Ohio, Dixon, 111., and York, Pa. Present capacity per day 10,800 
barrels. The raw materials used at the various mills are: Bay Bridge — marl, 
limestone and clay; Toledo — claj^ limestone and shale; Dixon — shale and lime- 
stone; York — clay and limestone. The wet process of manufacture is used at 
Toledo, Bay Bridge, and York and the dry process is used at Dixon. Have seventeen 
8 by 100 foot kilns and three 10 by 150 foot kilns. Coal is used as fuel. 

SANTA CRUZ PORTLAxXD CEMENT COIMPANY, SAN FRANCISCO, CALI- 
FORNIA. 
Organized in 1905 under the present name. Principal officers when organized were: 
W. C. Webb, President; W. S. Downing, Vice President; Edwin Schwab, Secre- 
tary; A. F. Morrison, Treasurer. First cement shipped in 1907; capacity per day 
4,000 barrels. Principal officers at present are: Geo. T. Cameron, President; 
C. E. Green, Vice President; W. W. Crocker, Vice President; W. R. Bern.-, Secre- 
tary-Treasurer; Geo. R. Gay, General Manager. One mill located at Davenport, 
California. Present capacity 10,000 barrels. The raw materials used are lime rock 
and clay. The dry process of manufacture is employed. Have eighteen 73^ bj- 125 
foot kilns and one 10 foot vertical. Oil is used as fuel. 

SECURITY CEMENT & LIME COMPANY, HAGERSTOWN, MARYLAND. 
Organized originally in 1907 under the name Maryland Portland Cement Com- 
pany. Principal officers when organized were: Loring A. Cover, President; Wm. G. 
Nolting, Vice President; H. B. Warner, Secretarj^; Loring A. Cover, Treasurer. 
First cement shipped in 1908; capacity per day 750 barrels. Reorganized in 1909 
under the name Security Cement & Lime Company. Principal officers at present 
are: Loring A. Cover, President; John J. Porter, First Vice President; J. A. Mason, 
Second Vice President; Alexander M. Tyree, Secretary-Treasurer. Two mills 
located at Security, Maryland and Berkeley, West Virginia. Present capacity per 
day 5,000 barrels. The raw materials used are limestone and shale. The dry process 
of manufacture is employed. Have five 10 by 8 by 125 foot kilns. Pulverized coal is 
used as fuel. 

SIGNAL MOUNTAIN PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, CHATTANOOGA, 
TENNESSEE. 
Organized in 1920 under the present name. Principal officers when organized were: 
C. H. Huston, Chairman, Board of Directors; R. C. Lubiens, President; Geo. P. 
Dieckmann, Vice President; Ralph Law, Secretary; J. P. Hoskins, Treasurer; 
First cement was shipped in 1923. Principal officers at present are: W. A. Sadd, 
Chairman, Board of Directors; John L. Senior, President; C. S. Steward (Act.) 
Vice President; J. L. Caldwell, Vice President; J. P. Hoskins, Secretary-Treasurer. 
One mill located at Chattanooga, Tennessee. Present capacity per day 3,000 
barrels. The raw materials used are limestone and clay. The process of manu- 
facture used is semi-wet. Have two 11 by 175-foot kilns. Coal is used as fuel. 

SOUTHERN STATES PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, ROCKMART, GEOR- 
GIA 

Organized in 1902. Principal officers when organized were: W. F. Cowham, 
President; J. W. Boardman, Sr., Treasurer; H. F. Van Deventer, Secretary. First 
cement was shipped in 1903; capacity per day 1,200 barrels. Principal officers at 
present are: T. J. Flournoy, President; M. P. Lane, Treasurer; B. Cowden, Secre- 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 299 

tary. One mill located at Rockmart, Ga. Present capacity per day 1,500 barrels. 
The raw materials used are limestone and shale. The dry process of manufacture 
is employed. Have eight 6 by 60 foot kilns. Coal is used as fuel. 

SOUTHWESTERN PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, LOS ANGELES, CALI- 
F0RNL4. 
Organized in 1907 under the present name. Principal officers when organized were: 
C. Leonardt, President; Felix Martinez, Vice President; C. C. Merrill, Vice 
President; James G. McNary, Treasurer; O. J. Binford, Secretary. First cement 
was shipped in 1909; capacity per day 1,500 barrels. Principal oflBcers at present 
are: C. Leonardt, President; C. C. Merrill, Vice President; James G. McNary, 
Treasurer; O. J. Binford, Secretary. One mill located at El Paso, Texas, and one 
at Victorville, California. Present capacity per daj^ 9,000 barrels. The raw ma- 
terials used are cement rock, limestone, and shale. The wet process of manufacture 
is employed at one plant and the dry process at the other. Have two 10 foot 6 inch 
by 9 foot by 200 foot kilns and two 9 by 200 foot, two 10 by 8 by 150 foot, and 
one 8 bj' 150 foot kiln. Oil is used as fuel at Victorville and coal at El Paso. 

SUN PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, PORTLAND, OREGON. 

Organized in 1922 under the present name. Principal officers were: H. A. Ross, 
President; G. Macdonald, Vice President; C. T. W. Holhster, Secretarj\ First 
cement was shipped in 1923; capacity per day 1,100 barrels. Principal officers at 
present are: H. A. Ross, President; G. Macdonald, Vice President; C. T. W. Hol- 
lister. Secretary. One mill located at Lime, Oregon. Present capacity per day 1,100 
barrels. The raw materials used are lime rock and shale. The wet process of manu- 
facture is employed. Have one 10 bj' 210 foot kiln. Fuel oil is used. 

SUPERIOR PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, SEATTLE, WASHINGTON. 

Organized in 1906 under the present name. Principal officers when organized were: 
John C. Eden, President; Francis B. Clarke, Vice President; R. V. Ankeny, Treas- 
urer; W. W. Butler, Secretary. First cement was shipped in 1907; capacity per day 
600 barrels. Principal officers at present are: John C. Eden, President; James R. 
Stirrat, Vice President; S. L. Barnes, Secretary; A. A. Sutherland, Treasurer. One 
mill located at Concrete, Wash. Present capacity per day 4,000 barrels. The raw 
materials used are limestone and tla3\ The wet process of manufacture is employed. 
Have two 9 by 8 by 193 foot and three 8 by 7 by 135 foot kilns. Pulverized coal is 
used as fuel. 

TEXAS PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, DALLAS, TEXAS. 

Organized originally in 1900 under the name Texas Portland Cement Company. 
Principal officers when organized were: Leon Blum, President; Jos. Levy, Vice 
President; E. R. Cheesborough, Secretary -Treasurer; Jas. T. Taylor, General 
Manager. First cement was shipped in 1900; capacity per day 500 barrels. Reor- 
ganized in 1901 under the name Texas Portland Cement & Lime Company; 1904, 
lola Portland Cement Company of Texas; 1908, Texas Portland Cement Company. 
In 1914 adopted the name Texas Portland Cement CompanJ^ Principal officers at 
present are: F. R. Bissell, Chairman, Board; H. Struckmann, President; J. A. 
Wheeler, Vice President and Treasurer; Henry C. Coke, Secretary. Two mills 
located at Cement City, R. F. D. 6, Dallas, Texas, and Manchester, suburb of 
Houston, Texas. Present capacity per daj^ 6,500 barrels. The raw materials used 
at Cement Citj^ are rock and shale and at Manchester shell and clay. The wet 
process of manufacture is employed. Have three 9 bj^ 8 bj' 220 foot kilns at Cement 
City and three 9 by 8 by 220 foot kilns at Manchester. Fuel oil is used. 



300 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

THREE FORKS PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, DENVER, COLORADO. 
Organized in 1907 under the present name. Principal officers when organized were; 
James Pingree, President; F. T. McBride, Vice President; Charles Boettcher, Vice 
President; Joseph Scowcroft, Vice President; Hyrum Pingree, Secretary; James 
Pingree, Treasurer. First cement was shipped in 1907; capacity per day 1,500 
barrels. Principal officers at present are: Charles Boettcher, President and Treas- 
urer; C. K. Boettcher, Vice President; R. J. Morse, Secretary. Two mills at 
Trident, Montana and Hanover, Montana. Capacity per day 2,250 barrels at 
Trident and 1,000 barrels at Hanover at the present time. The raw materials 
used are high and low lime at Trident and lime and shale at Hanover. The dry 
process of manufacture is employed at Trident and the wet process at Hanover. 
Have three 9M by 150 foot kilns at Trident and one 9M by 8 by 200 foot kiln at 
Hanover. Coal is used as fuel. 

TIDEWATER PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, BALTIMORE, MARYLAND. 
Organized in 1909 under the present name. Principal officers when organized were: 
B. T. Scott, Founder; J. K. Tener, W. J. O'Brien, Jr., and J. A. McKelhp. First 
cement shipped in 1911 ; capacity per day 4,000 barrels. Principal officers at present 
are: B. T. Scott, President; O. E. Foster, Vice President; W. A. Shaw, Vice- 
President; W. J. O'Brien, Jr., Vice President and Secretary. One mill located at 
Union Bridge, Maryland. Present capacity per day 5,000 barrels. The raw ma- 
terials used are limestone and shale. The dry process of manufacture is employed. 
Have six 83^ by 120 foot kilns. Pulverized coal is used as fuel. 

TRINITY PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, DALLAS, TEXAS. 

Organized originally in 1907 under the name Southwestern States Portland Cement 
Company. Principal officers when organized were: Wm. F. Cowham, President; 
A. C. Stich, Vice President; W. H. L. McCourtie, Secretary; N. S. Potter, Treas- 
urer. First cement was shipped in 1909; capacity per day 2,500 barrels. Reorgan- 
ized in 1915 under the name Trinity Portland Cement Company. Principal officers 
at present are: W. H. L. McCourtie, President; C. E. Ulrickson, Vice President 
and General Manager; F. G. Ray, Secretary; M. J. Scanlon, Treasurer. One mill 
located at Eagle Ford, Texas. Present capacity per day 4,500 barrels. The raw 
materials used are limestone and shale. The dry process of manufacture is em- 
ployed. Have three 8 by 125 foot kilns and two 10 by 8 by 125 foot kilns. Fuel oil 
is used. 

UNION PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, DENVER, COLORADO. 

Organized in 1906 under the present name. Principal officers were: C. W. Nibley; 
. President; Joseph Scowcroft, Vice President; M. S. Browning, Vice President, 
Reed Smoot, Vice President; James Pingree, Secretary-Treasurer. First cement was 
shipped in 1907; capacity per day 2,000 barrels. Principal officers at present are: 
Charles Boettcher, President and I'reasuror; C. K. Boettcher, ^'ice President; 
R. J. Morse, Secretary. One mill located at Devils Slide, Utah. Present capacity 
per day 2,000 barrels. The raw materials used are high and low lime. The dry 
process of manufacture is employed. Have four 8 l)y 150 foot kilns. Coal is used 
as fuel. 

THE UNIT£H) STATICS PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, DENVER, COLO- 
RADO. 
Organized originally in 1901) under the present name. Principal officers when 
organized were: J. D. Blunt, President; (J. D. Cummings, Vice President; Lee 
Champion, Treasurer; W. H. Kelso, Secretary. First cement was shipped in 1908; 
capacity per day 750 barrels. Reorganized in 1909. Principal officers at present are: 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 301 

Charles Boettcher, President; R. J. Morse, Vice President; J. E. Zahn, Secretary- 
Treasurer. One mill is located at Concrete, Colorado. Present capacity per day 
2,100 barrels. The raw materials used are lime and shale. The dry process of man- 
ufacture is emploj-ed. Have two 8 by 125 foot kilns and one 9 by 125 foot kiln. 
Coal is used as fuel. 

UNIVERSAL PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, CHICAGO. 

Organized originally in 1896 as the Cement Department of Illinois Steel Company, 
Chicago. Principal officer when organized, Edward M. Hagar, President. First 
cement shipped in 1896; capacity per day 500 barrels. Reorganized in 1906 under 
the present name. Principal officer at present is B. F. Affleck, President. Five 
mills, located as follows: three at Buffington, Indiana, near Chicago; one at Uni- 
versal, Pennsylvania, near Pittsburgh; and one at Morgan Park, Duluth, Minne- 
sota. Present capacity per day 46,000 barrels. The raw materials used are granu- 
lated blast furnace slag, limestone, and gypsum. The dry process of manufacture 
is employed. Have 65 kilns: at Buffington plant fourteen 7 by 80 foot kilns, 
twelve 7J^ by 120 foot kilns, thirteen 10 by 140 foot kilns and one 10 by 200 foot 
kiln. At Pittsburgh plant twenty 73^ by 120 foot kilns and at the Duluth plant 
four 10 by 150 foot kilns and one 10 by 200 foot kiln. Pulverized coal used as fuel. 

VIRGINIA PORTLAND CEMENT CORPORATION, NORFOLK, VIRGINIA. 
Organized in 1924 under the present name. Principal officers are: F. R. Bissell, 
Chairman, Board; H. Struckmann, President and General Manager; H. C. Koch, 
Vice President; Baxter D. McClain, Secretary; H. H. Muehlke, Treasurer. One 
mill located at Norfolk, Virginia. The raw materials used are marl and clay. The 
wet process of manufacture is employed. Have three 9 by 8 by 220 foot kilns. 
Coal or oil is used as fuel. 

VULCANITE PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, PHILADELPHIA. 

Organized in 1894 under the present name. Principal officers when organized were: 
George W. Elkins, A. B. Bonneville and John B. Lober. First cement was shipped 
in 1895; capacity per day 200 barrels. Principal officers at present are: John B. 
Lober, President; W. D. Lober, Vice President; C. L. Filbert, Secretary-Treasurer. 
Two mills located at Vulcanite Station — C. R. R. of N. J., Warren County, New 
Jersey. Present capacity per day 6,000 barrels. The raw materials used are cement 
rock and limestone. The dry process of manufacture is employed. Have eight 125 
foot kilns and six 60 foot kilns. Pulverized coal and gas used as fuel. 

WABASH PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY DETROIT, MICHIGAN. 

Organized in 1899 under the present name. Principal officers when organized were: 
A. L. Stephens, President; James H. McMillan, Vice President; Bethune Duffield, 
Secretary; Martin G. Borgman, Treasurer; Emil Stroh, General Manager. First 
cement was shipped in 1900; capacity per day 500 barrels. Principal officers at 
present are: Emil Stroh, President and Treasurer; J. T. McMillan, Vice President; 
H. F. Jennings, Secretary. Two mills located at Stroh, Indiana and Osborn, 
Ohio. Present capacity per day 500 barrels. The raw materials used are marl, 
limestone, and clay. The wet process of manufacture is employed. Have three 10 
by 165 foot kilns and three 8}4 by 185 foot kilns. Coal is used as fuel. 

THE WELLSTON IRON FURNACE COMPANY, JACKSON, OHIO. 

Incorporated in 1916 and acquired mill by purchase in 1918. The original name 
was The Superior Portland Cement Company. Principal officers at present are: 
S. E. Stephenson, President; Joseph McGhee, Secretary; S. A. Sternberger, Treas- 
urer. Present capacity per day 2,000 barrels. One mill located at Superior, Law- 
rence County, Ohio. The dry process of manufacture is employed. Have four 7J^ 
by 125 foot kilns. Coal is used as fuel. 



302 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

WHITEHALL CEMENT MANUFACTURING COMPANY, PHILADELPHIA. 
Principal officers are: W. H. Harding, President; W. O. Lentz, Vice President; 
P. D. Gaskill, Vice President and Treasurer; L. H. Baer, Secretarj\ Mill located 
at Cementon, Pa. Capacity per day 6,000 barrels. Dry process of manufacture is 
employed. Have five 8H by 120 foot kilns and one 10 by 120 foot kiln. Coal is 
used as fuel. 

WOLVERINE PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, COLDWATER, MICHIGAN. 
Organized originally in 1898 under the name Michigan Portland Cement Company. 
Principal officers when organized were: L. M. Wing, President; Chas. Briggs, Vice 
President; E. R. Root, Secretary-Treasurer. First cement was shipped in 1898; 
capacity per day 2,500 barrels. Reorganized in 1902 under the present name. 
Principal officers at present are: C. C. Jones, President; A. E. Robinson, Vice 
President; P. H. Sweeney, Secretary-Treasurer. Two mills located at Coldwater, 
Michigan and Quincy, Michigan. Present capacity per day 2,800 barrels. The raw 
materials used are marl and clay. The wet process of manufacture is employed. 
Have three 8 by 187 foot kilns at Coldwater and seven 6 by 120 foot kilns at 
Quincy. Pulverized coal used as fuel. 

WYANDOTTE PORTLAND CEMENT COxMPANY, DETROIT, MICHIGAN. 
Organized originally in 1903 under the name Michigan Alkali Company. Principal 
officers when organized were: Edward Ford, President; J. B. Ford, Vice President; 
E. L. Ford, Secretary-Treasurer. First cement shipped 1901; capacity per day 300 
barrels. Adopted the name Wyandotte Portland Cement Company. Principal 
officers at present are: J. B. Ford, President; E. L. Ford, Vice President; John W. 
Boardman, Vice President; S. T. Crapo, Secretary-Treasurer. One mill located at 
Wyandotte, Michigan. Present capacity per day 1,000 barrels. The raw materials 
used are lime slurry and clay. The wet process of manufacture is employed. Have 
three 7 by 100 foot kilns. Coal is u.sed as fuel. 



APPENDIX D 

AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING MATERIALS 
1315 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS AND TESTS 

FOR 

PORTLAND CEMENT 

Serial Designation: C 9 - 21 

These specifications and tests are issued under the fixed designation C 9; the final 
number indicates the year of original adoption as standard, or in the case of revision, 
the year of last revision. 

Adopted, 1904; Revised, 1908, 1909, 191G, 1920 (Effective Jan. 1, 1921) 



These specifications were approved March 31, 1922, 

as "American Standard'-' by the 

American Engineering Standards Committee 



SPECIFICATIONS 
Definition 

1. Portland cement is the product obtained by finely pulverizing clinker produced 
by calcining to incipient fusion an intimate and properly proportioned mixture of 
argillaceous and calcareous materials, with no additions subsequent to calcination ex- 
cepting water and calcined or uncalcined gypsum. 

I. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES 

2. The following limits shall not be exceeded: 

Chemical Limits 

Loss on ignition, per cent 4 . 00 

Insoluble residue, per cent 0.85 

Sulfuric anhydride (SO3), per cent 2 .00 

Magnesia (MgO), per cent 5 . 00 

II. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES 

Specific Gravity 

3. The specific gravity of cement shall be not less than 3.10 (3.07 for white port- 
land cement). Should the test of cement as received fall below this requirement a second 
test may be made upon an ignited sample. The specific gravity test will not be made 
unless specifically ordered. 

303 



304 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

Fineness 

4. The residue on a standard No. 200 sieve shall not exceed 22 per cent by weight. 

Soundness 

5. A pat of neat cement shall remain firm and hard, and show no signs of distor- 
tion, cracking, checking or disintegration in the steam test for soundness. 

Time of Setting 

6. The cement shall not develop initial set in less than 45 minutes when the Vicat 
needle is used or 60 minutes when the Gillmore needle is used. Final set shall be attained 
within 10 hours. 

Tensile Strength 

7. The average tensile strength in pounds per square inch of not less than three 
standard mortar briquettes (see Section 50) composed of one part cement and three 
parts standard sand, by weight, shall be equal to or higher than the following: 



Age at Test, 
days 


Storage of Briquettes 


Tensile Strength, 
lb. per sq. in. 


7 
28 


1 day in moist air, 6 days in water 

1 clay in moist air, 27 days in water 


200 
300 



8. The average tensile strength of standard mortar at 28 days shall be higher than 
the strength at 7 days. 

III. PACKAGES, MARKING, AND STORAGE 
Packages and Marking 

9. The cement shall be delivered in suitable bags or barrels with the brand and 
name of the manufacturer plainly marked thereon, unless shipped in bulk. A bag shall 
contain 94 pounds net. A barrel shall contain 370 pounds net. 

Storage 

10. The cement shall be stored in such a manner as to permit easy access for 
proper inspection and identification of each shipment, and in a suitable weather-tight 
building which will protect the cement from dampness. 

IV. INSPECTION 

11. Every facility shall be provided the purchaser for careful sampling and inspec- 
tion at either the mill or at the site of the work, as may be specified by the purchaser. 
At least 10 days from the time of sampling shall be allowed for the completion of the 
7-day test, and at least 31 days shall be allowed for the completion of the 28-day test. 
The cement shall be tested in accordance with the methods hereinafter prescribed. The 
28-day test shall be waived only when specifically so ordered. 

V. REJECTION 

12. The cement ma}^ be rejected if it fails to meet any of the requirements of these 
specifications. 

13. Cement shall not be rejected on account of failure to meet the fineness require- 
ment if upon rctest after drying at 100° C. for one hour it meets this requirement. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 305 

14. Cement failing to meet the test for soundness in steam may be accepted if it 
passes a retest using a new sample at any time within 28 days thereafter. 

15. Packages varying more than 5 per cent from the specified weight may be re- 
jected; and if the average weight of packages in any shipment, as shown by weighing 50 
packages taken at random, is less than that specified, the entire shipment may be 
rejected. 



TESTS 

VI. SAMPLING 

Number of Samples 

16. Tests may be made on individual or composite samples as may be ordered. 
Each test sample should weigh at least 8 pounds. 

17. (a) Individual Sample. — If sampled in cars one test sample shall be taken from 
each 50 barrels or fraction thereof. If sampled in bins one sample shall be taken from 
each 100 barrels. 

(6) Composite Sample. — If sampled in cars one sample shall be taken from one sack 
in each 40 sacks (or 1 barrel in each 10 barrels), and combined to form one test sample. 
If sampled in bins or warehouses one test sample shall represent not more than 200 
barrels. 

Method of Sampling 

18. Cement may be sampled at the mill by any of the following methods that may 
be practicable, as ordered: 

(a) From the Conveyor Delivering to the Bin. — At least 8 pounds of cement shall 
be taken from approximately each 100 barrels passing over the conveyor. 

{h) From Filled Bins by Means of Proper Sampling Tubes. — Tubes inserted ver- 
tically may be used for sampling cement to a maximum depth of 10 feet. Tubes inserted 
horizontally may be used where the construction of the bin permits. Samples shall be 
taken from points well distributed over the face of the bin. 

(c) From Filled Bins at Points of Discharge. — Sufficient cement shall be drawn 
from the discharge openings to obtain samples representative of the cement contained 
in the bin, as determined by the appearance at the discharge openings of indicators 
placed on the surface of the cement directly above these openings before drawing of the 
cement is started. 

Treatment of Sample 

19. Samples preferably shall be shipped and stored in air-tight containers. Samples 
shall be passed through a sieve having 20 meshes per linear inch in order to thoroughly 
mix the sample, break up lumps, and remove foreign materials. 

VII. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS 

Loss ON Ignition 
Method 

20. One gram of cement shall be heated in a weighed covered platinum crucible, 
of 20 to 25-cc. capacity, as follows, using either method (a) or (6) as ordered: 

{a) The crucible shall be placed in a hole in an asbestos board, clamped horizontally 
so that about three-fifths of the crucible projects below, and blasted at a full red heat 



306 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

for 15 minutes with an inclined flame; the loss in weight shall be checked by a second 
blasting for 5 minutes. Care shall be taken to wipe off particles of asbestos that may ad- 
here to the crucible when withdrawn from the hole in the board. Greater neatness and 
shortening of the time of heating are secured by making a hole to fit the crucible in a 
circular disk of sheet platinum and placing this disk over a somewhat larger hole in an 
asbestos board. 

(b) The crucible shall be placed in a muffle at any temperature between 900 and 
1000° C. for 15 minutes and the loss in weight shall be checked by a second heating for 
5 minutes. 

Permissible Variation 

21. A permissible variation of .025 will be allowed, and all results in excess of the 
specified limit but within this permissible variation shall be reported as 4 per cent. 

Insoluble Residue 
Method 

22. To a 1-g. sample of cement shall be added 10 cc. of water and 5 cc. of concen- 
trated hydrochloric acid; the liquid shall be warmed until effervescence ceases. The solu- 
tion shall be diluted to 50 cc. and digested on a steam bath or hot plate until it is evident 
that decomposition of the cement is complete. The residue shall be filtered, washed with 
cold water, and the filter paper and contents digested in about 30 cc. of a 5 per cent 
solution of sodium carbonate, the liquid being held at a temperature just short of boiling 
for 15 minutes. The remaining residue shall be filtered, washed with cold water, then 
with a few drops of hot hydrochloric acid, 1:9, and finalh' with hot water, and then 
ignited at a red heat and weighed as the insoluble residue. 

Permissible Variation 

23. A permissible variation of 0.15 will be allowed, and all results in excess of the 
specified limit but within this permissible variation shall be reported as 0.85 per cent. 

Sulfuric Anhyduide 
Method 

24. One gram of the cement shall be dissolved in 5 cc. of concentrated hydrochloric 
acid diluted with 5 cc. of water, with gentle warming; when solution is complete 40 cc. 
of water shall be added, the solution filtered, and the residue washed thoroughly with 
water. The solution shall be diluted to 250 cc, heated to boiling, and 10 cc. of a hot 
10 per cent solution of barium chloride shall be added slowly, drop bv drop, from a 
pipette and the boiling continued until the precipitate is well formed. The solution 
shall be digested on the steam bath until the precipitate has settled. The precipitate 
shall be filtered, washed, and the paper and contents placed in a weighed platinum 
crucible and the paper slowly charred and consumed without flaming. The barium 
sulfate shall then be ignited and weighed. The weight obtained multiplied by 34.3 gives 
the percentage of sulfuric anhydride. The acid filtrate obtained in the determination of 
the insoluble residue may be used for the estimation of sulfuric anhydride instead of 
using a separate sample. 

Permissible Variation 

25. A permissible variation of 0.10 will be allowed, and all results in excess of the 
specified limit but within this permissible variation shall be reported as 2.00 per cent. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 307 

Magnesia 
Method 
26. To 0.5 g. of the cement in an evaporating dish shall be added 10 cc. of water to 
prevent lumping and then 10 cc. of concentrated hydrochloric acid. The liquid shall be 
gently heated and agitated until attack is complete. The solution shall then be evapor- 
ated to complete dryness on a steam or water bath. To hasten dehydration the residue 
may be heated to 150 or even 200° C. for one-half to one hour. The residue shall be 
treated with 10 cc. of concentrated hydrochloric acid diluted with an equal amount of 
water. The dish shall be covered and the solution digested for ten minutes on a steam 
bath or water bath. The diluted solution shall be filtered and the separated silica washed 
thoroughly with water.' Five cubic centimeters of concentrated h3^drochloric acid and 
sufficient bromine water to precipitate any manganese which may be present, shall be 
added to the filtrate (about 250 cc). This shall be made alkaline with ammonium 
hydro.xide, boiled until there is but a faint odor of ammonia, and the precipitated iron 
and aluminum hydroxides, after settling, shall be washed with hot water, once by decan- 
tation and slightly on the filter. Setting aside the filtrate, the precipitate shall be trans- 
ferred by a jet of hot water to the precipitating vessel and dissolved in 10 cc. of hot 
hydrochloric acid. The paper shall be extracted with acid, the solution and washings 
being added to the main solution. The aluminum and iron shall then be reprecipitated 
at boiling heat by ammonium hydroxide and bromine water in a volume of about 100 
cc, and the second precipitate shall be collected and washed on the filter used in the 
first instance if this is still intact. To the combined filtrates from the hj^droxides of 
iron and aluminum, reduced in volume if need be, 1 cc of ammonium hydroxide shall 
be added, the solution brought to boiling, 25 cc of a saturated solution of boiling am- 
monium oxalate added, and the boiling continued until the precipitated calcium oxalate 
has assumed a well-defined granular form. The precipitate after one hour shall be filtered 
and washed, then with the filter shall be placed wet in a platinum crucible, and the 
paper burned off over a small flame of a Bunsen burner; after ignition it shall be redis- 
solved in hydrochloric acid and the solution diluted to 100 cc. Ammonia shall be added 
in slight excess, and the liquid boiled. The lime shall then be reprecipitated by ammo- 
nium oxalate, allowed to stand until settled, filtered and washed. The combined filtrates 
from the calcium precipitates shall be acidified with hydrochloric acid, concentrated on 
the steam bath to about 150 cc, and made slightly alkaline with ammonium hydroxide, 
boiled and filtered (to remove a little aluminum and iron and perhaps calcium). When 
cool, 10 cc. of saturated solution of sodium-ammonium-hydrogen phosphate shall be 
added with constant stirring. When the crystallin ammonium-magnesium ortho- 
phosphate has formed, ammonia shall be added in moderate excess. The solution shall 
be set aside for several hours in a cool place, filtered and washed with water containing 
2.5 per cent of NH3. The precipitate shall be dissolved in a small quantity of hot 
hydrochloric acid, the solution diluted to about 100 cc, 1 cc. of a saturated solution of 
sodium-ammonium-hydrogen phosphate added, and ammonia drop by drop, with con- 
stant stirring, until the precipitate is again formed as described and the ammonia is in 
moderate excess. The precipitate shall then be allowed to stand about two hours, 
filtered and washed as before. The paper and contents shall be placed in a weighed plat- 
inum crucible, the paper slowly charred, and the resulting carbon carefully burned off. 
The precipitate shall then be ignited to constant weight over a Meker burner, or a blast 
not strong enough to soften or melt the pyrophosphate. The weight of magnesium 
pyrophosphate obtained multiplied by 72.5 gives the percentage of magnesia. The 
precipitate so obtained always contains some calcium and usually small quantities of 
iron, aluminum, and manganese as phosphates. 

'Since this procedure does not involve the determination of .silica, a second evaporation is unnecessary. 



308 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

Permissible Variation 

27. A permissible variation of 0.4 will be allowed, and all results in excess of the 
specified limit but within this permissible variation shall be reported as 5.00 per cent. 

VIII. DETERMINATION OF SPECIFIC GRAVITY 
Apparatus 

28. The determination of specific gravity shall be made with a standardized Le 
Chatelier apparatus which conforms to the requirements illustrated in Fig. 1. This 
apparatus is standardized by the United States Bureau of Standards. Kerosene free 
from water, or benzine not lighter than 62° Baimie, shall be used in making this deter- 
mination. 

Method 

29. The flask shall be filled with either of these liquids to a point on the stem be- 
tween zero and one cubic centimeter, and 64 g. of cement, of the same temperature as 
the liquid, shall be slowly introduced, taking care that the cement does not adhere to 
the inside of the flask above the liquid and to free the cement from air by rolling the 
flask in an inclined position. After all the cement is introduced, the level of the liquid 
will rise to some division of the graduated neck; the difference between readings is the 
volume displaced by 64 g. of the cement. 

The specific gravity shall then be obtained from the formula : 

Weight of cement (g.) 

Specific gravity = 

Displaced volume (cc.) 

30. The flask, during the operation, shall be kept immersed in water, in order to 
avoid variations in the temperatrue of the liquid in the flask, which shall not exceed 
0.5° C. The results of repeated tests should agree within 0.01. 

31. The determination of specific gravity shall be made on the cement as received; 
if it falls below 3.10, a second determination shall be made after igniting the sample a.s 
described in Section 20. 

IX. DETERMINATION OF FINENESS 
Apparatus 

32. Wire cloth for standard sieves for cement shall be woven (not twilled) from 
brass, bronze, or other suitable wire, and mounted without distortion on frames not less 
than 1 Y2 inches below the top of the frame. The sieve frames shall be circular, approxi- 
mately 8 inches in diameter, and may be provided with a pan and cover. 

33. A standard No. 200 sieve is one having nominally an 0.0029-inch opening and 
200 wires per inch standardized by the Ignited States Bureau of Standards, and con- 
forming to the following requirements: 

The No. 200 sieve should have 200 wires per inch, and the number of wires in any 
whole inch shall not be outside the limits of 192 to 208. No opening between adjacent 
parallel wires shall be more than 0.0050 inch in width. The diameter of the wire 
should be 0.0021 inch and the average diameter shall not be outside the limits 0.0019 
to 0.0023 inch. The value of the sieve as determined bj- sieving tests made in con- 
formity with the standard specifications for these tests on a standardized cement which 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



309 



gives a residue of 25 to 20 per cent on the No. 200 sieve, or on other similarly graded 
material, shall not show a variation of more than 1.5 per cent above or below the 
standards maintained at the Bureau of Standards. 

Method 

34. The test shall be made with 50 g. of cement. The sieve shall be thoroughly 
clean and dr}\ The cement shall be placed on the No. 200 sieve, with pan and cover- 



Ground Glass 
Stvpper- 



Ha/e two O.I cc 
Graduah'ons exiend 
above 1 and 

below Mark-- 




^ 

\lcc Capadfv ' c 



"TT 




-H I 

j<- -. 9 cm - ->j 

Fig. 1. — Le Chatehcr Apparatus. 

attached, if desired. The sieve shall be held in one hand in a slightly inclined position 
so that the sample will be well distributed over the sieve, at the same time genth- strik- 



310 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

ing the side about 150 times per minute against the palm of the other hand on the up 
stroke. This sieve shall be turned every 25 strokes about one-sixth of a revolution in 
the same direction. The operation shall continue until not more than 0.05 g. passes 
through in one minute of continuous sieving. The fineness shall be determined from the 
weight of the residue on the sieve expressed as a percentage of the weight of the original 
sample. 

35. Mechanical sieving devices may be used, but the cement shall not be rejected 
if it meets the fineness requirement when tested by the hand method described in Sec- 
tion 34. 

X. MIXING CEMENT PASTES AND MORTARS 
Method 

36. The quantity of dry material to be mixed at one time shall not exceed 1000 g. 
nor be less than 500 g. The proportions of cement, or cement and sand, shall be stated 
by weight in grams of the dry materials; the quantity of water shall be expressed in 
cubic centimeters (1 cc. of water = 1 g.). The dry materials shall be weighed, placed 
upon a non-absorbent surface, thoroughly mixed dry if sand is used, and a crater formed 
in the center, into which the proper percentage of clean water shall be poured; the 
material on the outer edge shall be turned into the crater by the aid of a trowel. After 
an interval of K minute for the absorption of the water the operation shall be completed 
by continuous, vigorous mixing, squeezing and kneading with the hands for at least one 
minute. 1 During the operation of mixing, the hands should be protected by rubber 
gloves. 

37. The temperature of the room and the mixing water shall be maintained as 
nearly as practicable at 21° C. (70° F.). 

XL NORMAL CONSISTENCY 
Apparatus 

38. The Vicat apparatus consists of a frame A (Fig. 2) bearing a movable rod 
B, weighing 300 g., one end C being 1 cm. in diameter for a distance of 6 cm., the other 
having a removable needle D, 1 mm. in diameter, 6 cm. long. The rod is reversible, 
and can be held in any desired position b}' a screw E, and has midway between the ends 
a mark F which moves under a scale (graduated to millimeters), attached to the frame A. 
The paste is held in a conical, hard-rubber ring G, 7 cm. in diameter at the base, 4 cm. 
highj resting on a glass plate H about 10 cm. square. 

Method 

39. In making the determination, 500 g. of cement, with a measured quantity of 
water, shall be kneaded into a paste, as described in Section 36, and quickly formed into 
a ball with the hands, completing the operation by tossing it six times from one hand to 
the other, maintained about 6 inches apart; the ball resting in the palm of one hand 
shall be pressed into the larger end of the rubber ring held in the other hand, completely 
filling the ring with paste; the excess at the larger end shall then be removed by a single 
movement of tfie palm of the hand; the ring shall then be placed on its larger end on a 
glass plate and the excess paste at the smaller end sliced off at the top of the ring by a 

'In order to secure uniformity in the results of tests for the time of setting and tensile strength, 
the manner of mixing above described should be carefully followed. At least one minute is necessary 
to obtain the desired plasticity which is not appreciably affected by continuing the mixing for several 
minutes. The exact time necessary is dependent upon the personal equation of the operator. The 
error in mixing should be on the side of over mixing. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



311 



single oblique stroke of a trowel held at a slight angle with the top of the ring. During 
these operations care shall be taken not to compress the paste. The paste confined in 
the ring, resting on the plate, shall be placed under the rod, the larger end of which shall 
be brought in contact with the surface of the paste ; the scale shall be then read, and the 
rod quickly released. The paste shall be of normal consistency when the rod settles to 
a point 10 mm. below the original surface in }/2 minute after being released. The appa- 
ratus shall be free from all vibrations during the test. Trial pastes shall be made with 





Fir;. 2. — Vicat Apparatus. 



varj'ing percentages of water until the normal consistenc}- is obtained. The amount of 
water required shall be expressed in percentage by weight of the dry cement. 



40. The consistency of standard mortar shall depend on the amount of water 
required to produce a paste of normal consistency from the same sample of cement. 
Having determined the normal consistency of the sample, the consistency of standard 
mortar made from the same sample shall be as indicated in Table I, the values being in 
percentage of the combined drj' weights of the cement and standard sand. 



312 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

XII. DETERMINATION OF SOUNDNESS^ 

Apparatus 

41. A steam apparatus, which can be maintained at a temperature between 98 and 
100° C, or one similar to that shown in Fig. 3, is recommended. The capacity of this 
apparatus may be increased by using a rack for holding the pats in a vertical or inclined 
position. 

Method 

42. A pat from cement paste of normal consistency about 3 inches in diameter, 
3^2 inch thick at the center, and tapering to a thin edge, shall be made on clean glass 
plates about 4 inches square, and stored in moist air for 24 hours. In molding the pat, 
the cement paste shall first be flattened on the glass and the pat then formed by drawing 
the trowel from the outer edge toward the center. 

43. The pat shall then be placed in an atmosphere of steam at a temperature be- 
tween 98 and 100° C. upon a suitable support 1 inch above boiling water for 5 hours. 

44. Should the pat leave the plate, distortion may be detected best with a straight 
edge applied to the surface which was in contact with the plate. 



'Unsoundness is usually manifested by change in volume which causes distortion, cracking, 
checking or disintegration. 

Pats improperly made or exposed to drying may develop what are known as shrinkage cracks 
within the first 24 hours and are not an indication of unsoundness. These conditions are illustrated 
in Fig. 4. 

The failure of the pats to remain on the glass or the cracking of the glass to which the pats are 
attached does not necessarily indicate unsoundness. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 313 



.5 

■6 






?i'-> 



» 


V 


3 \ y 



f ■'' ■• 


5- 


» 


u 


vr^ 








"I* 




fitful Jaqqn^ siqty^ld -»*\ \ 



314 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 











HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



315 



XIII. DETERMINATION OF TIME OF SETTING 

45. The following are alternate methods, either of which may be used as ordered: — 

Vicat Apparatus 

46. The time of setting shall be determined with the Vicat apparatus described in 
Section 38. (See Fig. 2.) 

TABLE I— PERCENTAGE OF WATER FOR STANDARD MORTARS 



Percentage of Water 


Percentage of Water 


Percentage of Water 


Percentage of Water 


for Neat Cement 


for One Cement 


for Neat Cement 


for One Cement, 


Paste of Normal 


Three Standard 


Paste of Normal 


Three Standard 


Consistency 


Ottawa Sand 


Consistency 


Ottawa Sand 


15 


9.0 


23 


10.3 


16 


9.2 


24 


10.5 


17 


9.3 


25 


10.7 


18 


9.5 


26 


10.8 


19 


9.7 


27 


11.0 


20 


9.8 


28 


11.2 


21 


10.0 


29 


11.3 


22 


10.2 


30 


11.5 



Vicat Method 

47. A paste of normal consistency shall be molded in the hard-rubber ring G as 
described in Section 39, and placed under the rod B, the smaller end of which shall then 
be carefully brought in contact with the surface of the paste, and the rod quickly re- 
leased. The initial set shall be said to have occurred when the needle ceases to pass a 
point 5 mm. above the glass plate in J^ minute after being released; and the final set, 
when the needle does not sink visibly into the paste. The test pieces shall be kept in 
moist air during the test. This ma.y be accomplished by placing them on a rack over 
water contained in a pan and covered by a damp cloth, kept from contact with them by 
means of a ware screen; or they maj^ be stored in a moist closet. Care shall be taken to 
keep the needle clean, as the collection of cement on the sides of the needle retards the 
penetration, while cement on the point may increase the penetration. The time of setting 
is affected not only by the percentage and temperature of the water used and the amount 
of kneading the paste receives, but by the temperature and humidity of the air, and its 
determination is therefore only approximate. 

Gillmore Needles 

48. The time of setting shall be determined by the Gillmore needles. The Gillmore 
needles should preferably be mounted as shown in Fig. 5 (6). 



Gillmore Method 

49. The time of setting shall be determined as follows: A pat of neat cement paste 
about 3 inches in diameter and K inch in thickness with a flat top (Fig. 5 (o) ), mixed 
to a normal consistency, shall be kept in moist air at a temperature maintained as nearly 
as practicable at 21° C. (70° F.). The cement shall be considered to have acquired its 
initial set when the pat will bear, without appreciable indentation, the Gillmore needle 
1/12 inch in diameter, loaded to weigh H pound. The final set has been acquired when 
the pat will bear without appreciable indentation, the Gillmore needle 1/24 inch in 



316 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



diameter, loaded to weigh 1 pound. In malcing the test, the needles shall be held in a 
vertical position and applied lightly to the surface of the pat. 




(a) Pat with Top Surface Flattened for Determining 
Time of Setting by Gillmore Method 




(b) Gillmore Needles 
Fig. 5. 



XIV. TENSION TESTS 
Form of Test Piece 

50. The form of test piece shown in Fig. (5 shall l)e used. The molds shall be made 
of non-corroding metal and have sufficient material in the sides to prevent spreading 
during molding. (!ang molds when used shall be of the type shown in Fig. 7. Molds 
shall be wiped with an oily cloth before using. 



Standard Sand 

'A. The sand to 1)C used shall be natural sand from Ottawa, 111., screened to pass 
a No. 20 sieve and retained on a No. 30 sieve. This sand may be obtained from the 
Ottawa Silica Company, at a cost of three cents per pound, f. o. b. cars, Ottawa, 111. 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 

3" 



317 




_L 



Fig. 6 — Details for Briquette. 

52. This sand, having passed the No. 20 sieve, shall be considered standard when 
not more than 5 g. passes the No. 30 sieve after one minute continuous sieving of a 
500-g. sample. 

53. The sieves shall conform to the following specifications: 

The No. 20 sieve shall have between 19.5 and 20.5 wires per whole inch of the warp 
wires and between 19 and 21 wires per whole inch of the shoot wires. The diameter of 
the wire should be 0.0165 inch and the average diameter shall not Ije outside the limits 
of 0.0160 and 0.0170 inch. 

The No. 30 sieve shall have between 29.5 and 30.5 wires per whole inch of the 
warp wires and between 28.5 and 31.5 wires per whole inch of the shoot wires. The 
diameter of the wire should be 0.0110 inch and the average diameter shall not be outside 
the hmits 0.0105 to 0.0115 inch. 

Molding 

54. Immediately after mixing, the standard mortar shall be placed in the molds, 
pressed in firmly with the thumbs and smoothed off with a trowel without ramming. 
Additional mortar shall be heaped above the mold and smoothed off with a trowel ; the 



318 



HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



trowel shall be drawn over the mold in such a manner as to exert a moderate pressure 
on the material. The mold shall then be turned over and the operation of heaping, 
thumbing and smoothing off repeated. 




Fig. 7.— Gang Mold. 

Testing 
55. Tests shall be made with any standard machine. The briquettes shall be 
tested as soon as they are removed from the water. The bearing surfaces of the clips 
and briquettes shall be free from grains of sand or dirt. The briquettes shall be carefully 
centered and the load applied continuously at the rate of 600 pounds per minute. 

50. Testing machines should be frequently calibrated in order to determine their 
accuracy. 

Faulty Briquettes 

57. Briquettes that are manifestly faulty, or that give strengths differing more 
than 1 5 per cent from the average value of all test pieces made from the same sample and 
broken at the same period, shall not be considered in determining the tensile strength. 



XV. STORAGE OF TEST PIECES 
Apparatus 

58. The moist closet may consist of a soapstone, slate or concrete box, or a wooden 
box lined with metal. If a wooden box is used, the interior should be covered with felt 
or broad wicking kept wet. The bottom of the moist closet should be covered with 
water. The interior of the closet should be provided with non-al)sorbent shelves on 
which to place the test pieces, the shelves being so arranged that they may be with- 
drawn readily. 

Methods 

.59. Unless othcr\vi^■e specified, all test pieces, immediately after molding, .^ihall 
be placed in the moist closest for from 20 to 24 hours. 

()0. The l)ri(iucttes shall be kejjt in molds on glass plates in the moist closet for at 
least 20 hours. After frcm 20 to 24 hours in moist air the briquettes .shall be immersed 
in clean water in storage tanks of non-corroding material. 

(31 . The air and water shall be maintained as nearly as practicable at a temperature 
of 21 degreesJS. (70 degrees F.). 



INDEX 

Page 

Ackerman family, the 84 

Acme Cement Corporation 283 

Aetna Portland Cement Company 283 

Alabama Portland Cement Company 95 

Alamo Portland & Roman Cement Company 58-60 

Allen Cement Company 26, 84 

Allentown Portland Cement Company 283 

Allis-Chalmers mills 121 

Alpha Portland Cement Company 175, 283 

Alsen's American Portland Cement Company 44 

American Cement Company 26, 61, 66, 84, 93, 119, 130, 134 

American Chemical Society 148 

American Improved Cements Company 26, 66, 102 

American Institute of Architects, Cement Committee of 145 

American Railway Engineering & Maintenance of Way Association, 

Cement Committee of 145, 149, 153 

American Society for Testing Materials 

First Committee on Standard Specifications for Cement 144 

Initial cement research of 148-150 

Work of Committee C-1 152 

Work of Committee C-2 153 

American Society of Civil Engineers 141-143 

"Anchor" cement 26 

Anglo-American Portland Cement Company 103 

Arenes (sand) 2 

Ash Grove Lime & Portland Cement Company . . ._ 284 

Aspdin, Joseph .' 34-37 

Aspdin, William 35 

Association of American Portland Cement Manufacturers 

Cooperation of in scientific work 145, 158 

First Committee on Cement Specifications 145, 150 

First Committee on Concrete and Reinforced Concrete 153, 157 

Atlantic Portland Cement Company 169 

Atlas Portland Cement Company 

First plant of 26, 83 

First Ransome kiln at original plant of 110 

First use of iron mills by 121 

Historical notes 284 

Works of 175 

Balcony Falls natural cement 19 

Balfour, Guthrie & Company works 171 

Bath Portland Cement Company 284 

Beaver Portland Cement Company 284 

Belknap natural cement works 24 

Benecia natural cement works 19 

Berthelet's discovery of natural cement rock at Milwaukee 19 

Bessemer Limestone & Cement Company 285 

"Black Diamond" cement 25 

Blended cement, definition of 5, 82 

Beach natural cement works 24 

Bondurant & Todd natural cement works 25 

Booth, Garrett & Blair, work of 133 

Boulogne portland cement works 38 

Boulogne nodules, use of in cement manufacture 12 

Brier Hill portland cement 79 

Brixcement 18 

321 



322 INDEX— Continued 

Page 

Bronson Portland Cement Companj' 88 

Buckeye Portland Cement Company 94 

Buffalo Portland Cement Company' 67 

Buhr stones 

Use of in cement manufacture 23 

Repair cost of 121 

Burning portland cement, early methods and difficulties 122, 126 

California portland cement field 168 

California Portland Cement Companj"- 285 

Calumet Cement Company 82 

Canals, necessity for develops natural cement industrj' 13 

Canon City natural cement works 19 

Castalia Portland Cement Company 285 

Cedar Cliff natural cement works 19 

Cement 

Dust involves litigation 170 

Industrv in relation to the war 182 

Kilns. /. 105, 111 

Packages 14 

Rock at Coplay 18 

Cements 

Their definitions 1 

Classification of 2 

Other than portland 77 

Chalk 

Use of in portland cement manufacture 95 

Plants 95 

Chicago Portland Cement Company 103 

Clark County Cement Company 25 

Clinchfield Portland Cement Corporation 285 

Coal 

Early use of in cement burning 119, 123 

Slack, economy of in burning cement 119 

Cobb Lime Company 67 

Coffee-mill crushers 119 

Collos cement, definition of 5 

Colloseus cement 80 

Colorado Portland Cement Company 285 

Commercial development of the portland cement industry 

Difficulties confronting American manufacturers in 130 

Early laboratory work in 133 

Educational work in 131 

Overcoming prejudice in 131 

Pioneers in 130 

Selhng side of the 138 

Committee C-1, work of 152 

Committee C-2, v/ork of 153 

Concrete and Reinforced Concrete, standardization of 148 

Consolidated Cement Company 29 

Consolidations of plants 175 

Conwell Testing Laboratories 157 

Coplay Cement Company 18, 26, 53, 83, 124, 286 

Cowell Lime and Cement Company 170 

Cowell Portland Cement Company 286 

Cream City Cement Company 29 

Crescent Portland Cement Company 57, 286 

Crushing and grinding machinerv 

First us^and development "of 23, 102, 113, 121, 126 

Types of 102, 113, 126 

Cumberland natural cement plants 19, 27 

Delafield & Baxter natural cement works 22 

DeNavarro. first rotary kilns of 83, 109 

Dewey Portland Cement Company 286 



INDEX— Continiioci 323 

Page 

Dexter Portland Cement Company 286 

Diamond Portland Cement Company 287 

Dingee-Bachman Syndicate 170 

Dixie Portland Cement Company 287 

Dome kilns ^ ". 107, 122 

Dm-yee Portland Ccnnent (^ompany 92 

Dyc'kerhoff cement 43 

Eads Jetties, use of American portland cement in 54 

Eagle Portland Cement Company . . . ; 66 

Early manufacturers of American portland cement 83, 97 

Early marl plants in portland cement manufacture 87, 94 

Eckert, pioneer in scientific research 53 

Edison Portland Cement Company 287 

Edystone Lighthouse, mortar properties revealed in construction of 37 

El Paso Portland cement works 171 

Empire Portland Cement Company 91 

Engineering firms, early work of 126 

Engineers, early use of domestic portland cement by 131 

Esopus stone, use of in grinding 119 

Falls City Cement Company 25 

Fredonia Portland Cement Company 287 

Frisbie, grinding machinery of 103, 121 

Frost's cement 34 

Fuel 

Use of coal as 119 

Use of crude oil as 84 

Use of natural gas as 166 

Fuller mill 121 

Gates, grinding machinery of 103, 119 

Georgia Cement & Stone Company 287 

Georgia natural cement, durability of 31 

Giant Portland Cement Company 288 

Gilmore Portland Cement Corporation 288 

Glens Falls limestone and clay 127 

Glens Falls Portland Cement" Company 85, 124, 127, 288 

Golden State Portland Cement Company 170, 288 

Government cement plants 169 

Great Western Portland Cement Company 288 

Griffin mills " 103, 121, 126, 128 

Grinding machinery 23, 103, 121, 126, 128 

Grouping of plants 175 

Gulf States Portland Cement Company 95, 289 

Hahn natural cement works 25 

Hardinge mill 121 

Hawkeye Portland Cement Company 289 

Helderberg Cement Company 15, 86, 289 

Hercules Cement Corporation 289 

Hercules Portland Cement Company 26, 169 

Hermitage Portland Cement Company 289 

Howard Hydraulic Cement Company 31 

"Hoffman" natural cement 14, 22 

Howes Cave Association 15, 86 

Howes Cave cement 15 

Howes Cave Lime and Cement Company 86 

Hudson River Cement Company 15, 22, 93 

Hulme natural cement works 18, 24 

Hunt Engineering Company 127 

Huron Portland Cement Company 290 

Illinois natural cement 31 

Illinois Steel Company 79 



324 INDEX— Continued 

Page 
Imported portland cement in the United States 

Distribution of 41, 47 

Shipments of 40, 43 

Early uses of 39, 48 

Introduction and first sale in Middle West 46 

Pioneer importers and users of 41, 49 

Table of 75 

Improved cement 

"Anchor," "Shield," "Union" 26 

Indiana, first portland cement plant in 55 

Indiana Portland Cement Companj^ 290 

Inland Portland Cement Company 171 

International Association for Testing Materials 145, 152 

International Cement Corporation 290 

International Portland Cement Company 171, 290 

Inventions, foreign competition met by mechanical 104 

lola Portland Cement Company 166 

Iron cement, definition of 4, 81 

Iron mills, adoption and importance of 121 

Iroquois Portland Cement Company 93 

Jeffersonville natural cement works 18 

JJ. Hulme Star" cement 24 

"ohnson & Wilson, important pioneer work of 130 

Johnson, origin of portland cement as related by 36 

•Joint Committee, first appointment of 145 

Joint Committee on Concrete and Reinforced Concrete 153 

Jointa Lime Company 127 

Kansas, cement manufacture in 166 

Kansas Portland Cement Company 290 

Kensington (Conn.), natural cement works 31 

Kent mills 121 

Kentucky and Indiana Cement Company works 25 

Kentucky, natural cement industry in 24 

Keystone Cement Company 83. 101 

Kiln fuels, .summary of apportionment among cement plants Ill 

Kilns 

Continuous 108, 119 

Dietsch 108, 124 

Dome 107 

Johnson 107 

Lengths of Ill 

Ransome 93, 110 

Rotary 83, 92, 105, 109, 111 

Schoefer 108, 124, 127 

Vertical, stone 23 

Knickerbocker Portland Cement Company, Inc 291 

Kominuters 122 

Kosmos Portland Cement Company 291 

Krupp mills 121 

Laboratories, first cement research of 133 

Labor, high cost of 102 

Lawrence Cement Company 14, 22, 26, 291 

Lawrenceville Cement Manufacturing Company 22 

Lathbury &Spackman 127, 135 

Leigh Hunt Engineering Company 166 

Lehigh cement district 

First natural cement works in 25 

First portland cement works in 50 

Pioneer manufacturers in 18, 25, 50 

Production and percentage of portland cement made in 68, 100 

Saylor's pioneer work in 18, 25, 50, 54 



INDEX— Continued 325 

Page 
Lehigh natural cement 

Early experiments in manufacture of 18, 25 

First manufacture of 18, 25 

History of 14, 18, 25, 27 

Lehigh portland cement 

Advantages of rock used in manufacture of 100 

History of . 50, 54, 68, 100 

Prestige acquired by 68 

Production statistics of 68 

Lehigh Portland Cement Company 17, 85, 291 

Lesley & Trinkle, pioneer work of 130 

Limestone, discovery of hydraulic properties of 12 

Locher natural cement plant 19 

Los Angeles Aqueduct Commission, cement works of 171 

Louisville Cement Company 292 

Louisville natural cement 18, 23 

Machinery used in cement manufacture 104 

Maguire, Crane & Company, natural cement works of 22 

Maine, first portland cement works in 67 

Manitowoc Portland Cement Company 292 

Mankato, natural cement works of 29 

Marl 

Discovery and use of in portland cement manufacture 87-94 

Works in Michigan 38 

Works in New York 91 

Works in Ohio 94 

Marquette Cement Manufacturing Company 292 

Martin & Clearwater natural cement works 22 

Maryland natural cement 19, 27, 61 

Mechanical side of the portland cement industry 104-114 

Michaelis 

Discovery of portland cement discussed by 35 

Invention of "Iron Cement" by 81 

Testing machine of 148 

Michigan 

First attempt to manufacture natural cement in 30 

Manufacture of portland cement in 88 

Marl, manufacture of portland cement from 88 

Marl plants '.88 

Michigan Portland Cement Company 88, 292 

Millen, Thomas 55, 91 

Milwaukee Cement Company 29 

Milwaukee natural cement 

Berthelet's discovery of 28 

Early plants engaged in manufacture of 29 

Minnesota, first manufacture of natural cement in 29 

Missouri Portland Cement Company 292 

Monarch Cement Company 293 

Monolith Portland Cement Company 293 

Montezuma marl works in New York state 92 

Municipal manufacture of cement, an experiment in 171 

Murphy Cement Company 94 

Narod mills 121 

National Association of Cement Users 151 

National Cement Company 57, 67, 293 

Natural cement, definition of 2 

Natural cement in the United States 

Discovery of 13, 32 

History of 12, 33, 72 

Pioneer manufacturers of 14, 33 

Total production of 72 

Transportation a factor in large use of 13 



326 INDEX— Continued 

Page 
Natural cement works 

Akron, N. Y 14, IS 

Balcony Falls, \a 14, 19 

Benecia, Calif 19 

Buffalo, N. Y 17 

Canon City, Colo 19 

Cement, Ga : 31 

Cumberland, Md 14, 19, 27 

Howes Cave, N. Y 14 

Indiana field 18, 25 

Kensington, Conn 31 

Lehigh Vallev, Pa 14, 18, 25 

Louisville, Ky 14, 18, 23 

Mankato, Minn 29 

Milwaukee, Wis 14, 19, 28 

New Lisbon, Ohio . 18 

Rondout, N. Y 14 

Rosendale district, N. Y 14, 17, 21 

Round Top, Md 14, 19, 27 

8hepherdstown, W. Va 14, 19, 27 

Utica, 111 14, 19, 30 

Natural gas, cement burning with 166 

Nazareth Cement Company 293 

Nebraska Cement Company 293 

Newaygo Portland Cement Company 294 

New Egyptian Portland Cement Company 294 

North American Portland Cement Company 80 

Northwestern States Portland Cement Company 294 

Norton cement 15 

Ogden Rosendale Cement Company 22 

Ogden Portland Cement Company 294 

Ohio marl plants 94 

Ohio natural cement works 18 

Ohio Valley Cement Company 25 

Oil, burning cement with 118 

Oklahoma Portland Cement Company 294 

Old Mission Portland Cement Company 295 

Olympic Portland Cement Company, Ltd 295 

Omega Portland Cement Company 90 

Oregon, first portland cement plant in 66 

Oregon Portland Cement Company 171, 295 

Pacific Coast natural cement plants 19 

Pacific Coast portland cement works 171 

Pacific Portland Cement Company 169, 295 

Packing and weighing portland cement 114 

Passow cement, definition of 5 

Passow & Colloseus cements 80 

Patents relating to portland cement and its manufacture 

Aspdin i 34 

Bennett 67 

Colloseus .■ .:...;....;. 80 

Cummings 67 

De Smedt . 63, 65 

Dunderdale 67, 93 

Eckert : 121 

Edison^ ;.-. 110, 123 

Griffin"'. 121 

Hurry & Seaman ..._.,-. ■■'-'■■■'■■ -■ ..... 123 

Lesley .-...: 65 

Loiseau .;._'^ . •.;U.;:. ;: 64 

Mathey ::.:..: 109 

Narod 121 



INDEX— Continued 327 

Page 
Patents relating to portland cement and its manufacture (cont'd) 

Passow 80 

Ransome 109 

Saylor 81 

Shinn 57 

Smidth 81 

Whiting 78 

Willcox 65 

Peerless Portland Cement Company- 88, 295 

Peninsular Portland Cement Company 296 

Penn-AUen Cement Company 296 

Pennsylvania Cement Company 296 

Petoskey Portland Cement Company 296 

Phoenix Portland Cement Company 296 

Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company 297 

Plaquemine Lock 79 

Plaster, use of in retarding setting time of cement 118 

Portland cement 

Aspdin's patent for 34 

Average factory prices of . . 71 

Burning of 122 

California manufacturers of 168 

Chalk in manufacture of 95 

Classification of raw materials used in manufacture of 4 

Commercial introduction of 74 

Definition of 3 

Discovery of 34 

Early Enghsh and German manufacturing methods 98 

Early failures in manufacture of 67 

Early sampling of .■ 142 

Early tests of 142 

Eggetted raw materials in manufacture of 63, 117 

First American journals devoted to 148 

First exhibit of 37 

First manufacture of in Maine 67 

First manufacture of in Texas 58 

First sales of 48 

First standard specifications for 153 

First use of wet process with hard materials in manufacture of 86 

Founding of New York plants for manufacture of 85 

Imported 39 

Johnson on origin of 36 

Lehigh district in manufacture of 68 

Lehigh district rock in manufacture of 83 

Marl and clay in manufacture of 87 

Michigan's first plant for manufacture of 66 

Millen's pioneer work in manufacture of 55 

New York's pioneer plants in manufacture of 67 

Oregon's first plant for manufacture of 66 

Origin of 34 

Packing and weighing 114 

Pucall's experiments with 57 

Scientific research relating to 140 

Shinn's experiments in manufacture of 57 

Specifications for 140 

Testing of 140 

Total importations of 75 

Why so named 3 

Total production of 72 

Portland Cement Association 

Better Homes Week and 246 

Department organization of 195 

First annual report of 206 

History of 191 



328 INDEX— Continued 

Page 
Portland Cement Association (cont'd) 

National Conference on Concrete House Construction and 236 

National Conference on Concrete Road Building and 231 

Officers and directors, by years 248 

Original call of ". 198 

Original committees of 203 

Original members of 197 

Original officers of 200 

Panama Canal and 213 

Present members of 192 

Structural Materials Research Laboratory of 230 

Tests used by '. 240 

Publications issued by 241 

Portland cement brands, early importance of 132 

Portland Cement Company of Utah 297 

Portland cement industry in the United States 

Commercial problems of pioneers in 130 

Development of 98 

First readjustment in 148 

Important lines in development of 99 

Mechanical side of 104 

Pacific Coast development of 168 

Personal reminiscences of 

Baumberger, C 58 

Bayle, G. F 127 

Bennett, Leslie 17 

Cary, N.J 31 

DeNavarro, Alfonso 109 

Dickinson, William 46 

Dieckmann, George P 96 

Kelley, F. W 17, 86 

Lesley, Robert W 61 

Lewis, Frederick H 134 

Millen, Duane 55 

Newhall, C. A 66 

Sinclair, Robert S 42 

Spackman, Henry S 135 

Weiler, Charles 45, 49 

Power plants in 114 

Scientific progress in 140 

Power plants in cement manufacture 114 

Promoters in the portland cement industry 159 

Prospectuses and methods of wildcat companies 159 

Puzzolan cement 4, 72, 77 

Puzzuolana, definition of 2 

Pyramid Portland Cement Company 297 

Quarrying, methods of 104 

Ramsey's cement 15 

Ransome kiln 

First American duplicate of 110 

First experiments with 110 

Raw materials 

Kinds and percentages of used in United States 115 

Preparation of 105 

Quarrying of 104 

Transpoflation of 105 

Reinforced concrete, standardization of 149 

Riverside Portland Cement Company 297 

Riverside portland cement works 170 

Rock Lock Cement Company 84 

Roman cement •. ; . . .2, 34 



INDEX— Continued 329 

Page 
Rosendale natural cement 

Discovery of 22 

District development of 21 

Rosendale & Kingston Cement Company's natural cement works 22 

Roosevelt Dam, cement works at 169 

Rose's cement 15 

Rotary kiln 

Adaption of to American cement manufacture 119 

American cement industry revolutionized by 109 

Development of in the United States 122 

Difficulties attending first use of 117 

Edison patent for 123 

First American 109 

First duplicate of Ransome 110 

Lengths of .111 

Ransome type of 93, 110 

Round Top natural cement works 19, 27 

Sabin & Gillmore natural cement works 25 

San Antonio Portland Cement Company 94, 297 

Sand cement 5, 81 

Sandusky Portland Cement Company 175, 297 

San Juan portland cement works 170 

Santa Cruz Portland Cement Company 298 

Santa Cruz portland cement works 169 

Saylor 

First experiments of 50 

First Portland cement kilns of 119 

Founder of portland cement industry in United States 50 

Portland cement patent of 51 

Saylor's portland cement 50, 130 

Schoefer kilns, use of in Glens Falls works 127 

Scientific side of portland cement industry 140 

Cooperation of technical societies 146 

First Joint Committee relating to 145 

Security Cement & Lime Company 298 

Shepherdstown natural cement works 19, 27 

"Shield" cement 26 

Shinn, early experiments of 57 

Siegfried natural cement works 18, 25 

Signal Mountain Portland Cement Company 298 

Silica sand cement, definition of 5, 81 

Slag cement 2, 4, 77, 79 

Slurry, American methods in treatment of 102 

Smidth & Company 81, 121, 126 

Society of Chemical Industry, work of 148 

South'Dakota chalk plant 95 

Southern States Portland Cement Company 298 

Southwestern Portland Cement Company 171, 299 

Specifications for portland cement 

First committee of A. S. T. M. on 145 

First government recommendation relating to 144 

History of 140 

Varied requirements in early 142 

Work of Committee C-1 . . ." 152 

Work of International Association for Testing Materials 145, 152 

Speed natural cement works 18, 25 

Spocari, origin of name 96 

Standard portland cement works 169 

Standard Sihca Cement Company 81 

Star (Stettin) cement 43 

Steel Portland cement 79 

Superior Portland Cement Company 171, 299 



330 INDEX— Continued 

Page 

Sturdevant grinding maehinery 103, 121 

Sun Portland Cement Company 299 

Tables 

Annual production of all cements, 1818-1920 72 

Average factory price portland cement, 1870-1920 71 

Classification raw materials, 1898-1914 115 

Comparison imports and domestic production, 1878-1918 70 

Imports Portland cement, 1878-1920 75 

Kiln fuels, 1922-1923 HI, 113 

Kiln lengths, 1917-1922 Ill 

Portland cement produced in Lehigh district, 1890-1920 68 

Portland cement works and production by districts, 1890-1891 76 

Production natural cement districts, 1898 33 

Production portland cement by states and districts, 1919-1920 71 

Tariffs on cement, importance of 18 

Tests for portland cement 

Early government specifications for 144 

History of 140 

Texas Portland Cement Company 299 

Texas portland cement, first manufacture of 61 

Three Forks Portland Cement Company 300 

Tidewater Portland Cement Company 300 

Trinity Portland Cement Companv 300 

Trass ! ' 2 

"Union" cement 27 

Union Cement Company 109 

Union Portland Cement Company 300 

United States Cement Company 83 

United States Portland Cement Company 300 

Universal Portland Cement Company 175, 301 

Utica hydraulic cement 31 

Utica natural cement works 19, 31 

Virginia natural cement 19, 27 

Virginia Portland Cement Corporation 301 

Vitrif action of clinker, secret of portland cement revealed by 34 

Volcanic cement 2 

Vulcanite Paving Company 84 

Vulcanite Portland Cement Company 85, 301 

Wabash Portland Cement Company 301 

Walkill Portland Cement Company 67 

Wampum Mining and Manufacturing Companj- 57 

Warner Cement Company 91 

Washington portland cement works 171 

Wayland marl plant 91 

Wellston Iron Furnace Company 301 

Western Portland Cement Company 95 

West Virginia natural cement works 19 

Whitehall Cement Manufacturing Company 26, 83, 302 

Whiting, cement patent of 78 

Whittaker cement works 84 

Wolverine Portland Cement Company 302 

Wyandotte Portland Cement Company 302 



DUE DATE 


!1AR 13 


1991 






£ tE '^^ ,Q m 


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MAR 5 ic 


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201-6503 




Printed 
in USA 



TP 883. L55 



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